ArticlePDF Available


A study of waste material flow was carried out in Bali Province to define, evaluate, and analyse the existing condition of waste management as a reference for improving solid waste services. In this paper, waste quantity in every chain of waste management was measured. Waste sampling, observation, and interviews were also conducted to build the material flow model. Around 4.2 million residents and 4.9 million tourists yearly generate waste of up to 822,555 tonnes/year, which is dominated by organic waste for around 65% ww (wet weight) and plastic waste for around 15.67% ww. Around 200,718 tonnes/year (24.40% ww) of waste is transported directly to the landfills and 235,418 tonnes/year (28.62% ww) is collected first at the transfer depos, before being transported to the landfill. As much as 39,566 tonnes/year (4.81% ww) of waste enters the 3R-Transfer Depo for recycling and around 47,030 tonnes/year (5.72% ww) enter the waste bank. Furthermore, due to the lack of integrated waste management, around 283,369 tonnes/year (34.45% ww) waste is illegally dumped into the environment. In the end, up to 444,679 tonnes/year (54.06% ww) of waste is processed in ten landfills which serve Bali Province.
1 23
Journal of Material Cycles and Waste
Official Journal of the Japan Society of
Material Cycles and Waste Management
(JSMCWM) and the Korea Society of
Waste Management (KSWM)
ISSN 1438-4957
Volume 22
Number 2
J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2020)
DOI 10.1007/s10163-020-00989-5
Municipal solid waste material flow in Bali
Province, Indonesia
I Made Wahyu Widyarsana, Enri
Damanhuri & Elprida Agustina
1 23
Your article is protected by copyright and all
rights are held exclusively by Springer Japan
KK, part of Springer Nature. This e-offprint is
for personal use only and shall not be self-
archived in electronic repositories. If you wish
to self-archive your article, please use the
accepted manuscript version for posting on
your own website. You may further deposit
the accepted manuscript version in any
repository, provided it is only made publicly
available 12 months after official publication
or later and provided acknowledgement is
given to the original source of publication
and a link is inserted to the published article
on Springer's website. The link must be
accompanied by the following text: "The final
publication is available at”.
1 3
Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
Municipal solid waste material ow inBali Province, Indonesia
IMadeWahyuWidyarsana1· EnriDamanhuri1· ElpridaAgustina1
Received: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2020 / Published online: 12 February 2020
© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2020
A study of waste material flow was carried out in Bali Province to define, evaluate, and analyse the existing condition of
waste management as a reference for improving solid waste services. In this paper, waste quantity in every chain of waste
management was measured. Waste sampling, observation, and interviews were also conducted to build the material flow
model. Around 4.2 million residents and 4.9 million tourists yearly generate waste of up to 822,555 tonnes/year, which is
dominated by organic waste for around 65% ww (wet weight) and plastic waste for around 15.67% ww. Around 200,718
tonnes/year (24.40% ww) of waste is transported directly to the landfills and 235,418 tonnes/year (28.62% ww) is collected
first at the transfer depos, before being transported to the landfill. As much as 39,566 tonnes/year (4.81% ww) of waste enters
the 3R-Transfer Depo for recycling and around 47,030 tonnes/year (5.72% ww) enter the waste bank. Furthermore, due to the
lack of integrated waste management, around 283,369 tonnes/year (34.45% ww) waste is illegally dumped into the environ-
ment. In the end, up to 444,679 tonnes/year (54.06% ww) of waste is processed in ten landfills which serve Bali Province.
Keywords Solid waste management· Bali Province· Material flow
Many developing Asian countries, including Indonesia, are
rapidly expanding their economies [1]. Through abundant
tourism economy opportunities, Bali Province in Indonesia
offers numerous jobs which attract many people to move to
Bali, which made the rate of urbanisation in Bali Province
to keep increasing [2]. This dynamic of change is extremely
delicate and will be an effect on waste generation [3].
The situation alters waste generation and the characteris-
tics of the produced waste, which create new challenges in
waste management [4]. The difficulty that often occurs, in
developing countries, is the fragility of the waste manage-
ment system, lack of financial resources, and limited par-
ticipation of residents [5]. Bali Province is not exempt from
these problems. The need for proper waste management is
also one of the objectives of Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs) which aim to provide universal access for sufficient,
secure, and affordable waste management, as well as reduc-
ing uncontrollable waste disposal and incineration [6].
Waste management policy needs to be prepared to
respond to specific activities in an area according to its char-
acteristics. An analytic hierarchy process was conducted by
Okumura in 2014 at Southeast and East Asian countries and
the results confirm the trend of waste management policy
development correlated with economic growth. Just like in
the Province of Bali where expanding the economies was
driven by the tourism sector, the management policy devel-
opment needs to be prepared based on basic data that can
describe the existing conditions of waste due to the activities
of local residents and also tourists.
Regional autonomy in Indonesia causes waste manage-
ment data not to be collected properly and cause policy
making not effective. From the preliminary studies, it was
confirmed that all cities and regencies in Bali Province are
not well coordinated so that the existing waste quantities,
compositions, and waste management chains are confus-
ing. In 2019, there is a Province Regulation regarding the
prohibition of the single-use plastics, but the effectiveness
of the policy cannot be evaluated because of the unavail-
ability of actual data on waste matters. Also for the Indo-
nesian National Policy and Strategy 2019, by the end of
5th 3R International Scientic Conference (5th 3RINCs 2019)
* Elprida Agustina
1 Faculty ofCivil andEnvironmental Engineering, Bandung
Institute ofTechnology, Bandung, Indonesia
Author's personal copy
406 Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
1 3
2025, waste in Bali Province must be reduced by 30%. The
lack of analysis of the actual waste management condi-
tion makes it difficult for policy makers to determine the
direction of their policies. The waste management existing
condition is needed to define, evaluate, and analyse, so it
can be baseline data for improving solid waste services.
Material Flow Analysis (MFA) is one of the well-
known methodologies to quantify resource flows and
their implications on environments [7] and is used to
investigate the flow, and stock, from its source, or as an
environmental contaminant in the applied system [5, 8,
9]. MFA is usually utilised in waste flow track analysis,
which could be applied as a database of waste management
development and as a reference for decision making [10].
Through MFA, planned waste management is expected to
be useful in solving ensuing problems by making use of
the opportunities and advantages, as well as overcoming
weaknesses, and preventing threats which might happen to
the system. MFA can also be used to analyse the potential
of waste management to determine the potential to reduce,
reuse, and recycle waste. Therefore, the MFA is used in
determining the development of waste management which
could be applied effectively, based on the actual waste
management in Bali Province.
Municipal solid waste management inBali Province
Bali Province area is 563,300 Ha and located between Java
Island and Lombok Island in Indonesia. Bali Province is
comprised of one big island and three small islands which
consists of nine city/regencies. The total population of Bali
province in 2018 is 4.2 million, and around 4.9 million tour-
ists in a year, from around the world, come to visit Bali
Province [2]. Location of Bali Province can be seen in Fig.1.
Most waste management activity in Bali still uses the old
paradigm, which is waste collecting–transporting–dispos-
ing. Landfilling is the most relied upon waste management
method in Bali Province. Bali Province has ten landfills
which serve nine city/regencies:
Temesi landfill located in Gianyar regency;
Bangli regional landfill located in Bangli regency;
Linggasana landfill located in Karangasem regency;
Suwung regional landfill located in Denpasar city;
Bengkala landfill located in Buleleng regency;
Mandung landfill located in Tabanan regency;
Peh landfill located in Jembrana regency;
Sente landfill located in mainland Klungkung, regency;
Jungut Batu landfill located in Nusa Lembongan Island
of Klungkung regency; and
Fig. 1 Bali Province location, Indonesia. Source: BIG Indonesia, 2017
Author's personal copy
407Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
1 3
Biaung landfill located in Nusa Penida Island of Klung-
kung regency.
Materials andmethods
Various activities were conducted to collect data in this
research, such as primary and secondary data collection. In
the following sections, the methodologies for the quantifica-
tion of material flow are explained.
Scope andsystem boundaries
In this study, the simplest form of MFA was used and only
the material mass flow was studied. The temporal limit is
in the year 2018, and spatial limits are in Bali Province.
Secondary data collection and interviews were conducted
in March 2018, while measurements in Bali Province were
carried out in July 2018.
Data collection methods
Data collection methods conducted in this study were as
a. Interviews were conducted with the Regional Govern-
ment, Environmental Services, informal and formal sec-
tors to define the waste services conditions, the quantity
of each waste facility, and the waste data record in the
b. Interviews with the residents were conducted with 400
respondents spread around Bali province, with an error
percentage of 5%, following the Yamane sampling equa-
tion [11]. The interviews were based on a questionnaire
and the analysis was done by descriptive analysis to get
the waste handling information from the source and in
several waste reduction facilities such as the waste bank,
3R-Transfer Depo, transfer depo, first, intermediate and
end informal collectors, and end-collectors (formal sec-
tor), in nine cities/regencies.
c. Direct measurement was conducted with 200 households
by the stratified random sampling method, and 162 non-
household samples, consisting of educational facilities,
health facilities, tourism facilities, offices, temples, and
Waste material ow calculation
The flow of waste was analysed for the existing in, out, and
waste stock, in the whole chain of waste management in Bali
Province. The calculation was performed by counting the
waste in every chain of waste and the result of the subtrac-
tion of unmanaged waste or waste illegally disposed to the
environment. The calculation was done for each city/regency
first and then all collated.
a. Waste generation at the source: Waste sampling was
conducted by direct sampling, which was in line with
the standard of waste generation measuring in the Indo-
nesia National Standard as written in SNI 19-3964-1994
regarding the method of obtaining and measuring waste
generation and its composition. If in the developed
countries, the amount of waste generation is obtained
from the waste data record in landfill, in the developing
countries, there are some constraints as the scarcity of
landfills equipped with truck scales and not all waste are
being transported to the landfills. The SNI method is by
distributing trashbag to the waste sources and weigh-
ing the waste generation for eightconsecutive days. The
numbers, for each unit, were obtained from interview
data, also from data statistics for each city/regency in
Bali Province. Calculation of waste generation, at the
source, was carried out in accordance with equation:
Waste composition is divided into ten types. These are
food waste, wood and leaves, paper, plastic, metal, cloth
and textile, rubber, glass, hazardous waste, and others
waste. Waste composition percentage was calculated by
divided the weight of waste per type to the total waste
b. Door-to-door or direct waste transported to the landfill
was identified from the number of trucks and each rita-
tion, which were owned by the city/ regencies:
c. Waste in a transfer depo was identified by the direct
measurement of the container capacity from six transfer
depos from each city/regency. Waste reduction activi-
ties, by informal collectors and waste crews, were also
identified by interview:
d. Waste in facilities was measured by obtaining a facility
sample and the waste record held by the facility, the
Waste generation
Waste generation rate
×Number of units.
Waste composition
Waste weight per composition
Total waste sample weight
×100% .
Direct waste transported
=(Truck Qty x ×Ritation ×Truck density).
Waste in transfer depot
=(Transfer depot Qty ×capacity
Waste reduction.
Author's personal copy
408 Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
1 3
frequency of waste sale, and also the residue and its
handling through an in-depth interview with the facil-
ity officer. Performance indicators of the facilities were
identified by calculating the effectiveness of the facilities
between the residues and the waste entering the facil-
ity. The same calculation was also conducted for the
3R-Transfer Depo, the waste bank, intermediate informal
collectors, and end-collectors:
The number for each facility was obtained by conduct-
ing interviews with the city/regencies and other stake-
Waste residue handling was identified by conducting
interviews and giving respondents the opportunity to
provide an answer of the proportion of residue trans-
ported to landfills and of that disposed of into the envi-
e. Waste quantity entered into landfill was determined
using the inventory record of waste which entered the
landfill which provided by the local government. Every
waste, accommodated by landfill, was then recorded and
added up.
f. Illegal waste dumping was identified by conducting a
calculation of the equilibrium mass in which waste input
into the system must be equal with the waste output:
The flow of waste material was determined by investigat-
ing the waste from the source level, either household or non-
household, that in a waste bank, a temporary transfer depo
and the 3R-Transfer Depo, until being transported to landfill
to be processed. After all the data were obtained, analysis
and data processing were conducted at every stage of waste
management in each city/regency to build the MFA.
Waste recovered
Performance indicator
Waste input.
Total waste
Waste in recycling facility
Amount of facility.
Waste residue handling
Handling proportion
×Residue .
Unmanaged waste
Table 1 Waste database
Jembrana Karangasem Bangle Klungkung Buleleng Gianyar Tabanan Denspasar Badung RECAP
Quantity of transfer depo 72 163 77 20 40 46 92 20 25 555 Transfer depo
Quantity of 3R-Transfer Depo 2 7 1 4 3 1 8 6 22 54 3R-Transfer depo
Quantity of waste bank 29 5 1 7 6 29 41 50 300 468 Waste bank
Quantity of first intermediate informal collector 29 10 30 14 40 22 50 100 30 325 Int inf collector
Quantity of intermediate informal collector 8 5 2 4 18 4 10 100 10 161 Inf collector
Quantity of end-collector 1 1 5 3 10 3R Formal
Scavengers in landfill 15 25 20 38 102 50 15 219 484 Person
Author's personal copy
409Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
1 3
Interviews regarding waste services condition and the quan-
tity of each waste facility were carried out to obtain the total
quantity of waste accommodated by each waste handling
facility. The results of the interview are summarized in a
database table. The database can be seen in Table1.
Waste management is intended to deal with health, envi-
ronmental, aesthetic, land use, resources and economic
aspects related to the mistreatment of waste [12]. The exist-
ing condition of the waste management is tried to define
by material flow analysis as a reference to improving solid
waste services to deal with related aspects previously men-
tioned. The principal of material flow calculation, for every
stage of the cycle, is that the total current input must be the
same as the total current output [13].
The material flow model was built by identifying the
waste management system first. The calculation was con-
ducted by creating a waste management flow system based
on the quantity of waste at the source, in each facility, and
in landfills. The unit in the calculation of this waste material
flow is tonne/year, to negate the stock or storage concept in
the MFA. Even though there are storage facilities in Indone-
sia, these conditions only last for 2–3days, and after that, a
balance occurs so that the total waste is the sum of the out-
put, the rejected waste, and the recovered waste. The waste
material flow of the Bali Province can be seen in Fig.2.
Waste inthesource
The waste, referred to in this study, is the result from both
household and non-household activities. The total waste
generated in Bali Province is calculated by multiplying
the waste generation from each source with the number of
Fig. 2 Waste material flow in Bali Province
Author's personal copy
410 Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
1 3
collectors, based on the units. The amount of waste from
household and non-household activities can be seen in
Waste generation in Bali Province is dominated by house-
hold waste, for as much as 61.72%. Nevertheless, some
research has indicated that, in general, waste generation
of developing countries is dominated by household waste
(55–80%) [14]. Waste generation and its percentage are
shown in Fig.3.
Denpasar City, as the capital of the province with the
highest population and being the centre of government activ-
ities in Bali Province, contributes the largest waste genera-
tion with 32.86% ww. Denpasar is also the centre of provin-
cial government and filled with spending and other tourism
activities in the Sanur area, one of the main destinations in
Bali Province. In addition, Denpasar is also the centre of
settlements and companies.
The second biggest waste generator is the Badung
Regency, with 17.36% ww. It is the centre of the tourism
area in Bali Province which covers several famous tourist
destinations such as Seminyak Village, Nusa Dua, and Kuta
Beach. Badung Regency is also the wealthiest district in Bali
Province with a fairly consumptive lifestyle.
Waste per capita in Bali Province is 0.54kg/person/day.
On the other hand, Malta Island, an island-shaped tourism
area, produces an average waste of 481kg/per capita/year
[15, 16] or around 1.32kg/per capita/day. With the more
significant household waste contribution, it can be observed
that waste from local communities in Bali is still relatively
low because of lifestyle differences between Bali Province,
which is located in a developing country, and Malta from
the developed country.
Waste composition of Bali Province at the source, con-
sisted not only in household waste but also in waste from
non-household sources. The waste composition was divided
into ten types, which were food waste, wood waste, paper
waste, plastic waste, metal waste, cloth and textile waste,
leather/ rubber waste, glass waste, hazardous waste, and
others. Waste is dominated by organic waste that consists
of 45.30% food waste, 19.70% wood and leaves waste, and
with 15.7% ww plastic waste. The waste composition at the
source can be seen in Fig.4.
Household waste in Bali is 0.33kg/person/day while
based on 424 households samples selected from eight dif-
ferent sub-districts, Khair etal. [17] found that the average
of waste generation in Medan was 0.22kg/person/day [17].
The rate of household waste generation in the province of
Bali is already quite high. Waste in Medan is dominated
by 61.35% organic waste, almost like the Province of Bali
which is 65%.
Table 2 Waste generation
Jembrana Karangasem Bangle Klungkung Buleleng Gianyar Tabanan Denspasar Badung RECAP
Population 274,900 412,800 225,462 231,462 653,600 53,900 441,000 914,300 526,010 4,183,072 person
Household waste generation rate 0.31 0.30 0.25 0.37 0.39 0.28 0.32 0.32 0.40 0.33kg/person/day
Household waste generation 85,219 123,840 56,275, 84,484 254,904 142,122 142,590 292,576 208,826 1,390,835kg/day
Non-household waste generation 41,681 30,960 27,012 4205 55,377 38,278 34,810 448,004 182,414 862,742kg/day
Total MSW generation 126,900 154,800 83,287 88,689 310,281 180,400 177,400 740,580 391,240 2,253,577kg/day
MSW generation rate 0.46 0.38 0.37 0.38 0.47 0.36 0.40 0.81 0.74 0.54kg/cap/day
Author's personal copy
411Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
1 3
Waste transportation service
Waste transportation in Bali is comprised of three stakehold-
ers which are the local government, the private sector, and
the informal sector who sort out the waste with economic
value to be resold or recycled. The demand to improve waste
management services could encourage the government to
offer it to the private sector [18]. Waste transportation ser-
vices, within this scope, are mentioned in units of percent.
The calculation is done by dividing the amount of waste
transported (Eq.3) by the total waste at the source (Eq.1).
In this section, all the waste transported to landfills was cal-
culated from either direct (door-to-door) or indirect (from
transfer depo first) transportation. The highest percentage
Fig. 3 Waste generation per
city/regencies in Bali Province
Fig. 4 Waste composition percentage at the source
Fig. 5 Direct waste transporting service percentage
Author's personal copy
412 Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
1 3
of waste service was in Denpasar City, as the capital of
Bali Province, with 83.5% ww and followed by the Gianyar
Regency with 55.4% ww. Meanwhile, the lowest percentage
of waste service was in the Jembrana Regency with 22.9%
ww. The average waste transporting services in Bali Prov-
ince is around 53%. Waste transporting service by the local
government in each city/regency can be seen in Fig.5.
Waste intransfer depo
The form of the transfer depos in Bali Province is domi-
nated by 6 m3 containers, except in Denpasar City which
has building structures with a capacity of 150 m3. In the
transfer depo, there are activities from the informal sec-
tor where scavengers and waste crew search for re-sellable
plastic, paper, and metal in particular. Waste with economic
value, which gathered from each depo, is around 10–50kg.
The collected waste is then sold to the first intermediate
informal collectors.
Waste inthe3R‑Transfer Depo
3R-Transfer Depo is a waste reduction facility in which
there are various waste processing and valuable waste re-
selling activities. 3R-Transfer Depos are managed by the
local government. On average, 1900kg/day of mixed waste
is gathered by each 3R-Transfer Depo. There are compost-
ing and valuable waste re-selling activities in this facility.
The residue from the entire process is around 65%, of which
around 90% is transported to the landfill, and the other 10%
is illegally dumped in the environment.
Waste inthewaste bank
The waste bank in Indonesia is developed and managed by
local community. Based on the interviews with several offic-
ers of the waste bank in Bali Province, the most received
type of waste, in this facility, was plastic waste such as bot-
tles or cups and also paper. Around 500kg/day of waste is
gathered by each waste bank. Waste is then sold to informal
collectors without changing its original form or having any
extra processing. The service of the waste bank, identified
in Bali Province, was conducted in two ways, which are
directly visiting the closest waste bank or by a bank officer
who visits each house as a part of the service. The waste
managed in the 3R-Transfer Depo and the waste bank were
determined by multiplying the average of the handled waste
in each chain with the number of facilities in each city/
regency in Bali Province. The plastic and paper waste then
sold to the first intermediate informal collectors.
Waste recovery bytheinformal collector
The role of the informal sector in solid waste recycling and
the need of an integration system towards an inclusive soci-
ety have been described in detail [19]. Recyclable waste col-
lected by the first intermediate informal collector is domi-
nated by plastic waste from landfills, transfer depo, waste
bank, and the 3R-Transfer Depo and being sold to the larger
informal collectors spread around Bali Province. In a day,
these first intermediate informal collectors could receive on
average 900kg/day and the larger informal collectors could
receive around 2000kg/day. Re-sellable waste is being sold
later to the end-collector to be processed into raw materials
(flake or pellet) which is then sold on to the recycler. The
residue from this facility is assumed around 15% which is
mostly improperly dumped in the environment.
Waste recovery intheformal sector
There are ten end-collectors (formal sector) identified in
Bali Province. The waste is dominated by plastic which
is shipped to East Java Province, such to Banyuwangi city
and Surabaya city as a clean plastic. The processing which
includes washing, cleaning, and chopping produces around
20% residue, which is improperly dumped in the environ-
ment. One of the biggest end-collectors is Bali-PET which
accepts only PET plastic waste. These end-collectors can
be seen in Fig.6.
Waste inlandll
Waste in the landfill is the result of waste transporta-
tion added to the residue of waste management from the
3R-Transfer depo. Ten landfills in Bali Province also accom-
modate waste from nine city/regencies in Bali Province.
Fig. 6 Waste management in the end-collector sector
Author's personal copy
413Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
1 3
This waste is entirely processed by open dumping practice.
Another waste-processing facility on offer is a waste-com-
posting process. These are located at Temesi landfill, Man-
dung landfill, and in Sente landfill.
Based on observation in all landfills in Bali Province, it
can be seen that there were activities from the informal sec-
tor who collect waste to be resold. These activities is done
by groups of people from the informal sector. Waste was
reduced by around 484 scavengers who can collect around
83kg/day. The collected valuable waste was later sold to the
first intermediate informal collectors. Average of old waste
composition percentage in landfills can be seen in Fig.7.
Unmanaged waste
Unmanaged waste is waste dumping on the open land, waste
disposed to the water bodies, and waste burning are the prac-
tical of improper waste handling. These unmanaged waste
products have become a stock in the environment in various
quantities and locations. In Tabanan Regency, for example,
large-scale waste disposal was identified in a hilly area with a
closing a ravine method. This unmanaged waste is a result of
the inadequacy of waste transportation and the lack of waste
reduction facilities, especially in rural areas which are away
from the city. Aside from rural areas, dwellings located in
small alleys do not receive efficient service due to non-exist-
ent efficient waste-collecting services. To get an overview of
waste management at the source, analysis of the results of the
questionnaire with descriptive analysis was carried out. Waste
handling percentage in households based on interviews can be
seen in Fig.8.
Based on the material flow in Fig.2, as much as 54.06%
ww or 444,679 tonnes/year of waste was processed in the
landfill. Waste in landfills has been reduced by 14,603
tonnes/year or 1217 tonnes/month due to waste reduction
from scavenger activities. Waste collected by scavenger
is dominated by plastics. In Jakarta landfill, Putri etal.
[20] found that plastic waste recovery by each scavenger
was 239kg/month. The amount of waste reduction in Bali
Province landfills is quite large due to the large number of
landfills and fairly regular conditions compared to landfills
in Jakarta.[20]
Besides, it can be seen that the largest waste manage-
ment in the system is accounted for by indirect waste trans-
portation, the waste transported from transfer depo, which
is equal to 235,418 tonnes/year or 28.62% ww. Waste col-
lection to the transfer depo was conducted directly by local
communities or indirectly by waste collection services
from the local government. Waste is stored at the transfer
depo before being transported to landfills by the waste
trucks. The waste transported directly to the landfill is the
second biggest percentage with 24.40% ww or 200,718
tonnes/day. The lack of door-to-door waste transporta-
tion service is caused by the limitations of the transport
From the material flow, it can be seen that the con-
dition of waste is unwell managed. This is indicated by
the amount of the unmanaged waste, as much as 34.45%
or around 283,369 tonnes/year, which is disposed of
improperly in the environment by open land burial, ille-
gally dumped in water bodies, and dumped on empty lands
(Fig.8). With land limitation in Bali Province, and the
Fig. 7 Average waste composition percentage in Landfills
Fig. 8 Waste handling at the source
Author's personal copy
414 Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
1 3
high cost of land, the landfill is deemed as a poor final pro-
cessing site, due to the ever-growing need, yet this is hin-
dered by land availability. This situation has increased the
possibility of waste being disposed of in the environment.
Waste bank and the 3R-Transfer Depo are the keys to
waste reduction in Bali Province. The Waste Bank contrib-
utes to reducing waste by 5.72% and the 3R TPS by 4.81%.
This amount is still small to be able to reduce waste that
is illegally discharged into the environment. In Indonesia,
the waste bank scheme is considered as one of the appro-
priate approaches to improve it. Based on socio-economic
evaluation by surveying 609 inhabitants, Ulhasanah etal.
concluded that the waste bank in Padang (West Sumetera,
Indonesia) has not been effective as evidenced by the low
percentage of waste that can be processed [21]. Actually
waste separation is a basic approach to increasing the rate
of waste recycling.
Waste management technology, recycling efforts at the
source, and waste reduction must be the primary attention
of the government in waste management of Bali Province.
Availability of waste management technology and high
participation of locals in waste reduction would be the
best solution for waste management in tourism areas. Jika
pemilahan berjalan baik, as much as 65% of ww organic
waste was able to be processed, individually or commu-
nally, so there was no decomposition and contamination
from other waste which still had economic value. Thus,
the valuable waste can be realised. Waste sorting also indi-
cated by the considerable amount of garbage that can be
recovered. In Fig.3, as much as 27.37% that consist of
paper waste, plastic waste, metal, cloth and textile, and
glass can be resold. There is a big potential for recycling
if waste sorting, and on-site processing, could be applied.
If waste reduction processes could be applied to these
recyclable wastes, then waste reduction would be easier
and the amount of waste in landfills would be reduced on
a large scale. Existing waste reduction is 11.49% or 94.506
tonnes/year. That is, to achieve waste reduction by the end
of 2025, a reduction of at least 3% must be done annu-
ally. One strategy that can continue to be developed is the
enforcement of regulations on the use of single-use plastic
and other policies such as limiting styrofoam, organizing
environmentally friendly events, and implementing eco-
life styles in offices and other non-household facilities.
The increasing activities in Bali Province caused by tour-
ism activities and urbanisation leads to a waste genera-
tion increase. Limitation of waste management and land
availability have become an obstacle to target fulfilment of
SDG and National Strategy and Policy. To define, evaluate,
and analyse the existing condition of waste management in
Bali Province, an MFA was conducted. The waste material
analysis was conducted by obtaining sampling on site, or
by obtaining secondary data from the entire waste man-
agement system, As much as 2253 tonnes/day or 822,555
tonnes/year waste was generated and around 54.06% or
444,679 tonnes/year waste was processed in ten landfills in
Bali Province. As much as 34.45% or 283,369 tonnes/year
of waste was disposed of illegally into the environment.
As seen from the composition of the source material, there
was a high waste reduction potential, which was 27.37%,
that consists of paper, plastic, metal, clothing and textile,
rubber, and glass.
Acknowledgements This research is funded by Research, Community
Service, and Innovation Program (P3MI 2018)–ITB.
1. Okumura S, Tasaki T (2014) Moriguchi Y (2014) Economic
growth and trends of municipal waste treatment options in Asian
countries. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 16:335
2. Province B (2017) Bali Province in number 2017. Badan Pusat
Statistik, Bali
3. Chen Y-C (2018) Effect of urbanisation on municipal solid waste
composition. Waste Manag 79:828–836
4. Troschinetz AM, James RM (2009) Sustainable recycling of
municipal solid waste in developing countries. Waste Manag
5. Makarichi L, Kua-anan T, Warangkana J (2018) Material flow
analysis as a support tool for multi-criteria analysis in solid
waste management decision-making. Resour Conserv Recycl
6. United Nations (2015) Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda
for sustainable development. Resolution Adopted by the General
Assembly on 25 September 2015. Assembly, G. https ://www. h/view_doc.asp?Symbo l=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E.
Accessed 20 Dec 2018.
7. Brunner HP, Rechberger H (2016) Handbook of material flow
analysis: for environmental, resource, and waste engineers. CRC
Press, London
8. Millward-Hopkins J etal (2018) Fully integrated modelling for
sustainability assessment of resource recovery from waste. Sci
Total Environ 612:613–624
9. Zhang L etal (2017) Characterising copper flows in international
trade of China, 1975–2015. Sci Total Environ 601–602:1238–1246
10. Stanisavljevic N, Brunner PH (2014) Combination of material
flow analysis and substance flow analysis: a powerful approach
for decision support in waste management. Waste Manag Res
11. Yamane T (1967) Statistics, an introductory analysis, 2nd edn.
Harper and Row, New York
12. Marshall RE, Khosrow F (2013) System approaches to integrated
solid waste management in developing countries. Waste Manag
13. Sevign E, Gasol CM, Rieradevall J, Gabarrell X (2015) Meth-
odology of supporting decision-making of waste management
with material flow analysis (MFA) and consequential life cycle
Author's personal copy
415Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
1 3
assessment (CLCA): case study of waste paper recycling. J Clean
Prod 105:253–262
14. Miezah K, Kwasi O-D, Zsófia K, Bernard F-B, Moses YM (2015)
Municipal solid waste characterisation and quantification as a
measure towards effective waste management in Ghana. Waste
Manag 46:15–27
15. Eurostat (2015) Each person in the EU generated 481 Kg of
municipal waste in 2013. 43% was recycled or composted (News
Release 54/2015). https ://ec.europ tat/docum ents/29955
21/67574 79/8-26032 015-AP-EN.pdf/a2982 b86-9d56-401c-8443-
ec5b0 8e543 cc.
16. Eurostat (2016) Population projections. https ://ec.europ
tat/docum ents/29955 21/81021 95/3-10072 017-AP-EN.pdf/a61ce
1ca-1efd-41df-86a2-bb495 daabd ab
17. Khair H, Rachman I, Matsumoto T (2019) Analyzing household
waste generation and its composition to expand the solid waste
bank program in Indonesia: a case study of Medan City. J Mater
Cycles Waste Manag 21:1027–1037
18. Beccarello M, Di Foggia G (2018) Improving efficiency in the
MSW collection and disposal service combining price cap and
yard stick regulation: the Italian case. Waste Manag 79:223–231
19. Sembiring E, Nitivattananon V (2010) Sustainable solid waste
management toward an inclusive society: integration of the infor-
mal sector. Resour Conserv Recycl 54:802–809
20. Putri AR, Fujimori T, Takaoka M (2018) Plastic waste manage-
ment in Jakarta, Indonesia: evaluation of material flow and recy-
cling scheme. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 20:2140
21. Ulhasanah N, Goto N (2018) Assessment of citizens’ environmen-
tal behavior toward municipal solid waste management for a better
and appropriate system in Indonesia: a case study of Padang City.
J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 20:1257
Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to
jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Author's personal copy
... The low formal sector that can implement work from home in this area causes the solid waste generation did not decrease. Widyarsana et al. (2020) reported that the waste generation study in 2018 in Denpasar City and Badung Regency was the largest producer of the waste generation with a value of 0.81 kg/ and 0.74 kg/ ...
... The measurement results showed an increase in waste generation and a decrease in generation in Badung Regency in 2019 in Denpasar City. The study of Widyarsana et al. (2020) During the pandemic of COVID-19, the average waste generation in the Province of Bali was 0.16 kg/ It was lesser than before the pandemic. ...
... also showed a decrease in waste generation from 2018 to 2019 for each other district, except Gianyar Regency.Widyarsana et al. (2020) mentioned that waste generation in 2018 in Gianyar Regency was only 0.36 kg/ while in 2019 there was an increase in the waste generation to 0.5 kg/ According to the information fromWidyarsana et al. (2020) waste generation in Bali Province has decreased from 0.54 kg/capita. day to 0.36 kg/ The reduction ...
Full-text available
The outbreak of coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) receives much attention globally. On January 30, 2020, WHO has stated it was a global health emergency. The IndonesianGovernmentrequiringthatallworkfromhomeandrestrictingaccesstoactivities outside the home. In the Bali Province, it has had a positive impact on the environment, especially for the amount of waste generation and emissions. The main objectives of this study were to analyse solid waste generation and to provide a review of issues in environmental impact during and before the pandemic of COVID-19 in Bali Province. LCA technique has been used extensively to evaluate the environmental performance of several municipal solid waste management technologies. An LCA study consists of four stages, such as goal and scope, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact analysis, and interpretation. The degraded organic carbon (DOC) value before the pandemic was 0.121 whileafter the pandemic the DOC reduced to 0.058. Moreover, methane and carbon dioxide production from waste generation per day was counted in this study. The total globalwarmingpotentialfromwastegenerationhasbeendrasticallyreducedfrom1,859.6 kg CO2eq/day to 420.8 kg CO2eq/day.
... Eventually, the rising quantity of waste from tourism and the lack of proper waste management across the province will overburden landfills in Bali. From the total of 10 landfills in Bali, 5 are almost full now while 2 are categorized as overcapacity according to Widyarsana et al. (2020). Moreover, untreated solid waste possesses a risk to pollute and reduce the quality of tourist destinations, thus discouraging tourists to drop by the area and could lead to economic problems in the future. ...
... The research is conducted in Nusa Dua, one of the most-visited tourist attractions situated in South Bali. Nusa Dua is a part of Badung Regency, which is the second biggest waste generator that produces 17.36% wet weight of the total waste generated in the province as stated by Widyarsana et al., (2020). Nusa Dua covers a 350 hectare area popular for its high-end resorts, private beaches as well as a venue for international-scale events. ...
Full-text available
Aims: The study of waste generation and composition in 6 types of tourism facility in Nusa Dua is carried out to analyze the waste processing potential and determine a proper waste management needed for tourism areas. Methodology and results: The primary data collection methods including field observations for existing waste separation, sampling of waste generation and composition at source, interviews with the facility’s management and characteristics of certain types of waste. Meanwhile, secondary data of waste generation and composition for hotels and the mall is acquired from waste collection services in Nusa Dua and previous studies for typical facilities. Nusa Dua produces around 11 tons of waste per day with hotels being the highest contributor of waste compared to other tourism facilities. The waste produced in Nusa Dua comprises around 70% of organic waste including food and yard waste and the remaining 30% includes paper, plastic, glass, metal, and other waste. Conclusion, significance and impact study: Aside from maximizing waste processing, Nusa Dua should execute campaigns to support the government’s regulation regarding the ban on styrofoam products, plastic bags, and plastic straws which gradually will reduce the amount of non-recyclable waste produced by the area.
... This same system is also implemented on Bali's southern coasts. Based on the data collected by Widyarsana et al. (2020) in 2018, the waste management facilities in south Bali (Denpasar City and Badung Regency) consist of 45 temporary disposal sites and 28 temporary disposal sites for 3R, and one final processing site known as Suwung Landfill. The data also shows that the highest garbage transporting service is in Denpasar City, reaching 83.5% compared to 40% in Badung Regency. ...
Full-text available
The current waste problem in Indonesia has drawn serious attention from the local, national, and international communities. According to Jambeck et al. (2015), Indonesia produces 0.48 to 1.29 million metric tons of waste to the oceans every year. It makes the country become the second-largest marine debris contributor after China (Jambeck et al., 2015). Marine waste is defined as any manufactured or processed solid material produced by humans which is discarded or disposed of in the marine and coastal environment (Jeftic et al., 2009). The population growth and the changing lifestyle of modern Indonesian society have increased waste production, especially in urban areas (Prajati & Pesurnay, 2019). Floating marine debris is distributed and deposited along the coastlines due to the dynamic aspects of oceanography, i.e., currents, waves, and wind (Galgani et al., 2015; Tong et al., 2021). Seasonal changes influence the movement patterns and the speed of currents and wind, which will affect the volume of marine waste deposited in the coastal areas. The high rainfall during the rainy or monsoon season (November-April) increases the amount of waste washed into waterways (sewers and rivers), increasing marine debris. During the rainy season, the currents and wind speed on the surface tend to be strong, washing the floating marine debris, especially plastic, ashore (Tong et al., 2021). The nature of plastic waste, which tends to be lightweight, buoyant, and easy to be carried away by currents, wind, and tides, contributes to this debris accumulating along the coastlines (Lavers & Bond, 2017). This has caused a growing volume of plastic waste on the coasts of Indonesia every year.
... Source: Widyarsana., Damanhuri & Agustina (2020) Bali totally produced waste of about 2333.1 ton per day. The biggest portion comes from Badung with 523.6 ton waste generation per day, followed by Bangli, Buleleng, Gianyar and soon (please see graphic 3). ...
Full-text available
Bali has always become a world-class famous tourism destination since a long time ago. Entrepreneurship development in Bali is urgently required because it can create job for local people and maximize the utilization of local resource for regional growth and development. This research aims to understand tourism entrepreneurship environment in Bali based on macro-regional analysis. This research used PESTEL framework and secondary data from various sources to analyze external environment of Bali as a place to develop tourism entrepreneurship. This research also conducted seasonal analysis from secondary data to understand characteristic of tourism market in Bali. The research founded that governments actively promoted Bali as world-class tourism destination, while at the same time provided grant for green project. Through their investment coordinating board, governments also helped investor to enter Indonesia market easily and conveniently. In economic aspect, tourism industry growth is seasonal but prospective because the economic growth in Bali is visibly good and stable. While setting up business in Bali needs basic knowledge in local Hindu culture, the technology infrastructure in Bali still needs improvement especially related to internet speed. Green project is important because Bali has significant environmental issue on recently, which also becomes opportunity for entrepreneurs to innovate. The protection law and legal standing for entrepreneurs in Bali is basically available but still need improvement, especially in the field of start-up taxation, garbage reduction and green project regulation.
Nowadays, countering the complexity of waste collection path optimization problems (POP) are reliably solved through evolutionary computation (EC). However, a sustainable collection strategy requires a specific rule and outcome for a given route network. Most waste managers are concerned with expenditure, work hours, and ecological footprints, combined with model flexibility to mimic real-life execution for the specific study case. Contemporary stochastic and deterministic POP methods are every so often confronted with optimality and scalability. Beyond its predecessor, namely the A* and the Dijkstra algorithm, a fundamental nature-based deterministic algorithm called a Ripple-Spreading Algorithm (RSA) had performed a straightforward heuristic evaluation. This study investigates prospects and future challenges in developing the RSA simulation based on Indonesia’s waste management scope. Specific overseas theme literature was employed to explore the possible research setting.
Full-text available
Mobilization and population growth caused waste generation and energy supply increments. It requires more efficient waste management and treatment methods. On the other side, the availability of fossil fuel resources decreased, it urges alternative energy sources to take place. One of the waste-to-energy implementations is using domestic waste into briquettes as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for gasification fuel as the solutions to overcome this problem. Bali Province is one of the targets of the government’s acceleration program for the construction of waste processing plants into electric energy based on Presidential Regulation 35/2018. Waste- to-energy can be applied as co-firing in power plant. This study aims to determine the potential utilization of refuse-derived-fuel as power plant at Suwung Sarbagita Landfill and Bali Province as study case. Wastes are produced into briquette as refuse-derived-fuel. The proximate test results of briquette characteristics were analyzed in laboratory. Potential utilization calculation using data of waste generation in Bali Province, briquette characteristics especially calorific value, and optimal coal and briquette ratio of co-firing process. From the calculation with assuming using Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGGC) system technology with efficiency of 45%, waste in Suwung Sarbagita Landfill, Bali Province has the potential to generate electricity of 101.6 MW.
This study aims to identify the amount of solid waste generation, composition, and characteristics of the Buleleng sub-district waste. The results of the identification of existing condition were used to predict future waste generation and the planning process for waste management in Buleleng sub-district. Primary data were collected by sampling method of waste generation and composition at household and non-household sources, observation of existing waste management, interviews, and questionnaires. Secondary data were collected from the Environmental Agency and Statistical Agency of Buleleng Regency. The results of the research show that the waste generation in Buleleng sub-district reaches 114.85 tons/day, with the largest percentage of waste sources from household activities and traditional markets. Organic waste is dominated waste composition by 69.47%. Waste generation in 2040 is estimated to reach 154.9 tons/day, so it is necessary to plan a waste processing facility to reduce the amount of waste that must process in the landfill. The waste management plan considered the target of reducing waste by 2025 by 30%, based on Presidential Regulation No.97 of 2017. The planning used a moderate scenario and the simulation results can achieve the waste reduction target of 52.52% by 2040.
Full-text available
This research was conducted to evaluate waste management in Bali Province through the waste recycling potential and waste diversion rate. These values describe how much waste can be recycled and diverted from landfills. Based on observations and data analysis, Bali’s total waste amounts to 2,253,542.03 kg d ⁻¹ or equivalent to 822,542.84 tonnes yr ⁻¹ from 9 (nine) cities/regencies with a population of 4,183,072 in 2019. Bali Province’s waste at the source is dominated by organic waste with 65% wet weight (ww) of the total waste generated, consisting of food waste and wood/leaf waste. It is also dominated by plastic waste with 15.70% ww and paper waste with 8.92% ww. The material flow analysis results in 53.02% ww of waste, or equivalent to 436,137.41 tonnes yr ⁻¹ , which ended up in the landfill. Meanwhile, 13.36% ww or equivalent to 109,896.80 tonnes yr ⁻¹ is sold outside Bali, while 26.94% or equivalent to 221,583.37 tonnes yr ⁻¹ is unmanaged. Waste reduction by recycling in Bali’s landfill only reaches 20.38% of its potential; in comparison, the waste that can be diverted from landfills only reached 11.79% ww of the total generated waste. The reality is still very far from the 2025 government target of 30% reduction waste target and its diversion rate potential of 77.35% ww of the total waste generation.
Full-text available
p>This study aimed to find out Land Bank's land supplies to provide land for affordable housing and establish community paradigm for ownership in which building separates from its property. The study was performed using a mixed methodology; namely informative where the primary legal material as a legal framework of housing construction is highlighted by considering legal research conducted with simple legal norms with attention to primary data such as land tenure, land availability, and the amount of housing backlogs that extended to help research. Quantitative data used as a measure of flaws in the application of drugs and legal framework, so that all legal resources can be supplemented with quantitative and qualitative data to find alternatives and open access for LIPs' houses. Keywords: Land Supply; Land Bank; Affordable Housing.</p
Full-text available
Ciroyom TPS is one of the waste facilities in Andir Sub-district. Ciroyom TPS is managed by PD Kebersihan Kota Bandung which works as temporary solid waste collection from residential and Ciroyom Market. The large area of the TPS Ciroyom service area, which is 5 out of 6 villages that produce large amounts of waste that reaches 45.43 tonnes/day. It makes the amount of waste transportation from TPS to TPA reach 12 ritation/day. The distance from TPS (Tempat Penampungan Sementara) Ciroyom to Sarimukti Regional Landfill which requires 44 km is a major consideration needed by the Waste Transfer Station (SPA, Stasiun Peralihan Antara) for regional scale. SPA takes in reducing the volume of waste so that it can reduce the ratio of garbage transportation to landfill (TPA, Tempat Pemrosesan Akhir). With adequate land area, TPS Ciroyom has the potential to improve its function to become SPA for regional scale. Through the analysis of several alternative concepts and development scenarios, the amount of waste generated will be managed at the SPA Ciroyom for the next 10 years. The main facilities designed at the SPA Ciroyom for regional scale are waste compaction units resulting in volume reduction with the vertical compression method. Through solidification of waste, residual waste classified as residues is expected to reduce the volume by 60-70%. In addition, other facilities are provided which are designed at Ciroyom Area Scale SPA such as waste sorting facilities using conveyor belts, organic waste processing with open windrow systems, and inorganic waste recovery facilities that still have selling points.
Full-text available
Municipal solid waste collection and disposal service is a key element of the European strategy aimed at moving towards a circular economy. An efficient municipal solid waste collection and disposal is closely related to both lower waste tax and higher welfare of the interested population. In Italy, the lack of a centralized regulatory framework has determined heterogeneous performances of sector operators across the country. Firstly, we estimate the productive efficiency in different optimal territorial areas and secondly we forecast the economic benefits that would arise under a new regulatory regime. Our approach combines the well-known yardstick competition and the price-cap mechanisms. Results suggest that if all territorial areas converged to the most efficient ones, a potential saving between 12% and 19% emerges, i.e., up to €2bn savings out of €10.05bn total tax revenue in 2015, the reference year.
Full-text available
Waste separation system which has been relatively successful in developed countries is expected to be the solution for municipal solid waste’s problems in Padang city, Indonesia. However, the existing solid waste (SW) bank (a system for waste separation implementation in Padang city) is claimed to be ineffective proved by the low percentage of waste that can be treated by it. This study aims to understand the social condition toward citizens’ environmental behavior which brings to the conclusion of readiness of Padang citizen for plan of waste separation-based system application in the future and propose a new system that is appropriate for Padang city’s social condition. The study conducted structural equation modeling (SEM) [including exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)] and a scoring system of social evaluation by surveying 609 residents. This study showed that Padang citizens are not completely ready for the plan of modification of the solid waste management system and that the city needs to improve citizens’ pro-environmental behavior. This study proposes the waste FUN system as a solution to improve the level of readiness of the citizens that has a high potential for application in Indonesia and other developing countries with similar social condition.
Full-text available
This paper presents an integrated modelling approach for value assessments, focusing on resource recovery from waste. The method tracks and forecasts a range of values across environmental, social, economic and technical domains by attaching these to material-flows, thus building upon and integrating unidimensional models such as material flow analysis (MFA) and lifecycle assessment (LCA). We argue that the usual classification of metrics into these separate domains is useful for interpreting the outputs of multidimensional assessments, but unnecessary for modelling. We thus suggest that multidimensional assessments can be better performed by integrating the calculation methods of unidimensional models rather than their outputs. To achieve this, we propose a new metric typology that forms the foundation of a multidimensional model. This enables dynamic simulations to be performed with material-flows (or values in any domain) driven by changes in value in other domains. We then apply the model in an illustrative case highlighting links between the UK coal-based electricity-production and concrete/cement industries, investigating potential impacts that may follow the increased use of low-carbon fuels (biomass and solid recovered fuels; SRF) in the former. We explore synergies and trade-offs in value across domains and regions, e.g. how changes in carbon emissions in one part of the system may affect mortality elsewhere. This highlights the advantages of recognising complex system dynamics and making high-level inferences of their effects, even when rigorous analysis is not possible. We also indicate how changes in social, environmental and economic ‘values’ can be understood as being driven by changes in the technical value of resources. Our work thus emphasises the advantages of building fully integrated models to inform conventional sustainability assessments, rather than applying hybrid approaches that integrate outputs from parallel models. The approach we present demonstrates that this is feasible and lays the foundations for such an integrated model.
Full-text available
Features: - Continues to serve as the only book on material flow analysis (MFA) - Updates information concerning MFA/SFA development - Includes software STAN and links to STAN2WEB - Contains new case studies about resource management and waste management - Provides a fresh, data-based treatment of uncertainty Summary: Since the first issue of the handbook was published in October 2003, the field of material flow analysis (MFA) has developed rapidly, including hundreds of MFA studies all over the globe. MFA methodology has become a widely used technique in environmental management, resources management, and waste management. Today, most MFA done on a global basis uses the MFA methodology described in this handbook, because the methodology offers a concise, transparent, reproducible, and well-accepted framework for performing MFAs and substance flow analyses (SFAs).
Full-text available
Reliable national data on waste generation and composition that will inform effective planning on waste management in Ghana is absent. To help obtain this data on a regional basis, selected households in each region were recruited to obtain data on rate of waste generation, physical composition of waste, sorting and separation efficiency and per capita of waste. Results show that rate of waste generation in Ghana was 0.47kg/person/day, which translates into about 12,710tons of waste per day per the current population of 27,043,093. Nationally, biodegradable waste (organics and papers) was 0.318kg/person/day and non-biodegradable or recyclables (metals, glass, textiles, leather and rubbers) was 0.096kg/person/day. Inert and miscellaneous waste was 0.055kg/person/day. The average household waste generation rate among the metropolitan cities, except Tamale, was high, 0.72kg/person/day. Metropolises generated higher waste (average 0.63kg/person/day) than the municipalities (0.40kg/person/day) and the least in the districts (0.28kg/person/day) which are less developed. The waste generation rate also varied across geographical locations, the coastal and forest zones generated higher waste than the northern savanna zone. Waste composition was 61% organics, 14% plastics, 6% inert, 5% miscellaneous, 5% paper, 3% metals, 3% glass, 1% leather and rubber, and 1% textiles. However, organics and plastics, the two major fractions of the household waste varied considerably across the geographical areas. In the coastal zone, the organic waste fraction was highest but decreased through the forest zone towards the northern savanna. However, through the same zones towards the north, plastic waste rather increased in percentage fraction. Households did separate their waste effectively averaging 80%. However, in terms of separating into the bin marked biodegradables, 84% effectiveness was obtained whiles 76% effectiveness for sorting into the bin labeled other waste was achieved.
Waste management is still a serious issue in developing countries including Indonesia. Various policies have been initiated to address the problem. Indonesia has a target called “Waste-free Indonesia 2020”. The implementation of recycling through waste bank programs is one of the policies attempted. Medan is one of the big cities in Indonesia that is currently working on improving its solid waste management system. This study aims to obtain data on the quantity and composition of household waste (HW) generated in Medan City and to ascertain their statistical relationship with geographic location and level of income. The composition of the waste influences its recycling potential when handled in a solid waste bank. A total of 424 households were selected from 8 different sub-districts. The waste generation is 0.222 kg/person/day. Of the total weight, organic waste formed the largest fraction at 61.35%, followed by plastic waste at 17.55%, paper at 8.20%, and other materials. The amount of HW generated in each geographic location was different, but it has no significant difference within the different income level. Based on the data obtained, as much as 90.05% could be recycled or composted through the solid waste bank.
When a waste management system (WMS) has been evaluated and rated ineffective, there is an impetus to decide on sound corrective action. Intervention actions often take the form of new policies, programs, or new capital-intensive projects which may have far-reaching implications on the welfare of societies. For this reason, decision-making around these intervention actions must make use of tools designed to handle complex problems involving multiple and often conflicting criteria, for example, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). In this paper, material flow analysis (MFA) is presented as a support tool prior to a full MCDA. In the approach proposed, MFA plays the critical role in evaluating the effectiveness of a WMS and assessing the degree of improvement the proposed solutions may provide. A case study based on a practical situation in Zimbabwe is used to illustrate this relationship between MFA and MCDA. Data for the MFA were obtained from both literature and field measurements. A number of techniques were applied in the subsequent analyses, including scenario modeling. The evaluation concluded the case area’s WMS to be weak, and revealed that a new policy aiming at revising the MSW recycling target to at least 19%, promoting organic waste composting at-source, and setting up a medium-scale anaerobic digestion plant represent the set of intervention actions that bring optimal benefits to the WMS from both a technical perspective and in view of the decision-makers’ preference. The study demonstrates the value that MFA can add to waste management decision-making where multi-criteria analysis is involved.
The generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is related to various features of urbanization. In this study, a linear regression model was used to evaluate the effects of several urbanization indicators on the composition of MSW. Household population (P), area of urban planning (L), tap water penetration (W), electricity sold (El), number of operating factories (I), car density (T), education level (Ed), and annual revenue (R) were chosen as important indicators of urbanization. The five major categories of MSW-paper, food waste, plastic, metal, and glass-were also chosen for specific analysis, and MSW composition was found to be closely related to household population (P) (r2 > 0.8). The volume of one category of waste, food waste, was related to the industrialization indicator (r2 > 0.9). The total volume of MSW and the total volume of metal waste were linked with household population divided by tap water penetration (P/W) (r2 = 0.9903), and with annual revenue divided by tap water penetration (R/W) (r2 = 0.9364). The volume of plastic waste and glass waste generated, respectively, was related to annual revenue divided by education level (R/Ed) (r2 = 0.9814 vs. r2 = 0.9371). In addition, a case study of Taipei City indicated that MSW disposal fees should reflect not only household population (P) but also tap water penetration (W). This study provides valuable findings quantifying the effects of urbanization on MSW composition. The results will help governments and enterprises to efficiently evaluate and predict variation in MSW composition with reference to indicators of urbanization, thereby improving the management of waste.
In Jakarta, Indonesia, municipalities collect plastic mixed with other waste, scavengers recover plastic waste by picking through waste, and some citizens recover plastic at community-based waste management centers called waste banks. The fact that each stakeholder operates separately means that the actual amount of plastic recycled in Jakarta is not well-known. This research evaluated the amount of plastic recovered at the source, identified the amount of plastic waste recycled using a material flow analysis (MFA), and proposed alternative solutions to improve plastic waste management in Jakarta. Through interviews, the amount of plastic waste recovered was determined; each scavenger recovers 239 kg/month and each waste bank recovers 260 kg/month. Through the MFA, the rate of plastic recycled was identified as 24%, leaving 76% of plastic waste in landfills or in the environment. There are several actions that can be taken to promote higher recycling rates in Jakarta: conducting separation at source; integrating scavenger activity with waste bank and municipality collection; providing a material recovery facility at final disposal sites using sorting technology to recover plastics; and using alternative technology such as chemical recycling or thermal treatment to treat plastic waste that is not readily recycled through mechanical recycling.
Since the economic reform, China has actively participated in the global market with rapid industrialization and gradually dominated the utilization and consumption of some critical materials, one of which is copper. China has reigned the global anthropogenic cycle of copper since 2004. We explore copper flows along with the international trade of China during 1975–2015, through life cycle lens, from ore to final products. Our main finding is that China has become more active in the copper-related trade, indicated by its great increase in trade volume and the number of trade partners. The physical volume of copper flows through trade increased over 119 times between 1975 and 2015, mainly because of more imported raw materials of copper and exported copper products. Generally, China is a net importer of copper, with increasing import dependence through the study period, whereas the degree of dependence slightly decreased from 2010 to 2015. The indicator of Export Support Rate took a decreasing percentage, which has fallen about 35% since 2010. It suggests China's changing position in the global resource and manufacturing market. In terms of trade price of different copper products, the price of imported copper concentrate was noticeably higher than that of exported one, revealing the poor copper resource endowment of China; while the different trend of copper semis in recent years signifies that China is in urgent need to improve its capability of producing high value-added semis. From international trade perspective, the copper resource of China presented stable supply as well as demand. The One Belt One Road strategy proposed by the state will further expand both the resource and market of copper.