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A new flow for Canadian young hydrologists: Key scientific challenges addressed by research cultural shifts

A new flow for Canadian young hydrologists: Key scientific
challenges addressed by research cultural shifts
Caroline Aubry-Wake
| Lauren D. Somers
| Haley Alcock
Aspen M. Anderson
| Amin Azarkhish
| Samuel Bansah
| Nicole M. Bell
Kelly Biagi
| Mariana Castaneda-Gonzalez
| Olivier Champagne
Anna Chesnokova
| Devin Coone
| Tasha-Leigh J. Gauthier
Uttam Ghimire
| Nathan Glas
| Dylan M. Hrach
| Oi Yin Lai
Pierrick Lamontagne-Hallé
| Nicolas R. Leroux
| Laura Lyon
Sohom Mandal
| Bouchra R. Nasri
| Nataša Popovi
| Tracy E. Rankin
Kabir Rasouli
| Alexis Robinson
| Palash Sanyal
| Nadine J. Shatilla
Brandon Van Huizen
| Sophie Wilkinson
| Jessica Williamson
Majid Zaremehrjardy
Centre for Hydrology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Department of Natural Resource Science, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Centre for Water Resources Studies, Department of Civil & Resource Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Department of Construction Engineering, École de technologie supérieure, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Department of Geography & Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada
Geography Department, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Dorval, Quebec, Canada
Department of Geography and Planning, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Global Institute for Water Security, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
Lorax Environmental Services Ltd, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Caroline Aubry-Wake, Centre for Hydrology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
Funding information
Global Water Futures; McGill University
Received: 3 February 2020 Accepted: 5 February 2020
DOI: 10.1002/hyp.13724
Hydrological Processes. 2020;16. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd 1
Canadian hydrological research is built on a strong legacy and has
seen a steady progression over recent decades (Woo, 2019). Canada
is a leader in cold regions hydrology and its varied landscapes have led
to developments in our understanding of hydrological processes
across forest, prairie, mountain and wetland environments. Today's
early career researchers (ECRs), including graduate students, postdoc-
toral researchers and junior faculty, will shape the future of hydrologi-
cal research in Canada. ECRs play an important role in advancing
Canadian hydrological sciences as they make up a large portion of
conference presentations and publications.
The strong presence of students and other ECRs in the science
community led the Canadian Young Hydrologic Society to organize a
three-day workshop from July 4 to 6, 2019, in Montreal, Quebec.
Thirty-three hydrology ECRs (within 5 years of their last degree,
including graduate students) from across Canada discussed current
and future challenges as well as emerging opportunities in Canadian
hydrology. Each day, the workshop comprised small (610 people)
peer-moderated group discussions followed by plenary discussions.
These conversations formed the basis for this perspective paper. We
outline three challenges faced by Canadian hydrology ECRs: (a) Data
management, (b) multidisciplinary methods and (c) scientific engage-
ment with society. These scientific challenges have underlying institu-
tional and cultural factors, which may exacerbate existing technical
challenges or barriers. In other words, non-scientific aspects of gradu-
ate education and collaboration significantly impact scientific out-
comes. We propose institutional and cultural shifts that can address
inherent obstacles in Canadian hydrological research and can help us
to propel the discipline forward in the coming decades.
2.1 |Difficulties in collecting and accessing data
The use of field data is fundamental to hydrological research; observa-
tions underlie our understanding of processes, assessment of model
performance and application of remote sensing products. Canada's
vast and sparsely populated area presents an important challenge to
collecting representative data and affects both the direction and
scope of field-based studies. The cost and logistical challenges of
working in remote and northern areas are rarely explicitly mentioned
in publications (e.g., Petrone, Jones, Hinzman, & Boone, 2006;
Shatilla & Carey, 2019). However, these factors cause research
resources to be funnelled into a handful of long-term monitoring sites
with existing support (e.g., Scotty Creek, Quinton et al., 2019; Baker
Creek, Spence & Hedstrom, 2018; Wolf Creek, Rasouli, Pomeroy,
Janowicz, Williams, & Carey, 2019; Utikuma Region Study Area,
Devito, Mendoza, & Qualizza, 2012). These observatories are
extremely valuable, as they provide long-term high spatial and tempo-
ral resolution datasets that improve process understanding and
predictive modelling, and are essential in identifying hydrological
trends (e.g., DeBeer et al., 2016; Rasouli, Hernández-Henríquez, &
Déry, 2013; Spence, Kokelj, Kokelj, McCluskie, & Hedstrom, 2014;
Tetzlaff, Carey, McNamara, Laudon, & Soulsby, 2017).
Outside of these heavily monitored sites, large expanses of the
Canadian landscape remain data sparse. For comparison, the United
States has approximately eight times more government-run stream
gauging stations than Canada, despite similar land mass (USGS, 2014).
In data-poor areas, it can be particularly difficult to capture hydrologi-
cal processes such as snowmelt or river ice break-up that require high
temporal resolution data, or to capture long-term trends in discharge
and hydrochemistry.
Where data exist, they are sometimes difficult or impossible for
ECRs to access due to a lack of consistency in data reporting and pre-
sentation. This hiddendata can take many forms. It can be
unprocessed, held by a given lab group, owned or rendered confiden-
tial by an industry stakeholder, or fragmented between several publi-
cations, online data repositories and branches of federal, territorial
and provincial governments. This accessibility issue can be particularly
detrimental to ECRs, who lack the extensive network or experience to
know if hiddendata exist and where to look for them.
Even when data are accessible, metadata are often lacking. Meta-
data include vital information about the instrumentation used in data
collection, analytical methods employed, data processing procedures
and how quality control protocols were applied. This supporting infor-
mation is particularly important in the context of Canadian hydrology,
where conducting fieldwork over large areas and in remote landscapes
may lead to difficulties in following standard protocols. Without meta-
data, it is difficult for the user to determine the quality or applicability
of the data and to combine data from different sources.
2.2 |Open science and metadata education to
address data needs
To address the data-related challenges outlined above, we support
the ongoing shift towards open science within the Canadian hydrol-
ogy community. Open science is a movement to make scientific publi-
cations, data, and software publicly accessible. The movement already
has a strong following. For example, funding agencies in Europe are
mandating open access publications (Schiltz, 2018), publishing
datasets in data journals is becoming increasingly popular (Carlson &
Oda, 2018) and negativeresults are being discussed and published
more often (van Emmerik, Popp, Solcerova, Müller, & Hut, 2018).
Open science is also popular among the global hydrological commu-
nity where a survey of 336 hydrologists showed that 97% of partici-
pants felt all data should be shared, though no consensus was formed
on exactly how to share data and acknowledge the person or group
who collected them (Blume, van Meerveld, & Weiler, 2017).
In a Canadian context, we suggest the hydrology community
could benefit from enhanced use of data sharing platforms
(or developing Canada-focused communities on existing platforms) to
help combat the fragmented state of many datasets. The use of
communal databases or online repositories (e.g., Zenodo) that allow
for responsible and consistent storage of datasets and models would
ensure data are visible and accessible, contain sufficient metadata and
are properly quality-controlled. The adoption of such communal data-
bases could reduce research redundancy, facilitate integrated research
efforts and comparative studies and lead to more broadly applicable
findings and higher impact publications from the Canadian hydrologic
Beyond simply making data accessible, including appropriate
metadata is essential to effective data-sharing. Since ECRs are often
producing and archiving datasets, we would benefit from more inte-
gration of data management practices into graduate training curricu-
lum. Furthermore, data stewardship efforts could be enhanced by
including standardized procedures and templates within individual
research groups, which has been shown to increase model sharing
(Weiler & Beven, 2015). These templates could include naming con-
ventions, file formats, metadata structure and collection techniques
during fieldwork. Templates could be shared with incoming ECRs,
enhancing learning, promoting institutional memory and allowing
ECRs to focus on new findings. Considering the short residence time
of some ECR positions, longer-term members of the research team
such as laboratory managers, field technicians and professional
research associates could play a key role in developing and
maintaining standardized datasets. Data management and protocol
development require a time investment, but we argue this initial cost
is rewarded by facilitating data sharing and the subsequent advance in
scientific understanding.
3.1 |Inadequate training for advanced
methodologies and interdisciplinary projects
With the rise of disciplines such as ecohydrology (Hunt & Wilcox,
2003), socio-hydrology (Sivapalan, 2012), and cryohydrology (Woo,
2019), hydrology research projects are becoming increasingly interdisci-
plinary, presenting both challenges and opportunities for ECRs. New
research niches bridge the gap between hydrology, atmospheric science,
biology, ecology, geochemistry, geomorphology, and social science
(Clark, Luce, & van Meerveld, 2017; Blöschl et al., 2019). Though inter-
and multidisciplinary work sometimes faces funding challenges
(Bozhkova, 2016), it is essential to address societal needs that often lie
at the intersection of scientific disciplines (Nature Editorial, 2016).
Workshop attendees reported varying levels of collaboration both
within and between laboratory groups. Some research groups pro-
mote and encourage collaboration at the ECR level, while other
groups expect ECRs to complete their work individually. Furthermore,
we found that the structure of graduate training does not often
encourage interdisciplinary collaboration. For example, manuscript-
based doctoral theses typically emphasize first author papers and
exclude co-authorships.
While research questions are becoming increasingly interdisci-
plinary, methodologies for individual disciplines are ever-evolving in
complexity, often reducing their application outside of a highly spe-
cific context or group of experts. An example discussed during the
workshop that resonated widely was the uncertainty analysis of
hydrological models. A disconnect between those researchers specif-
ically focused on uncertainty analysis and those focused on hydro-
logical modelling who needed to apply the uncertainty analysis has
left many ECRs unsure if and how they should use these complex
uncertainty analysis methods. Many ECRs felt that the time cost of
applying complex uncertainty analysis and the risk of misusing these
advanced methods and producing systematic errors outweighed
the potential reward of increasing the quality of their research.
While learning new methods and facing challenging work are vital
and beneficial elements of ECR training, our research is impaired by
a lack of training in the peripheral methods needed for our individual
3.2 |Fostering effective collaboration between
Creating a research framework that encourages collaboration
between ECRs will bridge the gap between increasingly specialized
sub-disciplines. Increased collaboration will better allow ECRs in
Canadian Hydrology to tackle important interdisciplinary research
questions, while still developing the expertise needed to advance in
our own discipline and increase the quality of interdisciplinary pro-
jects. Ideally, this would begin as graduate students, learning to foster
and establish collaborations to maximize scientific learning and pro-
gress. To ensure development of this important skill, departments
could incorporate collaboration as part of programme requirements or
offer incentives for ECR-led collaborative research projects. This
would also better prepare ECRs for later in their career, where collab-
oration and teamwork are necessary for a successful research pro-
gramme. Furthermore, isolation during graduate studies can have a
serious negative impact on the mental health of graduate students.
This can be partly alleviated by encouraging collaboration and
exchange between peers (Barreira, Basilico, & Bolotnyy, 2018; Evans,
Bira, Gastelum, Weiss, & Vanderford, 2018; Levecque, Anseel, De
Beuckelaer, van der Heyden, & Gisle, 2017).
Considering that ECRs typically do not have an established
research network outside of their lab group, there is also a need for
increased opportunities for engagement between ECRs. This can be
addressed by organizing more discussion-based and practical work-
shops through ECR networks, which can play an important role in
developing a collaboration network and a research community to fos-
ter scientific exchange (Langendijk et al., 2019). A culture of collabora-
tion must begin with individual research groups, and increased
exchange and communication within a research group has the added
benefit of improving continuity to achieve the data management goals
outlined in the previous section.
4.1 |Conducting and communicating useful
From water contamination to floods, hydrology is a scientific disci-
pline with particular importance to society. Many Canadian hydrologi-
cal studies have resulted in useful infrastructure and engineering
projects such as hydropower dams and irrigation systems, all of which
require knowledge of the local hydrology (Woo, 2019). Furthermore,
the impact of climate change on water quality and quantity is increas-
ingly important for local and regional water security. Accordingly,
there was a consensus among most workshop participants that scien-
tific knowledge should be useful to society and for decision-making.
There is, however, a disconnect between the current scientific process
and how new research findings are communicated to stakeholders.
One barrier is how academics typically disseminate their research
findings, through academic journals. Having a multitude of publica-
tions in high-impact journals is critical for academic career develop-
ment (Nicholas, 2019). However, journal articles are not usually
accessible to the general public, due to technical jargon and prohibi-
tively expensive paywalls (Schiltz, 2018).
Interacting with traditional media (e.g., radio and newspapers) can
be a daunting task for ECRs, who typically lack science communica-
tion training. There is a risk, with anecdotal evidence (Lutz et al.,
2018), for the presented facts to be taken out of context and mis-
represented, or to draw criticism against the scientist. Moreover, for
ECRs willing to interact with journalists, getting in touch can be diffi-
cult, as media outlets typically reach out to long-established contacts
within academia, or well-known scientists (Peters, 2013), and less to
ECRs and under-represented groups.
ECRs at the workshop expressed interest in involvement in sci-
ence education and communication initiatives. However, an increased
involvement in science communication may represent a large time
commitment on top of already strenuous graduate studies. Outside of
the benefit to some scholarships and fellowships, science outreach
does not appear to be highly valued professionally. With the added
time commitment and perceived lack of professional development,
this can represent a large barrier to ECR involvement in science edu-
cation and communication.
4.2 |Opening the windows of the ivory tower
Scientific outreach is an essential part of our work as emerging scien-
tists, and engaging with society improves the quality of both our train-
ing and research. Engagement activities can include sharing science
on social media, writing policy briefings, working with not-for-profit
science education programmes or developing relationships with local
stakeholders. Investing time into outreach activities can be beneficial
to ECR career development because it provides an opportunity to
begin developing working relationships with stakeholders as early as
possible. Building long-lasting involvement can help to address the
lack of continuity and disconnect between local communities, stake-
holders and scientists. Communicating scientific progress through
media outreach can also lead to recognition among peers, developing
non-academic networks, promoting scientific findings and impacting
policy making (Lutz et al., 2018).
To achieve stronger communication and outreach strategies,
ECRs should leverage communication specialists at their institutions.
Communication training empowers researchers to build their commu-
nications skills, and more effectively communicate the importance
of their findings in a meaningful and relatable way. Working with
academia-partnered media outlets such as The Conversation can also
help scientists shape how their results are communicated. Addition-
ally, collaboration between scientists, communication specialists, art-
ists and journalists should be encouraged to create compelling
scientific stories.
Communication, education and outreach initiatives are becoming
more rewarded and formally recognized in the traditional academic
framework following the development of peer-reviewed science com-
munication journals such as Geoscience Communication (Illingworth,
Stewart, Tennant, & von Elverfeldt, 2018). To ensure that future hydro-
logical research projects will be clearly communicated and will address a
societal need, the work of ECRs needs to be evaluated beyond their
number of publications. Non-traditional metrics, such as altmetric (Priem,
Taraborelli, Groth, & Neylon, 2010), can be used to quantify online inter-
actions. Further development of metrics that include impact and useful-
ness of research should be developed (Lebel & McLean, 2018).
ECRs from across Canada came together to discuss current challenges
and opportunities in Canadian hydrology. We identified three major
challenges for ECRs in Canadian hydrology: (a) Data management;
(b) multidisciplinary methods and (c) producing useful science. Under-
lying cultural factors exacerbating these three challenges emerged
along with potential solutions: (a) open data and improved data man-
agement training; (b) fostering ECR collaboration and (c) enhanced
engagement with society. We believe that addressing these underly-
ing cultural factors will help the Canadian hydrological community
advance the science needed to manage Canada's water resources.
The cultural changes we are suggesting come from our experience as
Canadian ECRs in hydrology, but reflect global trends emerging in sci-
entific research. A focus on open science, data sharing, ECR collabora-
tion, adapting graduate training, and improved communications and
outreach are paradigm shifts of emerging importance for ECRs in sci-
entific fields globally (Bankston, 2019; Windsor, 2018). Achieving
these cultural shifts is no small feat and will require the participation
of not only ECRs, but also senior faculty, funding agencies, university
administrators, science policy makers, and scientific publishers. Ulti-
mately, we hope that addressing these cultural scientific challenges
will enable us to ask and answer important hydrological questions in
Canada and beyond more effectively.
We wish to thank the Canadian Geophysical Union Hydrology Sec-
tion, McGill University Departments of Earth and Planetary Sciences
and Geography, McGill University Faculty of Science, and the Global
Water Futures Young Professional group, who provided financial sup-
port for the Canadian Young Hydrologic Society (CYHS) ECR work-
shop ahead of the Canadian Geophysical Annual Meeting in
July 2019.
C.A.W. and L.D.S. organized the workshop and acted as principal edi-
tors during manuscript development. All authors participated in the
discussions, assisted in writing the initial draft and edited subsequent
Caroline Aubry-Wake
Lauren D. Somers
Samuel Bansah
Uttam Ghimire
Alexis Robinson
Brandon Van Huizen
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How to cite this article: Aubry-Wake C, Somers LD, Alcock H,
et al. A new flow for Canadian young hydrologists: Key
scientific challenges addressed by research cultural shifts.
Hydrological Processes. 2020;16.
... The cost of field research, the vast size of Canada, the transitory nature of data collection opportunities, and a scarcity of long-term data records make water science data especially valuable. Access to well-managed data is crucial for researchers to develop insight into Canada's most pressing issues and to inform effective solutions; but data can be hard to find (Aubry-Wake et al., 2020). The COVID-19 pandemic has also highlighted the importance of having data to inform timely response decisions in crisis management and amplified the hindrance caused by disparate data collection, access and compatibility issues (Hurley, 2020). ...
... Even with these significant strides, Canadian water science data are often managed in ways that make data retrieval and analysis time consuming and expensive, and research collaboration challenging (Aubry-Wake et al., 2020;GWF, 2019). This is a significant loss for science; historical field observations cannot be recaptured, and these data are key to understanding past and future trends (Gudmundsson et al., 2018). ...
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Water science data are a valuable asset that both underpins the original research project and bolsters new research questions, particularly in view of the increasingly complex water issues facing Canada and the world. Whilst there is general support for making data more broadly accessible, and a number of water science journals and funding agencies have adopted policies that require researchers to share data in accordance with the FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) principles, there are still questions about effective management of data to protect their usefulness over time. Incorporating data management practices and standards at the outset of a water science research project will enable researchers to efficiently locate, analyze and use data throughout the project lifecycle, and will ensure the data maintain their value after the project has ended. Here, some common misconceptions about data management are highlighted, along with insights and practical advice to assist established and early career water science researchers as they integrate data management best practices and tools into their research. Freely available tools and training opportunities made available in Canada through Global Water Futures, the Portage Network, Gordon Foundation's DataStream, Compute Canada, and university libraries, among others are compiled. These include webinars, training videos, and individual support for the water science community that together enable researchers to protect their data assets and meet the expectations of journals and funders. The perspectives shared here have been developed as part of the Global Water Futures programme's efforts to improve data management and promote the use of common data practices and standards in the context of water science in Canada. Ten best practices are proposed that may be broadly applicable to other disciplines in the natural sciences and can be adopted and adapted globally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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High-latitude environments store approximately half of the global organic carbon pool in peatlands, organic soils and permafrost, while large Arctic rivers convey an estimated 18–50 Tg C a⁻¹ to the Arctic Ocean. Warming trends associated with climate change affect dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export from terrestrial to riverine environments. However, there is limited consensus as to whether exports will increase or decrease due to complex interactions between climate, soils, vegetation, and associated production, mobilization and transport processes. A large body of research has focused on large river system DOC and dissolved organic matter (DOM) lability and observed trends conserved across years, whereas investigation at smaller watershed scales show that thermokarst and fire have a transient impact on hydrologically mediated solute transport. This study, located in the Wolf Creek Research Basin situated ∼20 km south of Whitehorse, YT, Canada, utilizes a nested design to assess seasonal and annual patterns of DOC and DOM composition across diverse landscape types (headwater, wetland and lake) and watershed scales. Peak DOC concentration and export occurred during freshet, as is the case in most northern watersheds; however, peaks were lower than a decade ago at the headwater site Granger Creek. DOM composition was most variable during freshet with high A254 and SUVA254 and low FI and BIX. DOM composition was relatively insensitive to flow variation during summer and fall. The influence of increasing watershed scale and downstream mixing of landscape contributions was an overall dampening of DOC concentrations and optical indices with increasing groundwater contribution. Forecasted vegetation shifts, enhanced permafrost and seasonal thaw, earlier snowmelt, increased rainfall and other projected climate-driven changes will alter DOM sources and transport pathways. The results from this study support a projected shift from predominantly organic soils (high aromaticity and less fresh) to decomposing vegetation (more fresh and lower aromaticity). These changes may also facilitate flow and transport via deeper flow pathways and enhance groundwater contributions to runoff.
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This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through on-line media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, prioritised, and synthesised. In spite of the diversity of the participants (230 scientists in total), the process revealed much about community priorities and the state of our science: a preference for continuity in research questions rather than radical departures or redirections from past and current work. Questions remain focussed on process-based understanding of hydrological variability and causality at all space and time scales. Increased attention to environmental change drives a new emphasis on understanding how change propagates across interfaces within the hydrological system and across disciplinary boundaries. In particular, the expansion of the human footprint raises a new set of questions related to human interactions with nature and water cycle feedbacks in the context of complex water management problems. We hope that this reflection and synthesis of the 23 unsolved problems in hydrology will help guide research efforts for some years to come.
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Scotty Creek, Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada, has been the focus of hydrological research for nearly three decades. Over this period, field and modelling studies have generated new insights into the thermal and physical mechanisms governing the flux and storage of water in the wetland-dominated regions of discontinuous permafrost that characterises much of the Canadian and circumpolar subarctic. Research at Scotty Creek has coincided with a period of unprecedented climate warming, permafrost thaw, and resulting land cover transformations including the expansion of wetland areas and loss of forests. This paper (1) synthesises field and modelling studies at Scotty Creek, (2) highlights the key insights of these studies on the major water flux and storage processes operating within and between the major land cover types, and (3) provides insights into the rate and pattern of the permafrost-thaw-induced land cover change and how such changes will affect the hydrology and water resources of the study region.
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This paper provides an early career researchers (ECRs) perspective on major challenges and opportunities that arise in the study and understanding of, and the provision of regional information for Climate, Weather and Hydrological (CWH) extreme events. This perspective emerged from the discussions of the early career 3-day Young Earth System Scientists - Young Hydrologic Society (YESS-YHS) workshop, which was conjointly held with the Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX) Open Science Conference. In this paper we discuss three possible ways forward in the field: a stronger interaction between Earth system scientists and users, a collaborative modeling approach between the different modeling communities, and an increased use of unconventional data sources in scientific studies. This paper also demonstrates the important role of ECRs in embracing the above outlined pathways and addressing the long-standing challenges in the field. YESS and YHS networks encourage the global community to support and strengthen their involvement with ECR communities to advance the field of interdisciplinary Earth system science in the upcoming years to decades.
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A set of hydrometeorological data is presented in this paper, which can be used to characterize the hydrometeorology and climate of a subarctic mountain basin and has proven particularly useful for forcing hydrological models and assessing their performance in capturing hydrological processes in subarctic alpine environments. The forcing dataset includes daily precipitation, hourly air temperature, humidity, wind, solar and net radiation, soil temperature, and geographical information system data. The model performance assessment data include snow depth and snow water equivalent, streamflow, soil moisture, and water level in a groundwater well. This dataset was recorded at different elevation bands in Wolf Creek Research Basin, near Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada, representing forest, shrub tundra, and alpine tundra biomes from 1993 through 2014. Measurements continue through 2018 and are planned for the future at this basin and will be updated to the data website. The database presented and described in this article is available for download at
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Earth System Science Data (ESSD) provides a wide range of openly accessible, high-quality, well-documented and highly useful data products while ensuring recognition of and credit to data providers. As authors, reviewers, and editors of many ESSD publications, we encounter uncertainty about mechanisms and requirements for open access, about what constitutes a published data product, and about how one goes about submitting, evaluating or using ESSD products. With this short note, published during an important editorial transition, we use our combined experience to define guidelines, requirements and benefits of the ESSD processes.
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It is uncommon to collect long-term coordinated hydrometeorological and hydrological data in northern circumpolar regions. However, such datasets can be very valuable for engineering design, improving environmental prediction tools or detecting change. This dataset documents physiographic, hydrometeorological and hydrological conditions in the Baker Creek Research Watershed from 2003 to 2016. Baker Creek drains water from 155km² of subarctic Canadian Shield terrain in Canada's Northwest Territories. half-hourly hydrometeorological data were collected each year, at least from April to October, from representative locations, including exposed Precambrian bedrock ridges, peatlands, open black spruce forest and lakes. Hydrometeorological data include radiation fluxes, rainfall, temperature, humidity, winds, barometric pressure and turbulent energy fluxes. Terrestrial sites were monitored for ground temperature and soil moisture. Spring maximum snowpack water equivalent, depth and density data are included. Daily streamflow data are available for a series of nested watersheds ranging in size from 9 to 128km². These data are unique in this remote region and provide scientific and engineering communities with an opportunity to advance understanding of geophysical processes and improve infrastructure resiliency. The data described here are available at:
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In this Perspective, a group of national funders, joined by the European Commission and the European Research Council, announce plans to make Open Access publishing mandatory for recipients of their agencies’ research funding.
We study the mental health of graduate students at eight top-ranked economics PhD programs in the United States using clinically validated surveys. We find that 24.8 percent experience moderate or severe symptoms of depression or anxiety—more than two times the population average. Though our response rate was 45.1 percent and sample selection concerns exist, conservative lower bounds nonetheless suggest higher prevalence rates of such symptoms than in the general population. Mental health issues are especially prevalent at the end of the PhD program: 36.7 percent of students in years 6+ of their program experience moderate or severe symptoms of depression or anxiety, versus 21.2 percent of first-year students. Of economics students with these symptoms, 25.2 percent are in treatment, compared to 41.4 percent of graduate students in other programs. A similar percentage of economics students (40–50 percent) say they cannot honestly discuss mental health with advisers as say they cannot easily discuss nonacademic career options with them. Only 26 percent find their work to be useful always or most of the time, compared to 70 percent of economics faculty and 63 percent of the working age population. We provide recommendations for students, faculty, and administrators on ways to improve graduate student mental health. (JEL A23, I12, I18, I23)