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Abstract

A study of waste material flow was carried out in Bali Province to define, evaluate, and analyse the existing condition of waste management as a reference for improving solid waste services. In this paper, waste quantity in every chain of waste management was measured. Waste sampling, observation, and interviews were also conducted to build the material flow model. Around 4.2 million residents and 4.9 million tourists yearly generate waste of up to 822,555 tonnes/year, which is dominated by organic waste for around 65% ww (wet weight) and plastic waste for around 15.67% ww. Around 200,718 tonnes/year (24.40% ww) of waste is transported directly to the landfills and 235,418 tonnes/year (28.62% ww) is collected first at the transfer depos, before being transported to the landfill. As much as 39,566 tonnes/year (4.81% ww) of waste enters the 3R-Transfer Depo for recycling and around 47,030 tonnes/year (5.72% ww) enter the waste bank. Furthermore, due to the lack of integrated waste management, around 283,369 tonnes/year (34.45% ww) waste is illegally dumped into the environment. In the end, up to 444,679 tonnes/year (54.06% ww) of waste is processed in ten landfills which serve Bali Province.
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Journal of Material Cycles and Waste
Management
Official Journal of the Japan Society of
Material Cycles and Waste Management
(JSMCWM) and the Korea Society of
Waste Management (KSWM)
ISSN 1438-4957
Volume 22
Number 2
J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2020)
22:405-415
DOI 10.1007/s10163-020-00989-5
Municipal solid waste material flow in Bali
Province, Indonesia
I Made Wahyu Widyarsana, Enri
Damanhuri & Elprida Agustina
1 23
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Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-020-00989-5
SPECIAL FEATURE: REGIONAL CASE STUDY
Municipal solid waste material ow inBali Province, Indonesia
IMadeWahyuWidyarsana1· EnriDamanhuri1· ElpridaAgustina1
Received: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2020 / Published online: 12 February 2020
© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2020
Abstract
A study of waste material flow was carried out in Bali Province to define, evaluate, and analyse the existing condition of
waste management as a reference for improving solid waste services. In this paper, waste quantity in every chain of waste
management was measured. Waste sampling, observation, and interviews were also conducted to build the material flow
model. Around 4.2 million residents and 4.9 million tourists yearly generate waste of up to 822,555 tonnes/year, which is
dominated by organic waste for around 65% ww (wet weight) and plastic waste for around 15.67% ww. Around 200,718
tonnes/year (24.40% ww) of waste is transported directly to the landfills and 235,418 tonnes/year (28.62% ww) is collected
first at the transfer depos, before being transported to the landfill. As much as 39,566 tonnes/year (4.81% ww) of waste enters
the 3R-Transfer Depo for recycling and around 47,030 tonnes/year (5.72% ww) enter the waste bank. Furthermore, due to the
lack of integrated waste management, around 283,369 tonnes/year (34.45% ww) waste is illegally dumped into the environ-
ment. In the end, up to 444,679 tonnes/year (54.06% ww) of waste is processed in ten landfills which serve Bali Province.
Keywords Solid waste management· Bali Province· Material flow
Introduction
Many developing Asian countries, including Indonesia, are
rapidly expanding their economies [1]. Through abundant
tourism economy opportunities, Bali Province in Indonesia
offers numerous jobs which attract many people to move to
Bali, which made the rate of urbanisation in Bali Province
to keep increasing [2]. This dynamic of change is extremely
delicate and will be an effect on waste generation [3].
The situation alters waste generation and the characteris-
tics of the produced waste, which create new challenges in
waste management [4]. The difficulty that often occurs, in
developing countries, is the fragility of the waste manage-
ment system, lack of financial resources, and limited par-
ticipation of residents [5]. Bali Province is not exempt from
these problems. The need for proper waste management is
also one of the objectives of Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs) which aim to provide universal access for sufficient,
secure, and affordable waste management, as well as reduc-
ing uncontrollable waste disposal and incineration [6].
Waste management policy needs to be prepared to
respond to specific activities in an area according to its char-
acteristics. An analytic hierarchy process was conducted by
Okumura in 2014 at Southeast and East Asian countries and
the results confirm the trend of waste management policy
development correlated with economic growth. Just like in
the Province of Bali where expanding the economies was
driven by the tourism sector, the management policy devel-
opment needs to be prepared based on basic data that can
describe the existing conditions of waste due to the activities
of local residents and also tourists.
Regional autonomy in Indonesia causes waste manage-
ment data not to be collected properly and cause policy
making not effective. From the preliminary studies, it was
confirmed that all cities and regencies in Bali Province are
not well coordinated so that the existing waste quantities,
compositions, and waste management chains are confus-
ing. In 2019, there is a Province Regulation regarding the
prohibition of the single-use plastics, but the effectiveness
of the policy cannot be evaluated because of the unavail-
ability of actual data on waste matters. Also for the Indo-
nesian National Policy and Strategy 2019, by the end of
5th 3R International Scientic Conference (5th 3RINCs 2019)
* Elprida Agustina
elpridaagustina@gmail.com
1 Faculty ofCivil andEnvironmental Engineering, Bandung
Institute ofTechnology, Bandung, Indonesia
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406 Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
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2025, waste in Bali Province must be reduced by 30%. The
lack of analysis of the actual waste management condi-
tion makes it difficult for policy makers to determine the
direction of their policies. The waste management existing
condition is needed to define, evaluate, and analyse, so it
can be baseline data for improving solid waste services.
Material Flow Analysis (MFA) is one of the well-
known methodologies to quantify resource flows and
their implications on environments [7] and is used to
investigate the flow, and stock, from its source, or as an
environmental contaminant in the applied system [5, 8,
9]. MFA is usually utilised in waste flow track analysis,
which could be applied as a database of waste management
development and as a reference for decision making [10].
Through MFA, planned waste management is expected to
be useful in solving ensuing problems by making use of
the opportunities and advantages, as well as overcoming
weaknesses, and preventing threats which might happen to
the system. MFA can also be used to analyse the potential
of waste management to determine the potential to reduce,
reuse, and recycle waste. Therefore, the MFA is used in
determining the development of waste management which
could be applied effectively, based on the actual waste
management in Bali Province.
Municipal solid waste management inBali Province
Bali Province area is 563,300 Ha and located between Java
Island and Lombok Island in Indonesia. Bali Province is
comprised of one big island and three small islands which
consists of nine city/regencies. The total population of Bali
province in 2018 is 4.2 million, and around 4.9 million tour-
ists in a year, from around the world, come to visit Bali
Province [2]. Location of Bali Province can be seen in Fig.1.
Most waste management activity in Bali still uses the old
paradigm, which is waste collecting–transporting–dispos-
ing. Landfilling is the most relied upon waste management
method in Bali Province. Bali Province has ten landfills
which serve nine city/regencies:
Temesi landfill located in Gianyar regency;
Bangli regional landfill located in Bangli regency;
Linggasana landfill located in Karangasem regency;
Suwung regional landfill located in Denpasar city;
Bengkala landfill located in Buleleng regency;
Mandung landfill located in Tabanan regency;
Peh landfill located in Jembrana regency;
Sente landfill located in mainland Klungkung, regency;
Jungut Batu landfill located in Nusa Lembongan Island
of Klungkung regency; and
Fig. 1 Bali Province location, Indonesia. Source: BIG Indonesia, 2017
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Biaung landfill located in Nusa Penida Island of Klung-
kung regency.
Materials andmethods
Various activities were conducted to collect data in this
research, such as primary and secondary data collection. In
the following sections, the methodologies for the quantifica-
tion of material flow are explained.
Scope andsystem boundaries
In this study, the simplest form of MFA was used and only
the material mass flow was studied. The temporal limit is
in the year 2018, and spatial limits are in Bali Province.
Secondary data collection and interviews were conducted
in March 2018, while measurements in Bali Province were
carried out in July 2018.
Data collection methods
Data collection methods conducted in this study were as
follows:
a. Interviews were conducted with the Regional Govern-
ment, Environmental Services, informal and formal sec-
tors to define the waste services conditions, the quantity
of each waste facility, and the waste data record in the
landfill.
b. Interviews with the residents were conducted with 400
respondents spread around Bali province, with an error
percentage of 5%, following the Yamane sampling equa-
tion [11]. The interviews were based on a questionnaire
and the analysis was done by descriptive analysis to get
the waste handling information from the source and in
several waste reduction facilities such as the waste bank,
3R-Transfer Depo, transfer depo, first, intermediate and
end informal collectors, and end-collectors (formal sec-
tor), in nine cities/regencies.
c. Direct measurement was conducted with 200 households
by the stratified random sampling method, and 162 non-
household samples, consisting of educational facilities,
health facilities, tourism facilities, offices, temples, and
shops.
Waste material ow calculation
The flow of waste was analysed for the existing in, out, and
waste stock, in the whole chain of waste management in Bali
Province. The calculation was performed by counting the
waste in every chain of waste and the result of the subtrac-
tion of unmanaged waste or waste illegally disposed to the
environment. The calculation was done for each city/regency
first and then all collated.
a. Waste generation at the source: Waste sampling was
conducted by direct sampling, which was in line with
the standard of waste generation measuring in the Indo-
nesia National Standard as written in SNI 19-3964-1994
regarding the method of obtaining and measuring waste
generation and its composition. If in the developed
countries, the amount of waste generation is obtained
from the waste data record in landfill, in the developing
countries, there are some constraints as the scarcity of
landfills equipped with truck scales and not all waste are
being transported to the landfills. The SNI method is by
distributing trashbag to the waste sources and weigh-
ing the waste generation for eightconsecutive days. The
numbers, for each unit, were obtained from interview
data, also from data statistics for each city/regency in
Bali Province. Calculation of waste generation, at the
source, was carried out in accordance with equation:
Waste composition is divided into ten types. These are
food waste, wood and leaves, paper, plastic, metal, cloth
and textile, rubber, glass, hazardous waste, and others
waste. Waste composition percentage was calculated by
divided the weight of waste per type to the total waste
weight
b. Door-to-door or direct waste transported to the landfill
was identified from the number of trucks and each rita-
tion, which were owned by the city/ regencies:
c. Waste in a transfer depo was identified by the direct
measurement of the container capacity from six transfer
depos from each city/regency. Waste reduction activi-
ties, by informal collectors and waste crews, were also
identified by interview:
d. Waste in facilities was measured by obtaining a facility
sample and the waste record held by the facility, the
(1)
Waste generation
=
Waste generation rate
×Number of units.
(2)
Waste composition
=
Waste weight per composition
Total waste sample weight
×100% .
(3)
Direct waste transported
=(Truck Qty x ×Ritation ×Truck density).
(4)
Waste in transfer depot
=(Transfer depot Qty ×capacity
)
Waste reduction.
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408 Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
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frequency of waste sale, and also the residue and its
handling through an in-depth interview with the facil-
ity officer. Performance indicators of the facilities were
identified by calculating the effectiveness of the facilities
between the residues and the waste entering the facil-
ity. The same calculation was also conducted for the
3R-Transfer Depo, the waste bank, intermediate informal
collectors, and end-collectors:
The number for each facility was obtained by conduct-
ing interviews with the city/regencies and other stake-
holders:
Waste residue handling was identified by conducting
interviews and giving respondents the opportunity to
provide an answer of the proportion of residue trans-
ported to landfills and of that disposed of into the envi-
ronment:
e. Waste quantity entered into landfill was determined
using the inventory record of waste which entered the
landfill which provided by the local government. Every
waste, accommodated by landfill, was then recorded and
added up.
f. Illegal waste dumping was identified by conducting a
calculation of the equilibrium mass in which waste input
into the system must be equal with the waste output:
The flow of waste material was determined by investigat-
ing the waste from the source level, either household or non-
household, that in a waste bank, a temporary transfer depo
and the 3R-Transfer Depo, until being transported to landfill
to be processed. After all the data were obtained, analysis
and data processing were conducted at every stage of waste
management in each city/regency to build the MFA.
(5)
=100%
Residue
×100%
(6)
Waste recovered
=
Performance indicator
×
Waste input.
(7)
Total waste
=
Waste in recycling facility
×
Amount of facility.
(8)
Waste residue handling
=
Handling proportion
×Residue .
(9)
Unmanaged waste
Table 1 Waste database
Jembrana Karangasem Bangle Klungkung Buleleng Gianyar Tabanan Denspasar Badung RECAP
Quantity of transfer depo 72 163 77 20 40 46 92 20 25 555 Transfer depo
Quantity of 3R-Transfer Depo 2 7 1 4 3 1 8 6 22 54 3R-Transfer depo
Quantity of waste bank 29 5 1 7 6 29 41 50 300 468 Waste bank
Quantity of first intermediate informal collector 29 10 30 14 40 22 50 100 30 325 Int inf collector
Quantity of intermediate informal collector 8 5 2 4 18 4 10 100 10 161 Inf collector
Quantity of end-collector 1 1 5 3 10 3R Formal
Scavengers in landfill 15 25 20 38 102 50 15 219 484 Person
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Result
Interviews regarding waste services condition and the quan-
tity of each waste facility were carried out to obtain the total
quantity of waste accommodated by each waste handling
facility. The results of the interview are summarized in a
database table. The database can be seen in Table1.
Waste management is intended to deal with health, envi-
ronmental, aesthetic, land use, resources and economic
aspects related to the mistreatment of waste [12]. The exist-
ing condition of the waste management is tried to define
by material flow analysis as a reference to improving solid
waste services to deal with related aspects previously men-
tioned. The principal of material flow calculation, for every
stage of the cycle, is that the total current input must be the
same as the total current output [13].
The material flow model was built by identifying the
waste management system first. The calculation was con-
ducted by creating a waste management flow system based
on the quantity of waste at the source, in each facility, and
in landfills. The unit in the calculation of this waste material
flow is tonne/year, to negate the stock or storage concept in
the MFA. Even though there are storage facilities in Indone-
sia, these conditions only last for 2–3days, and after that, a
balance occurs so that the total waste is the sum of the out-
put, the rejected waste, and the recovered waste. The waste
material flow of the Bali Province can be seen in Fig.2.
Waste inthesource
The waste, referred to in this study, is the result from both
household and non-household activities. The total waste
generated in Bali Province is calculated by multiplying
the waste generation from each source with the number of
Fig. 2 Waste material flow in Bali Province
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410 Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
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collectors, based on the units. The amount of waste from
household and non-household activities can be seen in
Table2.
Waste generation in Bali Province is dominated by house-
hold waste, for as much as 61.72%. Nevertheless, some
research has indicated that, in general, waste generation
of developing countries is dominated by household waste
(55–80%) [14]. Waste generation and its percentage are
shown in Fig.3.
Denpasar City, as the capital of the province with the
highest population and being the centre of government activ-
ities in Bali Province, contributes the largest waste genera-
tion with 32.86% ww. Denpasar is also the centre of provin-
cial government and filled with spending and other tourism
activities in the Sanur area, one of the main destinations in
Bali Province. In addition, Denpasar is also the centre of
settlements and companies.
The second biggest waste generator is the Badung
Regency, with 17.36% ww. It is the centre of the tourism
area in Bali Province which covers several famous tourist
destinations such as Seminyak Village, Nusa Dua, and Kuta
Beach. Badung Regency is also the wealthiest district in Bali
Province with a fairly consumptive lifestyle.
Waste per capita in Bali Province is 0.54kg/person/day.
On the other hand, Malta Island, an island-shaped tourism
area, produces an average waste of 481kg/per capita/year
[15, 16] or around 1.32kg/per capita/day. With the more
significant household waste contribution, it can be observed
that waste from local communities in Bali is still relatively
low because of lifestyle differences between Bali Province,
which is located in a developing country, and Malta from
the developed country.
Waste composition of Bali Province at the source, con-
sisted not only in household waste but also in waste from
non-household sources. The waste composition was divided
into ten types, which were food waste, wood waste, paper
waste, plastic waste, metal waste, cloth and textile waste,
leather/ rubber waste, glass waste, hazardous waste, and
others. Waste is dominated by organic waste that consists
of 45.30% food waste, 19.70% wood and leaves waste, and
with 15.7% ww plastic waste. The waste composition at the
source can be seen in Fig.4.
Household waste in Bali is 0.33kg/person/day while
based on 424 households samples selected from eight dif-
ferent sub-districts, Khair etal. [17] found that the average
of waste generation in Medan was 0.22kg/person/day [17].
The rate of household waste generation in the province of
Bali is already quite high. Waste in Medan is dominated
by 61.35% organic waste, almost like the Province of Bali
which is 65%.
Table 2 Waste generation
Jembrana Karangasem Bangle Klungkung Buleleng Gianyar Tabanan Denspasar Badung RECAP
Population 274,900 412,800 225,462 231,462 653,600 53,900 441,000 914,300 526,010 4,183,072 person
Household waste generation rate 0.31 0.30 0.25 0.37 0.39 0.28 0.32 0.32 0.40 0.33kg/person/day
Household waste generation 85,219 123,840 56,275, 84,484 254,904 142,122 142,590 292,576 208,826 1,390,835kg/day
Non-household waste generation 41,681 30,960 27,012 4205 55,377 38,278 34,810 448,004 182,414 862,742kg/day
Total MSW generation 126,900 154,800 83,287 88,689 310,281 180,400 177,400 740,580 391,240 2,253,577kg/day
MSW generation rate 0.46 0.38 0.37 0.38 0.47 0.36 0.40 0.81 0.74 0.54kg/cap/day
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Waste transportation service
Waste transportation in Bali is comprised of three stakehold-
ers which are the local government, the private sector, and
the informal sector who sort out the waste with economic
value to be resold or recycled. The demand to improve waste
management services could encourage the government to
offer it to the private sector [18]. Waste transportation ser-
vices, within this scope, are mentioned in units of percent.
The calculation is done by dividing the amount of waste
transported (Eq.3) by the total waste at the source (Eq.1).
In this section, all the waste transported to landfills was cal-
culated from either direct (door-to-door) or indirect (from
transfer depo first) transportation. The highest percentage
Fig. 3 Waste generation per
city/regencies in Bali Province
Fig. 4 Waste composition percentage at the source
Fig. 5 Direct waste transporting service percentage
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412 Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
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of waste service was in Denpasar City, as the capital of
Bali Province, with 83.5% ww and followed by the Gianyar
Regency with 55.4% ww. Meanwhile, the lowest percentage
of waste service was in the Jembrana Regency with 22.9%
ww. The average waste transporting services in Bali Prov-
ince is around 53%. Waste transporting service by the local
government in each city/regency can be seen in Fig.5.
Waste intransfer depo
The form of the transfer depos in Bali Province is domi-
nated by 6 m3 containers, except in Denpasar City which
has building structures with a capacity of 150 m3. In the
transfer depo, there are activities from the informal sec-
tor where scavengers and waste crew search for re-sellable
plastic, paper, and metal in particular. Waste with economic
value, which gathered from each depo, is around 10–50kg.
The collected waste is then sold to the first intermediate
informal collectors.
Waste inthe3R‑Transfer Depo
3R-Transfer Depo is a waste reduction facility in which
there are various waste processing and valuable waste re-
selling activities. 3R-Transfer Depos are managed by the
local government. On average, 1900kg/day of mixed waste
is gathered by each 3R-Transfer Depo. There are compost-
ing and valuable waste re-selling activities in this facility.
The residue from the entire process is around 65%, of which
around 90% is transported to the landfill, and the other 10%
is illegally dumped in the environment.
Waste inthewaste bank
The waste bank in Indonesia is developed and managed by
local community. Based on the interviews with several offic-
ers of the waste bank in Bali Province, the most received
type of waste, in this facility, was plastic waste such as bot-
tles or cups and also paper. Around 500kg/day of waste is
gathered by each waste bank. Waste is then sold to informal
collectors without changing its original form or having any
extra processing. The service of the waste bank, identified
in Bali Province, was conducted in two ways, which are
directly visiting the closest waste bank or by a bank officer
who visits each house as a part of the service. The waste
managed in the 3R-Transfer Depo and the waste bank were
determined by multiplying the average of the handled waste
in each chain with the number of facilities in each city/
regency in Bali Province. The plastic and paper waste then
sold to the first intermediate informal collectors.
Waste recovery bytheinformal collector
The role of the informal sector in solid waste recycling and
the need of an integration system towards an inclusive soci-
ety have been described in detail [19]. Recyclable waste col-
lected by the first intermediate informal collector is domi-
nated by plastic waste from landfills, transfer depo, waste
bank, and the 3R-Transfer Depo and being sold to the larger
informal collectors spread around Bali Province. In a day,
these first intermediate informal collectors could receive on
average 900kg/day and the larger informal collectors could
receive around 2000kg/day. Re-sellable waste is being sold
later to the end-collector to be processed into raw materials
(flake or pellet) which is then sold on to the recycler. The
residue from this facility is assumed around 15% which is
mostly improperly dumped in the environment.
Waste recovery intheformal sector
There are ten end-collectors (formal sector) identified in
Bali Province. The waste is dominated by plastic which
is shipped to East Java Province, such to Banyuwangi city
and Surabaya city as a clean plastic. The processing which
includes washing, cleaning, and chopping produces around
20% residue, which is improperly dumped in the environ-
ment. One of the biggest end-collectors is Bali-PET which
accepts only PET plastic waste. These end-collectors can
be seen in Fig.6.
Waste inlandll
Waste in the landfill is the result of waste transporta-
tion added to the residue of waste management from the
3R-Transfer depo. Ten landfills in Bali Province also accom-
modate waste from nine city/regencies in Bali Province.
Fig. 6 Waste management in the end-collector sector
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This waste is entirely processed by open dumping practice.
Another waste-processing facility on offer is a waste-com-
posting process. These are located at Temesi landfill, Man-
dung landfill, and in Sente landfill.
Based on observation in all landfills in Bali Province, it
can be seen that there were activities from the informal sec-
tor who collect waste to be resold. These activities is done
by groups of people from the informal sector. Waste was
reduced by around 484 scavengers who can collect around
83kg/day. The collected valuable waste was later sold to the
first intermediate informal collectors. Average of old waste
composition percentage in landfills can be seen in Fig.7.
Unmanaged waste
Unmanaged waste is waste dumping on the open land, waste
disposed to the water bodies, and waste burning are the prac-
tical of improper waste handling. These unmanaged waste
products have become a stock in the environment in various
quantities and locations. In Tabanan Regency, for example,
large-scale waste disposal was identified in a hilly area with a
closing a ravine method. This unmanaged waste is a result of
the inadequacy of waste transportation and the lack of waste
reduction facilities, especially in rural areas which are away
from the city. Aside from rural areas, dwellings located in
small alleys do not receive efficient service due to non-exist-
ent efficient waste-collecting services. To get an overview of
waste management at the source, analysis of the results of the
questionnaire with descriptive analysis was carried out. Waste
handling percentage in households based on interviews can be
seen in Fig.8.
Discussion
Based on the material flow in Fig.2, as much as 54.06%
ww or 444,679 tonnes/year of waste was processed in the
landfill. Waste in landfills has been reduced by 14,603
tonnes/year or 1217 tonnes/month due to waste reduction
from scavenger activities. Waste collected by scavenger
is dominated by plastics. In Jakarta landfill, Putri etal.
[20] found that plastic waste recovery by each scavenger
was 239kg/month. The amount of waste reduction in Bali
Province landfills is quite large due to the large number of
landfills and fairly regular conditions compared to landfills
in Jakarta.[20]
Besides, it can be seen that the largest waste manage-
ment in the system is accounted for by indirect waste trans-
portation, the waste transported from transfer depo, which
is equal to 235,418 tonnes/year or 28.62% ww. Waste col-
lection to the transfer depo was conducted directly by local
communities or indirectly by waste collection services
from the local government. Waste is stored at the transfer
depo before being transported to landfills by the waste
trucks. The waste transported directly to the landfill is the
second biggest percentage with 24.40% ww or 200,718
tonnes/day. The lack of door-to-door waste transporta-
tion service is caused by the limitations of the transport
equipment.
From the material flow, it can be seen that the con-
dition of waste is unwell managed. This is indicated by
the amount of the unmanaged waste, as much as 34.45%
or around 283,369 tonnes/year, which is disposed of
improperly in the environment by open land burial, ille-
gally dumped in water bodies, and dumped on empty lands
(Fig.8). With land limitation in Bali Province, and the
Fig. 7 Average waste composition percentage in Landfills
Fig. 8 Waste handling at the source
Author's personal copy
414 Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management (2020) 22:405–415
1 3
high cost of land, the landfill is deemed as a poor final pro-
cessing site, due to the ever-growing need, yet this is hin-
dered by land availability. This situation has increased the
possibility of waste being disposed of in the environment.
Waste bank and the 3R-Transfer Depo are the keys to
waste reduction in Bali Province. The Waste Bank contrib-
utes to reducing waste by 5.72% and the 3R TPS by 4.81%.
This amount is still small to be able to reduce waste that
is illegally discharged into the environment. In Indonesia,
the waste bank scheme is considered as one of the appro-
priate approaches to improve it. Based on socio-economic
evaluation by surveying 609 inhabitants, Ulhasanah etal.
concluded that the waste bank in Padang (West Sumetera,
Indonesia) has not been effective as evidenced by the low
percentage of waste that can be processed [21]. Actually
waste separation is a basic approach to increasing the rate
of waste recycling.
Waste management technology, recycling efforts at the
source, and waste reduction must be the primary attention
of the government in waste management of Bali Province.
Availability of waste management technology and high
participation of locals in waste reduction would be the
best solution for waste management in tourism areas. Jika
pemilahan berjalan baik, as much as 65% of ww organic
waste was able to be processed, individually or commu-
nally, so there was no decomposition and contamination
from other waste which still had economic value. Thus,
the valuable waste can be realised. Waste sorting also indi-
cated by the considerable amount of garbage that can be
recovered. In Fig.3, as much as 27.37% that consist of
paper waste, plastic waste, metal, cloth and textile, and
glass can be resold. There is a big potential for recycling
if waste sorting, and on-site processing, could be applied.
If waste reduction processes could be applied to these
recyclable wastes, then waste reduction would be easier
and the amount of waste in landfills would be reduced on
a large scale. Existing waste reduction is 11.49% or 94.506
tonnes/year. That is, to achieve waste reduction by the end
of 2025, a reduction of at least 3% must be done annu-
ally. One strategy that can continue to be developed is the
enforcement of regulations on the use of single-use plastic
and other policies such as limiting styrofoam, organizing
environmentally friendly events, and implementing eco-
life styles in offices and other non-household facilities.
Conclusion
The increasing activities in Bali Province caused by tour-
ism activities and urbanisation leads to a waste genera-
tion increase. Limitation of waste management and land
availability have become an obstacle to target fulfilment of
SDG and National Strategy and Policy. To define, evaluate,
and analyse the existing condition of waste management in
Bali Province, an MFA was conducted. The waste material
analysis was conducted by obtaining sampling on site, or
by obtaining secondary data from the entire waste man-
agement system, As much as 2253 tonnes/day or 822,555
tonnes/year waste was generated and around 54.06% or
444,679 tonnes/year waste was processed in ten landfills in
Bali Province. As much as 34.45% or 283,369 tonnes/year
of waste was disposed of illegally into the environment.
As seen from the composition of the source material, there
was a high waste reduction potential, which was 27.37%,
that consists of paper, plastic, metal, clothing and textile,
rubber, and glass.
Acknowledgements This research is funded by Research, Community
Service, and Innovation Program (P3MI 2018)–ITB.
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In Jakarta, Indonesia, municipalities collect plastic mixed with other waste, scavengers recover plastic waste by picking through waste, and some citizens recover plastic at community-based waste management centers called waste banks. The fact that each stakeholder operates separately means that the actual amount of plastic recycled in Jakarta is not well-known. This research evaluated the amount of plastic recovered at the source, identified the amount of plastic waste recycled using a material flow analysis (MFA), and proposed alternative solutions to improve plastic waste management in Jakarta. Through interviews, the amount of plastic waste recovered was determined; each scavenger recovers 239 kg/month and each waste bank recovers 260 kg/month. Through the MFA, the rate of plastic recycled was identified as 24%, leaving 76% of plastic waste in landfills or in the environment. There are several actions that can be taken to promote higher recycling rates in Jakarta: conducting separation at source; integrating scavenger activity with waste bank and municipality collection; providing a material recovery facility at final disposal sites using sorting technology to recover plastics; and using alternative technology such as chemical recycling or thermal treatment to treat plastic waste that is not readily recycled through mechanical recycling.
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Since the economic reform, China has actively participated in the global market with rapid industrialization and gradually dominated the utilization and consumption of some critical materials, one of which is copper. China has reigned the global anthropogenic cycle of copper since 2004. We explore copper flows along with the international trade of China during 1975–2015, through life cycle lens, from ore to final products. Our main finding is that China has become more active in the copper-related trade, indicated by its great increase in trade volume and the number of trade partners. The physical volume of copper flows through trade increased over 119 times between 1975 and 2015, mainly because of more imported raw materials of copper and exported copper products. Generally, China is a net importer of copper, with increasing import dependence through the study period, whereas the degree of dependence slightly decreased from 2010 to 2015. The indicator of Export Support Rate took a decreasing percentage, which has fallen about 35% since 2010. It suggests China's changing position in the global resource and manufacturing market. In terms of trade price of different copper products, the price of imported copper concentrate was noticeably higher than that of exported one, revealing the poor copper resource endowment of China; while the different trend of copper semis in recent years signifies that China is in urgent need to improve its capability of producing high value-added semis. From international trade perspective, the copper resource of China presented stable supply as well as demand. The One Belt One Road strategy proposed by the state will further expand both the resource and market of copper.