ArticlePDF Available
14 FEBRUARY 2020 • VOL 367 ISSUE 6479 749SCIENCE
contributing millions of dollars to local
economies through dive ecotourism (9).
The Greater Caribbean region relies
on healthy oceans to drive tourism and
sustain livelihoods. These developing
nations are poised to face mounting pres-
sures for access to fisheries in return for
development, as well as the increasing
impacts of habitat degradation and climate
change. MPA creation and enforcement
are admittedly complex; however, to arrest
the decline of threatened species in the
region, establishing large-scale MPAs in the
Greater Caribbean is both an opportunity
and a necessity.
Austin J. Gallagher1*, Diva J. Amon2,3, Tadzio
Bervoets4, Oliver N. Shipley5, Neil Hammerschlag6,
David W. Sims7,8
1Beneath the Waves, Herndon, VA 20172, USA.
2Department of Life Sciences, Natural History
Museum, London, UK. 3SpeSeas, Port of Spain,
Trinidad and Tobago. 4Dutch Caribbean Nature
Alliance, Kralendijk, Bonaire. 5School of Marine and
Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University,
Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. 6Rosenstiel School
of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of
Miami, Miami, FL 33146, USA. 7Marine Biological
Association of the UK, Plymouth, PL1 2PB, UK.
8University of Southampton, Southampton, SO14
3ZH, UK.
*Corresponding author.
1. D. Juffe-Bignoli et al., “Protected planet report 2014”
(UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK, 2014).
2. N. Qu eiroz et al., Nature 572, 461 (2019).
3. C. M. Ro berts et al., Science 295, 1280 (2002).
4. C. Smyth, Q. A. Hanich, “Large scale marine protected
areas: Current status and consideration of socio-eco-
nomic dimensions” (Pew Charitable Trusts, Washington,
DC, 201 9).
5. G. Bustamante et al., Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Fresh.
Ecosyst. 24, 153 (2014).
6. A. P. Guarderas, S. D. Hacker, J. Lubchenco, Conserv. Biol.
22, 1630 (2008).
7. C. A. Ward-Pa ige et al. , PLOS One 8, e11968 (2010).
8. F. Ferretti, R . A. Myers, F. Sere na, H. K. Lo tze, Conserv.
Biol. 22, 952 (2008).
9. A. J. Gallagher, N. Hammerschlag, Curr. Issue. Tourism
14, 797 (2011).
The Caribbean needs big
marine protected areas
Large-scale marine protected areas (MPAs)
(>100,000 km2) seek to protect and connect
large pelagic ecosystems, enhance ecologi-
cal processes, and promote socioeconomic
benefits including sustainable fisheries (1).
One of their greatest benefits is the potential
to conserve highly migratory species such as
sharks, which can travel long distances span-
ning multiple national exclusive economic
zones (2). Despite a growing international
interest among many national govern-
ments, nongovernmental organizations,
and academic and philanthropic communi-
ties to create large-scale MPAs, the Greater
Caribbean, which contains the greatest
diversity of marine biota in the Atlantic
Ocean (3), has been grossly overlooked.
There are currently 33 large-scale MPAs,
but not one is in the Caribbean Sea (4).
Although there is a rich history of the estab-
lishment of MPAs in the Greater Caribbean
(5), the majority allow fishing (6) and do not
take into account the full representation of
ocean habitats and connectivity required
to encompass the space use of migratory
species. Large sharks are overfished in the
region; because they are caught locally
in high numbers, they are sparse across
most of the Greater Caribbean (7). [The
Mediterranean ocean basin, which is simi-
larly lacking in large-scale MPAs, provides
another glimpse of this trend—there, large
sharks have virtually disappeared due to
fishing pressure (8)]. Fortunately, in certain
countries where commercial longline fishing
has been banned (such as The Bahamas),
shark populations remain strong, thereby
Edited by Jennifer Sills
Imposter syndrome
threatens diversity
As higher education institutions adopt
admissions and hiring policies that promote
diversity and inclusion, they must also
implement policies to acknowledge and
combat the feelings of self-doubt known
as imposter syndrome. Those with impos-
ter syndrome have an innate fear of being
discovered as a fraud or non-deserving pro-
fessional, despite their demonstrated talent
and achievements (1). Imposter syndrome
has been found to be more prevalent in high
achievers (2, 3), women (3), and under-
represented racial, ethnic, and religious
minorities (47). If institutions and depart-
ments don’t take steps to allay these fears,
the science pipeline could suffer.
At an individual level, imposter syn-
drome can lead to psychological distress,
emotional suffering, and serious men-
tal health disorders, including chronic
dysphoric stress, anxiety, depression,
and drug abuse (8). In many cases, the
phenomenon manifests as early as high
school or college (9). Strikingly, in college
students belonging to racial minorities,
mental health problems have been better
predicted by imposter feelings than by
the stress associated with their minority
status (10). By constantly downplaying
their own accomplishments, those suffer-
ing from imposter syndrome may sabotage
their own career (4). At the societal level,
imposter syndrome may explain the higher
drop-out rates of women and minorities
from the science, technology, engineering,
and mathematics pipeline (3, 11).
To effectively increase diversity, institu-
tions must address imposter syndrome by
increasing the visibility of the problem,
Migratory species such as
tiger sharks benefit from large
marine protected areas.
Published by AAAS
on February 13, 2020 from
providing access to mental health coaching,
and implementing supportive organi-
zational policies. Professors, principal
investigators, and peers should encourage
students and fellow scientists to focus on
factual evidence regarding their academic
performance and to set realistic expecta-
tions. Open discussions about imposter
syndrome at the institutional level should
put a name to these feelings and normal-
ize them as common experiences rather
than pathologizing them (3). Group peer
mentoring can allow mentees to gradu-
ally transition into mentors, building their
self-confidence as they become indepen-
dent scientists (12). Institutions should
provide training for mentors to help them
recognize the negative consequences of
the imposter syndrome. Finally, outreach
programs to high schools should make
students aware of imposter syndrome to
help them identify and overcome it as they
pursue their own education and careers.
George P. Chrousos1* and Alexios-Fotios Mentis2,3
1University Research Institute of Maternal and
Child Health & Precision Medicine, and UNESCO
Chair on Adolescent Health Care, National and
Kapodistrian University of Athens, “Aghia Sophia”
Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece. 2Public Health
Laboratories, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens,
Greece. 3Laboratory of Microbiology, University
Hospital of Larissa, School of Medicine, University
of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.
*Corresponding author.
Fossil records show that the koala spe-
cies (Phascolarctos cinereus) is about 30
million years old (1). Koalas are robust—
the species has persisted in part because
it has evolved to metabolize and excrete
eucalyptus toxins (2). However, koalas
have undergone genetic bottlenecks and
drastic population declines due to hunt-
ing, car accidents, deforestation, climate
change, and diseases such as Chlamydia
and koala retroviruses. These threats have
caused direct mortalities, reduced the
koalas’ reproductive capacity, and limited
population distribution (3–5). A 2018 study
estimated that the koala population might
be as low as 43,000 individuals (6).
Despite the koala’s historic resilience,
recent Australia wildfires have put them in
grave danger. Since September 2019, nearly
1 billion animals have died in the fires,
including at least 25,000 koalas (7). In the
New South Wales region alone, 30% of the
koala population has likely been killed (8).
The koala’s habitat is now even smaller
and more fragmented than before. In the
face of these setbacks, koalas could soon
become functionally extinct (9).
To help the koala population, the current
IUCN listing of koalas as Vulnerable should
be immediately upgraded to Critically
Endangered. In addition, Australia should
increase forestation in the key habitat areas.
This will not only help the koalas but also
reduce the carbon footprint and climate
change currently threatening so many other
species and the region overall (10).
Su Shiung Lam1, Courtney Waugh2, Wanxi Peng3,
Christian Sonne4,3*
1Henan Agricultural University at Zhengzhou,
China, and Universiti Malaysia Terengganu at
Terengganu, Malaysia. 2University of Queensland
at Brisbane, QLD, Australia and Nord University
at Steinkjer, Norway. 3Forestry College of Henan
Agricultural University at Zhengzhou, China.
4Aarhus University at Roskilde, Denmark.
*Corresponding author. Email:
1. K. H. Bl ack et al., Gondwana Res. 25, 1193 (2014).
2. B. D. Moo re, W. J. Foley, Nature 435, 488 (2005).
3. S. Farzin et al., Ecography 42, 1587 (20 19).
4. V. Gonzalez-Astudillo et al., Sci. Rep. 9, 17494 (2019).
5. B. S. La w et al ., PLOS One 13, e0205075 (2018).
6. Australian Koala Foundation, “The koala—Endangered
or not?” (2020);
7. G. Readfearn, “Kangaroo Island bushfires: Grave
fears for unique wildlife after estimated 25,000
koalas killed,The Guardian (2020); www.the-
8. E. Newburger,Australia fires kill half a billion
animals as crisis mounts,CNBC (2020); www.cnbc.
9. J. Davidson, “‘Functionally extinct’ koalas have now
lost 80% of habitat following recent fires, experts
say, EcoWatch (2019);
10. G . Popk in, Nature 565, 280 (2019).
Mentor a job seeker
Add your voice to Science! In this NextGen Voices survey, a reader asks for your
advice. Have you been in this situation or one like it? Do you have any tips that you would
like to share? Become a NextGen Voices peer mentor by contributing your thoughts.
Dear NextGen Voices peer mentors,
I am the first of my family to go to graduate school, and I’m about to defend my Ph.D.
It has been a really tough few years, but now I’ve completed all the requirements in
my program, published two papers, and coauthored several more. I was even given
an “outstanding student” grant to attend a conference this year! Even so, this all feels
quite average for a Ph.D. student, and I feel like I can attribute most of my achieve-
ments to luck. The support of my peers and adviser also helped me a lot. As I apply for
jobs, I can often think of a colleague who seems more qualified for the position than
I am. I fail to meet many of the requirements listed for jobs outside of academia, but
the jobs I do qualify for seem like they’re all for people with less education than I have.
Still, I don’t want to oversell myself in applications or interviews. How can I realistically
assess my own potential and avoid wasting time applying to jobs I could never get?
Seeking Career Clarity
To submit, go to
Deadline for submissions is 28 February. A selection of the best responses will be
published in the 3 April issue of Science. Submissions should be 150 words or less.
Anonymous submissions will not be considered.
750 14 FEBRUARY 2020 • VOL 367 ISSUE 6479 SCIENCE
1. P. R. Clance, S . A. Imes, Psychother. Theory Res. Pract. 15,
241 (197 8).
2. D. Dickerson, Nature 574, 5 88 (20 19).
3. M. Pri ce, Science 4, 10.1126/science.caredit.a1300188
4. S. Mullangi, R. Jagsi, JAMA 322, 403 (2 019).
5. A. Parkman, J. High. Educ. Theory Pract. 16, 51 (2016).
6. A. M. Holliday et al., J. Gen. Intern. Med. 10.1007/s11606-
019-05441-5 (2019).
7. K. Cokley et al., J. Counsel. Psych. 64, 141 (2017).
8. C. Sonnak, T. Towell, Person. Indiv. Diff. 31, 863 (2001).
9. D. M. Brava ta et al., J. Gen. Intern. Med. 10.1007/s11606-
019-05364-1 (2019).
10. K. Cokley et al., J. Multicult. Counsel. Dev. 41, 82 (2013).
11. S.-A. A. Allen-Ramdial, A. G. Campbell, BioScience 64,
612 (2014).
12. M. C. Horner-Devine, T. Gonsalves, C. Margherio, S. J.
Mizumori, J. W. Yen, Science 362, 532 (2018).
Wildfire puts koalas at
risk of extinction
In his In Depth News story “Australia’s
vulnerable species hit hard by fires” (20
December, p. 1427), J. Pickrell discusses
the plight of some of the plant and animal
species hit hardest by the wildfires in
Australia. Although perhaps not in as
imminent danger as the species he high-
lights, Australia’s koala population has also
been put in a precarious position by the
fires. As scientists work to assess the dam-
age, they should not overlook the koala.
Published by AAAS
on February 13, 2020 from
The Caribbean needs big marine protected areas
Austin J. Gallagher, Diva J. Amon, Tadzio Bervoets, Oliver N. Shipley, Neil Hammerschlag and David W. Sims
DOI: 10.1126/science.abb0650
(6479), 749.367Science
This article cites 7 articles, 1 of which you can access for free
Terms of ServiceUse of this article is subject to the
is a registered trademark of AAAS.ScienceScience, 1200 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005. The title
(print ISSN 0036-8075; online ISSN 1095-9203) is published by the American Association for the Advancement ofScience
Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works
Copyright © 2020 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of
on February 13, 2020 from
... Marine megafauna are protected under a variety of international and domestic laws to conserve their important roles in maintaining the structure and function of their associated ecosystems (Estes et al., 2011;McCauley et al., 2015). Many proponents of large MPAs point to their size as a way to protect marine megafauna and their habitats (e.g., Game et al., 2009;Toonen et al., 2013;O'Leary et al., 2018;Gallagher et al., 2020). Moreover, many MPA guidelines (Lewis et al., 2017;Smyth and Hanich, 2019) as well as official MPA declarations explicitly cite megafauna protection as a key driver of establishment for large-scale MPAs, such as the Ross Sea Marine Protected Area (Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, 2016), and expansion of Papahānaumokuākea (Executive Office of the US President, 2016) and the Pacific Remote Islands (Executive Office of the US President, 2014) Marine National Monuments in the US, though many smaller, coastal MPAs are created for other reasons. ...
... Despite limitations in the protective capacity of MPAs and the reality that their benefits will vary across species and regions, area-based conservation measures, including MPAs, have been repeatedly identified as a key strategy for the protection of all marine megafauna taxa presented here (e.g. Scott et al., 2012;Lascelles et al., 2014;Gallagher et al., 2020;Handley et al., 2021;Nelms et al., 2021). As larger MPAs become increasingly common and established, it will become critical to quantify explicit population-level impacts of these MPAs on marine megafauna, as has been done for less mobile species (e.g., Halpern, 2003). ...
Full-text available
Marine protected areas (MPAs), particularly large MPAs, are increasing in number and size around the globe in part to facilitate the conservation of marine megafauna under the assumption that large-scale MPAs better align with vagile life histories; however, this alignment is not well established. Using a global tracking dataset from 36 species across five taxa, chosen to reflect the span of home range size in highly mobile marine megafauna, we show most MPAs are too small to encompass complete home ranges of most species. Based on size alone, 40% of existing MPAs could encompass the home ranges of the smallest ranged species, while only < 1% of existing MPAs could encompass those of the largest ranged species. Further, where home ranges and MPAs overlapped in real geographic space, MPAs encompassed < 5% of core areas used by all species. Despite most home ranges of mobile marine megafauna being much larger than existing MPAs, we demonstrate how benefits from MPAs are still likely to accrue by targeting seasonal aggregations and critical life history stages and through other management techniques.
... LMPAs, which are often implemented around remote island nations or areas containing high biodiversity and/ or critical habitat for threatened, mobile marine species (4), seek to enhance ecological processes, connect oceanic habitats, and promote sustainable fisheries (5). One of the greatest expectations of LMPAs is the potential to conserve highly migratory species such as sharks (4), which can have home ranges up to 50,000 km 2 or more (6). This expectation has led to the recent establishment of 17 global shark sanctuaries, nations that have issued bans on the commercial targeting and retention of sharks within their entire exclusive economic zones (EEZs). ...
Full-text available
Marine protected areas are increasingly touted for their role in conserving large marine predators such as sharks, but their efficacy is debated. Seventeen "shark sanctuaries" have been established globally, but longline fishing continues within many such jurisdictions, leading to unknown levels of bycatch mortality levels. Using public data from Global Fishing Watch and Regional Fisheries Management Organizations, we quantified longline fishing within eight shark sanctuaries and estimated pelagic shark catch and mortality for seven pelagic shark species. Sanctuary mortality ranged from 600 individuals (Samoa) to 36,256 individuals (Federated States of Micronesia), equivalent to ~5% of hypothesized sustainable levels for blue sharks to ~40% for silky sharks, with high mortality levels in the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and the Marshall Islands. Unsustainable mortality rates were exceeded for silky sharks in two sanctuaries, highlighting a need for additional stock assessments and implementation of bycatch reduction measures. Big data integration workflows represent a transformative tool in fisheries management, particularly for data-poor species.
... These new locality records also highlight a broader need to determine patterns of deep-sea biodiversity throughout the Greater Caribbean (Howell et al., 2021). This is particularly pertinent, given recent calls to scale the size and volume of regional MPAs to facilitate effective conservation of biodiversity (Gallagher et al., 2020). This requires improved efforts to increase region-wide monitoring that will ensure the integration of deep-sea habitats into future MPA expansion (Paramo et al., 2012). ...
Full-text available
The genus Etmopterus is the most speciose group of small bodied deep-sea sharks found throughout the tropical and subtropical Western Atlantic. Despite exhibiting a global distribution at the genus-level, the blurred lantern shark (Etempoterus bigelowi) is known only from a few records in the Western and Southern Atlantic Ocean. Through in-situ video observations using deep-sea landers, we provide two new locality records of the blurred lantern shark from the deep waters off the Cayman Islands, Caribbean Sea. Three unique individuals were recorded across two separate deployments between 653m-668m. These observations provide the first records of this species in the Caribbean Sea, adding to the minimal knowledge of the species' distribution throughout the Western Atlantic Ocean.
... As climate change and human impacts continue to threaten ecosystem stability, management and conservation groups in many regions have been increasingly forced to set priorities, such as the increased expansion of marine protected areas [63]. As such, some habitats, like coral reefs, have been given more attention than others despite the inherent connectivity between ecosystems. ...
Full-text available
Understanding the factors shaping patterns of ecological resilience is critical for mitigating the loss of global biodiversity. Throughout aquatic environments, highly mobile predators are thought to serve as important vectors of energy between ecosystems thereby promoting stability and resilience. However, the role these predators play in connecting food webs and promoting energy flow remains poorly understood in most contexts. Using carbon and nitrogen isotopes, we quantified the use of several prey resource pools (small oceanic forage, large oceanic prey, coral reef, and seagrass) by 17 species of elasmobranch fishes (n = 351 individuals) in The Bahamas to determine their functional diversity and roles as ecosystem links. We observed remarkable functional diversity across species and identified four major groups responsible for connecting discrete regions of the seascape. Elasmobranchs were responsible for promoting energetic connectivity between neritic, oceanic, and deep-sea ecosystems. Our findings illustrate how mobile predators promote ecosystem connectivity, underscoring their functional significance and role in supporting ecological resilience. More broadly, strong predator conservation efforts in developing island nations, such as The Bahamas, are likely to yield ecological benefits that enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems to combat imminent threats such as habitat degradation and climate change.
... The most direct investigation of shark conservation efficacy using satellite tags was the evaluation of MPAs. Proposal, designation, and evaluation of various MPAs has been informed by shark space use patterns determined using satellite telemetry (e.g., Doherty et al., 2017b;Graham et al., 2016;Lea et al., 2018;Gallagher et al., 2020;Daly et al., 2018). In total, 10 different protected areas were evaluated, which included both MPAs as well as EEZs with shark fishing restrictions. ...
Satellite telemetry as a tool in marine ecological research continues to adapt and grow and has become increasingly popular in recent years to study shark species on a global scale. A review of satellite tag application to shark research was published in 2010, provided insight to the advancements in satellite shark tagging, as well as highlighting areas for improvement. In the years since, satellite technology has continued to advance, creating smaller, longer lasting, and more innovative tags, capable of expanding the field. Here we review satellite shark tagging studies to identify early successes and areas for rethinking moving forward. Triple the amount of shark satellite tagging studies have been conducted during the decade from 2010 to 2020 than ever before, tracking double the number of species previously tagged. Satellite telemetry has offered increased capacity to unravel ecological questions including predator and prey interactions, migration patterns, habitat use, in addition to monitoring species for global assessments. However, <17% of the total reviewed studies directly produced results with management or conservation outcomes. Telemetry studies with defined goals and objectives produced the most relevant findings for shark conservation, most often in tandem with secondary metrics such as fishing overlap or management regimes. To leverage the power of telemetry for the benefit of shark species, it remains imperative to continue improvements to tag function and maximize the outputs of tagging efforts including increasing data sharing capacity and standardization across the field, as well as spatial and species coverage. Ultimately, this review offers a status report of shark satellite tagging and the ways in which the field can continue to progress.
... At c.640,000 km 2 the MPA is a 'large-scale' MPA (LSMPA) (Toonen et al. 2013). Despite there being strong support for LSMPAs in the scientific community (Koldewey et al. 2010, Sheppard et al. 2012, Gallagher et al. 2020, Hays et al. 2020, there remains debate about how large an MPA needs to be to protect mobile marine vertebrates, with advocates for both LSMPAs of a size that could potentially cover the entire life cycle of mobile species (Game et al. 2009, Hyrenbach et al. 2000 and networks of smaller MPAs covering critical parts of an organism's life cycle (Kerwath et al. 2009). Our study reveals that the MPA encompassing the entire Chagos Archipelago is large enough to entirely support a vagile, highly pelagic top predator (and umbrella species) through the most vulnerable phase of the critically important breeding cycle. ...
Full-text available
Seabirds are declining globally and are one of the most threatened groups of birds. To halt or reverse this decline they need protection both on land and at sea, requiring site-based conservation initiatives based on seabird abundance and diversity. The Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) programme is a method of identifying the most important places for birds based on globally agreed standardised criteria and thresholds. However, while great strides have been made identifying terrestrial sites, at-sea identification is lacking. The Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean, supports four terrestrial IBAs (tIBAs) and two proposed marine IBAs (mIBAs). The mIBAs are seaward extensions to breeding colonies based on outdated information and, other types of mIBA have not been explored. Here, we review the proposed seaward extension mIBAs using up-to-date seabird status and distribution information and, use global positioning system (GPS) tracking from Red-footed Booby Sula sula – one of the most widely distributed breeding seabirds on the archipelago – to identify any pelagic mIBAs. We demonstrate that due to overlapping boundaries of seaward extension to breeding colony and pelagic areas of importance there is a single mIBA in the central Indian Ocean that lays entirely within the Chagos Archipelago Marine Protected Area (MPA). Covering 62,379 km ² it constitutes ~10% of the MPA and if designated, would become the 11 th largest mIBA in the world and 4 th largest in the Indian Ocean. Our research strengthens the evidence of the benefits of large-scale MPAs for the protection of marine predators and provides a scientific foundation stone for marine biodiversity hotspot research in the central Indian Ocean.
... Carcharhinus perezi likely exhibits year-round residency throughout its range, including in The Bahamas, making it vulnerable to local extirpation but also well suited to large no-take marine protected areas (Gallagher et al. 2020(Gallagher et al. , 2021Dwyer et al. 2020). New estimates of its life-history traits such as age at maturity and growth rate suggest that C. perezi may be more susceptible to overfishing (Musick et al. 2000) than previously considered, particularly at the northern extent of its range. ...
Full-text available
The Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi) is an economically important species in The Bahamas, where it is protected from fishing and is a mainstay for the shark dive tourism industry. Significant declines in abundance are suspected throughout much of its range, making the study of its life history and spatial ecology important for effective fisheries management and conservation planning. We used tag-recapture data collected in The Bahamas between 2008 and 2020 to investigate the species’ linear movements, population characteristics, life history, and growth. Sharks moved little between tag and recapture events (range: 0 to 8 km) despite multiple years at liberty for many sharks (range: 2 days to 7.1 years). We found no evidence of seasonal migration. We used a combined-sex von Bertalanffy growth function to estimate an asymptotic mean length at age (TL∞) of 205.8 cm total length and a growth coefficient (k) of 0.06. Theoretical maximum longevity was 43.3 to 57.8 years. Median male length at maturity (L50) was 148.9 cm total length (95% CI: 146.1–151.5 cm), which likely occurs around 14.8 years of age. Our results indicate slower growth of the Caribbean reef shark in The Bahamas than previously estimated in Venezuela. Our results suggest the Caribbean reef shark may be more vulnerable to overfishing and extirpation at the northern extent of its range than previously considered and that large no-take areas may be an effective conservation tool for this species.
... shark sanctuaries), many of which appear to occur within key shark-diving destinations [27]. These MPAs have been suggested as instruments for protecting or restoring shark populations worldwide [21,29,35,70]. However, the displacement of fishing activities and resulting social impact caused by the implementation of these MPAs is a complex issue, driven by challenges around access to adequate resources for financial compensation to local communities, as well as those related to monitoring and surveillance to ensure the effectiveness of MPAs [23,74]. ...
Full-text available
Shark-diving tourism is an emerging industry in the Azores Islands. However, this industry directly competes with fishing, as both exploiting the same highly migratory shark species. This study quantifies the commercial value of the Azorean shark-diving industry based on a survey of dive tourists and local dive operators and the potential of this industry to further generate funds for implementation of direct conservation actions. The economic contribution of the shark-diving industry to the regional economy of the Azores in 2019 was estimated to be just over USD $ 1 Million. The results of a spiked censored interval data model of contingent valuation indicated that implementation of an extra conservation fee per dive trip, to be paid by dive tourists, could potentially yield over USD $ 103,000 per year to be used for management and enforcement of a proposed MPA for sharks around the dive sites. Our analysis suggests that the emerging shark-diving industry in the Azores Islands has potential to grow throughout the Macaronesian archipelago, thereby increasing tax revenues and the number of jobs and income to Azorean local communities, potentially promoting conservation and sustainable use of the shark populations. However, expansion of this industry into a robust contributor to the archipelago’s economy would require a concomitant strengthening of industry regulation, and support by the government, to protect businesses and investments. This could be partially obtained through improving in fisheries management, implementation of a functional MPA and adequate enforcement.
... Caribbean reef sharks are currently listed as 'Endangered' by the IUCN Red List (Carlson et al. 2021), although their absence from many nations where they should be found suggests historical or ongoing overfishing and contemporary population declines (MacNeil et al. 2020). As a result, establishing baseline assessments of Caribbean reef shark populations is needed to inform future spatial conservation measures throughout their range (Dwyer et al. 2020;Gallagher et al. 2020). This species is surprisingly understudied; few genetic studies have been conducted (Bernard et al. 2017), and its mitogenome remains undescribed. ...
Full-text available
The Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi; Poey, 1876) is a medium to large-bodied coastal and reef-associated predator found throughout the subtropical and tropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, although its populations are increasingly threatened by overfishing. We describe the first mitochondrial genome sequence for this species, using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of an individual from The Bahamas. We report the mitogenome sequence of the Caribbean reef shark to be 16,709 bp and composed two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 non-coding regions; the D-loop control region and the origin of light-strand replication. We discuss the implications of this new information on future monitoring efforts and conservation measures such as marine protected areas, and urge for greater application of mitochondrial studies of sharks in the Atlantic Ocean.
Full-text available
Background: Impostor syndrome is increasingly presented in the media and lay literature as a key behavioral health condition impairing professional performance and contributing to burnout. However, there is no published review of the evidence to guide the diagnosis or treatment of patients presenting with impostor syndrome. Purpose: To evaluate the evidence on the prevalence, predictors, comorbidities, and treatment of impostor syndrome. Data sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO (January 1966 to May 2018) and bibliographies of retrieved articles. Study selection: English-language reports of evaluations of the prevalence, predictors, comorbidities, or treatment of impostor syndrome. Data extraction: Two independent investigators extracted data on study variables (e.g., study methodology, treatments provided); participant variables (e.g., demographics, professional setting); diagnostic tools used, outcome variables (e.g., workplace performance, reductions in comorbid conditions); and pre-defined quality variables (e.g., human subjects approval, response rates reported). Data synthesis: In total, 62 studies of 14,161 participants met the inclusion criteria (half were published in the past 6 years). Prevalence rates of impostor syndrome varied widely from 9 to 82% largely depending on the screening tool and cutoff used to assess symptoms and were particularly high among ethnic minority groups. Impostor syndrome was common among both men and women and across a range of age groups (adolescents to late-stage professionals). Impostor syndrome is often comorbid with depression and anxiety and is associated with impaired job performance, job satisfaction, and burnout among various employee populations including clinicians. No published studies evaluated treatments for this condition. Limitations: Studies were heterogeneous; publication bias may be present. Conclusions: Clinicians and employers should be mindful of the prevalence of impostor syndrome among professional populations and take steps to assess for impostor feelings and common comorbidities. Future research should include evaluations of treatments to mitigate impostor symptoms and its common comorbidities.
Full-text available
Effective ocean management and conservation of highly migratory species depends on resolving overlap between animal movements and distributions and fishing effort. Yet, this information is lacking at a global scale. Here we show, using a big-data approach combining satellite-tracked movements of pelagic sharks and global fishing fleets, that 24% of the mean monthly space used by sharks falls under the footprint of pelagic longline fisheries. Space use hotspots of commercially valuable sharks and of internationally protected species had the highest overlap with longlines (up to 76% and 64%, respectively) and were also associated with significant increases in fishing effort. We conclude that pelagic sharks have limited spatial refuge from current levels of high-seas fishing effort. Results demonstrate an urgent need for conservation and management measures at high-seas shark hotspots and highlight the potential of simultaneous satellite surveillance of megafauna and fishers as a tool for near-real time, dynamic management.
Full-text available
Ecotourism represents a highly popularised activity which has exhibited global growth in recent years. In the present paper, we examine the distribution, frequency, and economic value of shark-based ecotourism operations worldwide. A total of 376 shark ecotour operations across 83 locations and 8 geographic regions were identified. Here we describe the global and regional scope of the industry; determine the species utilised in shark ecotourism activities; and examine the recreational usage values of sharks. Further, we conducted a case study of a shark tourism operation based in South Africa by analysing 12 years of demographical and economical data, revealing increasing trends in the total number of customers served and cost per trip over the sampling period. We also compare consumptive and non-consumptive values of shark resources and discuss the potential research and conservation implications of the industry to sharks worldwide.
Full-text available
In recent decades, large pelagic and coastal shark populations have declined dramatically with increased fishing; however, the status of sharks in other systems such as coral reefs remains largely unassessed despite a long history of exploitation. Here we explore the contemporary distribution and sighting frequency of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean and assess the possible role of human pressures on observed patterns. We analyzed 76,340 underwater surveys carried out by trained volunteer divers between 1993 and 2008. Surveys were grouped within one km2 cells, which allowed us to determine the contemporary geographical distribution and sighting frequency of sharks. Sighting frequency was calculated as the ratio of surveys with sharks to the total number of surveys in each cell. We compared sighting frequency to the number of people in the cell vicinity and used population viability analyses to assess the effects of exploitation on population trends. Sharks, with the exception of nurse sharks occurred mainly in areas with very low human population or strong fishing regulations and marine conservation. Population viability analysis suggests that exploitation alone could explain the large-scale absence; however, this pattern is likely to be exacerbated by additional anthropogenic stressors, such as pollution and habitat degradation, that also correlate with human population. Human pressures in coastal zones have lead to the broad-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean. Preventing further loss of sharks requires urgent management measures to curb fishing mortality and to mitigate other anthropogenic stressors to protect sites where sharks still exist. The fact that sharks still occur in some densely populated areas where strong fishing regulations are in place indicates the possibility of success and encourages the implementation of conservation measures.
Full-text available
Marine protected areas (MPAs), including no-take marine reserves (MRs), play an important role in the conservation of marine biodiversity. We document the status of MPAs and MRs in Latin America and the Caribbean, where little has been reported on the scope of such protection. Our survey of protected area databases, published and unpublished literature, and Internet searches yielded information from 30 countries and 12 overseas territories. At present more than 700 MPAs have been established, covering more than 300,000 km(2) or 1.5% of the coastal and shelf waters. We report on the status of 3 categories of protection: MPAs (limited take throughout the area), MRs (no-take throughout the area), and mixed-use (a limited-take MPA that contains an MR). The majority of protected areas in Latin America and the Caribbean are MPAs, which allow some or extensive extractive activities throughout the designated area. These 571 sites cover 51,505 km(2) or 0.3% of coastal and shelf waters. There are 98 MRs covering 16,862 km(2) or 0.1% of the coastal and shelf waters. Mixed-use MPAs are the fewest in number (87), but cover the largest area (236,853 km(2), 1.2%). Across Latin America and the Caribbean, many biogeographic provinces are underrepresented in these protected areas. Large coastal regions remain unprotected, in particular, the southern Pacific and southern Atlantic coasts of South America. Our analysis reveals multiple opportunities to strengthen marine conservation in Latin America and the Caribbean by improving implementation, management, and enforcement of existing MPAs; adding new MPAs and MRs strategically to enhance connectivity and sustainability of existing protection; and establishing new networks of MPAs and MRs or combinations thereof to enhance protection where little currently exists.
The paper comprises recommendations presented and discussed at several workshops of the 3rd International Marine Protected Areas Congress (Marseille, France, 21–27, October, 2013) to achieve effective management of marine protected areas in the Caribbean and Mediterranean Seas. It highlights the similarities but also differences between the two areas as a result of their distinct biogeographic and cultural characteristics. The biophysical setting, socioeconomic scenario and issues related to marine protected areas in the Caribbean and Mediterranean Seas are summarized and case studies from both regions are presented that illustrate the level of success thus far achieved by MPAs. Factors contributing to MPA success are related to ecological conditions, the involvement of stakeholders in decision‐making processes, and to better governance, as well as improved communication and training. The SPAW and SPA regional environmental agreements administered by the UNEP Regional Seas Programmes in collaboration with government and non‐government partners and the MPA managers' networks have provided technical assistance that has led to improved management. The experience of the last 3 years of contacts between both regional networks of MPA scientists and practitioners (i.e. MedPAN and CaMPAM) highlights the benefits of such an initiative and suggests the need to develop a robust transoceanic Exchange Programme to facilitate knowledge transfer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.