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Experimental Investigation of the Mathematical Model for Optimum Holding Force of a Bernoulli Pad

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Climbing robots are highly in need for catering the inspection of the high rise buildings. Climbing Robots has to work in challenging environments and has to maneuver vertically against gravity and orient towards the specified target by adapting to various surfaces. The proposed Wall Climbing Robot weighs 1 Kg, works with four active suction cups and driven with pneumatic supply cylinder drive assembly. The robot moves by absolute holding of two suction cups at any instance and remaining two cups are allowed free to enable forward movement of the robot. The robot consists of vacuum generator, suction cup, pneumatic driven traverse assembly, controller and wireless high resolution camera. The designed robot is highly suitable for the continuous monitoring and inspection of high rise buildings. The vacuum generator is externally positioned and suction is derived through pneumatic supply hose. The developed robot climbs on the vertical wall at a velocity of 1.5 cm/s.
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A wall climbing robot is a robot with the capability of climbing vertical surfaces. This paper describes the design and fabrication of a quadruped climbing robot. We are required to design and create a wall climbing robot which uses suction as a means of sticking to the wall. The robot will be controlled using Basic Stamp and the movement of its legs will generated by two servo motors. Each servo motor will control legs which are located on the left and right side of the robot. The leg rotations mimic stepping motions through the use of a slider and crank. The suction force will be supplied by two vacuum pumps that will turn on intermittently. The main body of the robot will carry all the components except for the compressor thus making it mobile. Currently the robot is only designed for linear movement. However plans to incorporate maneuverability and other functions can be implemented after the first stage of the development achieves success.
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Considering the severity of many environments where there is the need for human labor, the exploitation of wall-climbing robots has undoubtedly a broad prospect. The main intended applications of these machines ranges from cleaning to inspection of difficult to reach constructions. Up to now, considerable research was devoted to these machines and over 200 prototypes aimed at such applications had been developed in the world by the year 2006. Nonetheless, the application of climbing robots is still limited. Apart from a couple successful industrialized products, most are only prototypes and few of them can be found in common use due to unsatisfactory performance in on-site tests. To make wall-climbing robots a popular replacement of manual work, indispensable prerequisites are an high reliability and high efficiency, and, on the other hand, affordable prices. The fulfilment of these requirements is still far, which indicates that there is yet a long way of development and improvement. Given these considerations, this chapter presented a survey of several climbing robots, adopting different technologies for locomotion and for the adhesion to surfaces. Several possible applications of the presented robots have also been discussed. A special emphasis has been given on the new technologies (mainly biological inspired) that are presently being developed for the robots adhesion to surfaces.
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Pneumatic, non-contact end effectors for robotic pick-and-place applications use compressed air to provide an adhesion force based on the Bernoulli principle, which creates a low pressure region near the surface of the end effector. However, consideration of the influence of the Bernoulli principle alone gives an inadequate account of the performance of some end effector designs. In fact, end effector geometry can be constructed in such a way that the Bernoulli principle provides only a small contribution to the overall adhesion force. This paper investigates the role of viscous flow entrainment in improving adhesion efficiency. Both simulation and experimental results show a significant improvement of adhesion force by nearly five times over a commercially available Bernoulli gripper, which makes the improved adhesion mechanism suitable for more demanding wall climbing robotic applications.
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When people transport handheld objects, they change the grip force with the object movement. Circular movement patterns were tested within three planes at two different rates (1.0, 1.5 Hz) and two diameters (20, 40 cm). Subjects performed the task reasonably well, matching frequencies and dynamic ranges of accelerations within expectations. A mathematical model was designed to predict the applied normal forces from kinematic data. The model is based on two hypotheses: (a) the grip force changes during movements along complex trajectories can be represented as the sum of effects of two basic commands associated with the parallel and orthogonal manipulation, respectively; (b) different central commands are sent to the thumb and virtual finger (Vf-four fingers combined). The model predicted the actual normal forces with a total variance accounted for of better than 98%. The effects of the two components of acceleration-along the normal axis and the resultant acceleration within the shear plane-on the digit normal forces are additive.
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This paper presents the architecture of a climbing robot with wheeled locomotion and adhesion through permanent magnets. This machine is intended to be used in the inspection of ferromagnetic structures, in order to, for instance, detect weaknesses due to corrosion, particularly in aerogenerators towers, fuel tanks, ship hulls, etc. The vehicle is designed to have a semi-autonomous behavior, allowing a remote inspection process controlled by a technician, this way reducing the risks associated with the human inspection of tall structures and ATEX places. The particular characteristic of this robot is its dynamic adjustment system of the permanent magnets in order to assure the machine adhesion to the surfaces, even when crossing irregular and curved surfaces.
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This paper describes the design and testing of a gripper developed for the handling of delicate sliced fruit and vegetable products commonly found in the food industry. The device operates on the Bernoulli principle whereby air flow over the surface of an object generates a lift. The gripper allows objects to be lifted with minimal contact thereby reducing the chances of damaging or contaminating the object. The paper will describe the mathematical basis of the gripper operation followed by tests showing the nature of the grasp.As a secondary benefit it will be shown that the flow of air over the object can also be used to remove surface moisture produced during slicing. This drying effect is a feature particularly useful in some areas of food production.The paper will show a test manufacturing cell demonstrating the placement of slices of tomatoes and cucumber on to sandwiches.
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