Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC) in a Multi-Level Governance System in Southeastern Europe Territories: How to Manage Territorial Governance Processes in Serbia-Romania Border Space

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Considering the actual panorama of a multi-level governance on EU, the macro-regional strategies - specifying the EU strategy for Danube region (EUSDR) fosters coordination across three dimensions: sector policies; different levels of governance from EU to regional or local, and across administrative boundaries. This chapter analyzes and assesses the ability, challenges, and obstacles of Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC) strategies, projects, and programs to improve integration and cohesion peripheral territories as is the case of the border region of Romania – Serbia, enabling articulating border areas and creating synergies among them. In this regard, it will be considered the latest findings on new insights towards spatial integration in border and transnational contexts. The chapter presents some hypothesis for a good-planned, long-term sustainability for this territory and lesson learned regarding the coordination and management of policies in the EU's system of multi-level governance that could have a wider application and scope.

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... The European Union (EU) has defined guidelines for sustainable transport infrastructure by adding an assessment of accessibility, socio-economic impacts, and regional cohesion in peripheral and ultra-peripheral regions [7][8][9]. Nevertheless, after analyzing the accessibility of mainland Portugal, the question arises whether this has given good results in overcoming the peripherality of some regions [16][17][18][19][20]. In this sense, this paper aims to explore the linkages between inner peripheries, ultra-peripherality concepts, and the concept of accessibility, from 1985 to 2020, in parallel with the analysis of some demographic trends in the same research period. ...
... The next step was to determine the absolute accessibility index I (IAAi) (see: [2][3][4][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]), as follows: ...
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The inner periphery European countries, as is the case of Portugal, are characterized by poor access to essential areas and services of general and social relations. Contextually, this paper aims to explore the linkages between inner peripheries, ultra-peripherality concepts, and the concept of accessibility from 1985 to 2020, in parallel with the analysis of some demographic trends in the same research period. Thus, the study deals with accessibility and the analysis of accessibility-related spatial distribution to represent the traditional core-periphery pattern, with the highest accessibility in the center of the mainland and west coastal area, and the lowest accessibility in remote regions. The results show that the distribution of the road infrastructure is not uniform in Portugal. Furthermore, the NUTS II regions of PT13 Lisboa e Vale do Tejo (the Lisbon region) and PT11 Norte (northern Portugal) have the greatest road per km 2. The Lisbon region has the highest concentration of national roads globally, while the northern region has the highest concentration of municipal roads. These two regions are, by far, the most densely populated, encompassing about ¾ of the national population and GDP.
... Las pólí ticas de cóhesió n de la UE llevadas a cabo por Bruselas han sido cruciales para el buen funcionamiento del proceso. Los programas de desarrollo regionales y de cóóperació n territorial se han aplicado en los paí ses vecinos de la UE mediante la Herramienta de la Asóciació n y del Buen Vecino, cófinanciadós por el Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo (Vulevic et al., 2020b). ...
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Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC) is at an all-time high. From this perspective, the need to identify decisive factors to attain territorial success in terms of a sustainable development of border areas and regions through CBC projects is vital, so that the quality of life of the resident populations can improve in turn. Contextually, the main goal of this work is to cast a retrospective look at Portuguese-Spanish Euro Cities, how they have grown and how relevant the common and sustainable development of the border regions is– in this case, the Spanish-Portuguese borderland. Thanks to the study, one can verify that Euro cities constitute a discussion tool and, in some cases, examples of success regarding the (re-)significance of borders. This study emphasizes the need to define a common project between the members of both sides of the border. The participation of the local population (citizen participation) is also regarded as a fundamental factor, among many others that must be considered in order to achieve the success of such projects. This piece of work presents a novelty for the literature in this field due to the fact that it brings to light how these second-generation CBC projects (Euro cities) have evolved and how they could be the way forward as well as the catalyst for sustainable territorial development in border regions.
... The EU cohesion policies carried out by Brussels have been crucial for the proper functioning of the process. The territorial development and cooperation programs have been implemented in neighboring EU countries through the Association and Good Neighbor Tool, co-financed by the European Development Fund (Martín 2014;Vulevic et al. 2020). ...
In Iberian Peninsula territories there are many common projects of Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC) in a form of Euro-cities agreements. Therefore , and considering the pursuit for more sustainable cities and societies, the green peri-urban surfaces located in those border territories could be use as tool to give an answer to those populations' environmental necessities. Contextually, the present study through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and methods as well as by the use of a Case Study Research Method (CSR), it was possible to quantify, analyze and assess the Green Urban Areas in all the Iberian Euro-cities. Moreover, the obtained land uses were analyzed considering several development parameters-as the demographic dynamics of those border populations. Furthermore, bearing in mind the Ecosystems providing services it was possible to define guidelines and strategies for this region's territorial development.
Border regions are very particular and intricate areas to understand deeply. Nevertheless, their governance is very delicate. In this sense, in recent decades, these borderlands' interactions and synergies have achieved unparalleled levels. This evidence is not only due to their vast potential for regional integration but additionally regarding their position in the international arena and consequent processes; i.e., infrastructure construction or planning projects on European territories are just a few examples. Nonetheless, practices of Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC) have expanded not just in European regions but all over the globe, enabling the development of a global network of connections linking people—perpetually seeking to produce mutually beneficial situations, the so-called “win–win-situations”. Contextually, the present study will be based on the findings of Castanho et al., in 2016 were fourteen critical factors for territorial success in CBC areas have been identified. Those findings will be further investigated to go deeper into the definitions of the above-mentioned fourteen critical factors to achieve such success in borderlands planning processes. So, this work intends to contribute with additional theoretical thematic knowledge regarding the border regions' dynamics and their planning, governance, and management and how Cross-Border Cooperation could be decisive for the achievement of sustainable development.KeywordsBorderlandsCross-Border Cooperation (CBC)Regional common planningStrategic planningSustainable development
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The current work aims to examine the efficient management of natural and cultural heritage resources for the sustainable development of cross-border tourism. Therefore, the authors of the chapter examine what measures should be taken to ensure that the cultural, natural, and residential space in the programme area can be used in a sustainable way in the long term. After a detailed analysis of the selected region, measures to protect and manage natural and cultural resources were considered. The research is expected to increase the expected number of visitors to supported natural and cultural heritage sites and supported monuments, to reduce resource consumption and pollution especially in tourist sites, and to combat the environmental impact of transport.
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The goal of this paper is to evaluate the current trends for the development of Polish-Czech cultural clusters in the Euroregion Cieszyn Silesia, based on the needs and capabilities of their potential participants. This paper contains recommendations in respect of actions conducive to the creation of clusters of this type, taking into account the expectations of their potential participants at both sides of the border, as well as objective factors. The proposals included in this paper constitute a voice in the discussion about the future shape and operating conditions, of the potential cross-border cultural clusters, which may be the next stage of development of territorial partnerships on the borders.
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Cross-border strategies have been flourishing over the last few decades in Europe, mostly in a favourable context where European funding is available and legal instruments are well-developed. However, one may wonder which objectives are really targeted within this very broad and imprecise notion of cross-border strategy. The purpose of this paper is, first, to provide a theoretical framework in order to better understand the different meanings of the notion of cross-border integration and to provide a more critical perspective on its effects. Secondly, it analyses the policy content of the cross-border territorial strategy developed within the Greater Region before, in the final section, pointing out the difficulties faced by policy-makers during its elaboration. This final section is based on the insights brought both by the regional stakeholders interviewed and by our expertise as moderators and scientific advisors within the working group in charge of the realisation of the cross-border territorial strategy. The main finding of our analysis is that the consensus that has been reached by all the stakeholders is the “smallest common denominator”; that is to say, the least constraining.
Conference Paper
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This year marks the 5th anniversary of the EU Strategy for the Danube Region (EUSDR) endorsed in 2011 by the European Council. The cooperation’s main goals are to better connect the region, protect the environment, build prosperity and strengthen institutional capacity and security. After five years of implementation, it is time to take stock of the current achievements and question the role the EUSDR for the Danube region. This process is closely related to the question which role macro-regional strategies can take over in the wider EU framework and how they can be better linked to Cohesion Policies and other territorial cooperation formats. The paper was discussed in detail by EUSDR stakeholders at a participatory workshop in Brussels on 13 October 2016. Read the consolidated version here:
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Since its foundation the European Union has gradually developed policies that are aimed at achieving increased economic and social cohesion. This book examines the most recent of these, the concept of territorial cohesion. Territorial cohesion is the pursuit of balanced development, competitiveness, sustainable development, and good governance. These concerns are most readily addressed by the formulation of spatial strategies under the umbrella of spatial planning, that brings together a multitude of public and private actors in a process that requires cohesion, coherence and co-operation. This book traces the development of spatial planning at European level and argues that spatial planning can become a vehicle, not only for territorial cohesion, but for EU policy generally.
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The 1990s witnessed a rapid rise of relational thinking in economic, urban and cultural geography. This trend accentuated the importance of networks and connections, and challenged the conceptualizations of region in which borders are taken for granted. Relational views have become particularly prominent in the context of strategic planning, especially in the European Union. Drawing on an analysis of 18 strategic regional plans prepared by Finnish Regional Councils and interviews of the planners responsible for compiling them, this article scrutinizes and problematizes the commensurability of open and bounded notions of regions both conceptually and in terms of concrete strategic regional planning. We argue that the rise of the relational approach in planning is a fitting example of policy transfer, and the embracing this thinking causes a ‘planning paradox’: in strategic planning, planners need to think increasingly in terms of open, porous borders despite the fact that in concrete planning activities, politics, and governance the region continues to exist largely in the form of bounded and territorial political units. We then extend the idea of the planning paradox onto the question of borders and argue that borders in planning could be better understood as ‘penumbral’ borders rather than porous, since they are not solely either ‘hard’ boundary lines or ‘fuzzy borderscapes’, but typically manifest themselves only in certain practices. More generally, our observations suggest that the relational character and possible ‘boundedness’ of regions is inevitably a phenomenon that is multilayered and complex as well as context- and practice-bound.
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In this paper we question the integration processes in three small cross-border metropolitan areas: Luxembourg, Basel, and Geneva. By referring to an original analysis framework, we evaluate the nature and intensity of the functional and institutional integration and highlight the elements that structure the cooperation between the actors. The analysis shows that there is not necessarily a reciprocal link between the size of the functional area and the extent of the cooperation. Whilst no metropolitan-sized organisation is on the agenda in Luxembourg, the example of Basel and Geneva shows that the presence of a national border offers an opportunity to invent original forms of governance, to increase the autonomy of the local authorities by different types of cooperation which transcend the institutional and territorial divides, and to promote the international character of the metropolitan centre. In a context of global competition, these features represent an undeniable benefit.
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This paper discusses cross-border regionalism within the supranational contexts of the European Union and the developing North American Free Trade Area. Focusing on planning and regional development issues, cross-border regionalism as a new form of governance is investigated, based on a comparison of supranational integration logics, co-operation frameworks and instruments and co-operation agendas and strategies. In both contexts, discrepancies between programmatic objectives and co-operation results are striking, eliciting questions as to the greater potential significance of cross-border regionalism. The paper argues that theories of political regulation and constructivist perspectives might help relate cross-border regionalism to broader economic political and cultural variables, explaining how regionalist agendas and strategies emerge, and how they are a response to local interests and aspirations and to external economic and political pressures.
In the last decade, European regional policy has faced considerable changes typified by the introduction of the failed place-based approach with the Barca Report. One of the most prominent changes in European territorial cooperation (ETC), supposedly reflecting this shift, is the development of macro-regions, the dynamic of which are only just beginning to influence policy-making. This paper aims to analyse contemporary styles of ETC under the place-based narrative by identifying characteristics of macro-regional cooperation. Drawing on empirical studies in the Danube, Alpine and North Sea regions, the paper shows that stakeholders’ primary rationale for getting involved is the opportunity for agenda-setting, and the intention to evoke changes in debates and in other stakeholders’ influence. The main argument the paper follows is that macro-regional experiences reveal a crucial dependence on relatively strong stakeholders. With the term ‘stakeholder-based’, the paper draws attention to the importance of stakeholder settings in these new forms of ETC. The paper concludes that conceptualizations of approaches to European regional policies would need to acknowledge the regional differences of stakeholder settings more explicitly, and highlights the need to better acknowledge the implications for political transparency and relative power in agenda-setting.
Cross-border cooperation to promote economic development and political integration has been among the EU’s key themes since the 1990s, and contemporary policy networks are considered useful organisational solutions. Focusing on transport policies in the border regions of Basel and Luxembourg, we analyse measures of persistency of national preferences among policy actors, mapping their perceived ‘policy spaces of action’ and conceptualising these policy spaces as relational. We discuss two empirical findings: The networks’ various actors on either side of the border appear to perceive the actual ‘policy spaces’ very differently. Therefore, and due to the networks’ terminability, these policy spaces are highly contested and frequently negotiated between the actors. Based on a combination of in-depth interviews, sketch maps, and social network analysis, we show that large spatiocultural differences still prevail among network actors, potentially impacting on the decisions taken in cross-border policy networks.
Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies develops important new relational and institutionalist approaches to policy analysis and planning, of relevance to all those with an interest in cities and urban areas. Well-illustrated chapters weave together conceptual development, experience and implications for future practice and address the challenge of urban and metropolitan planning and development. Useful for students, social scientists and policy makers, Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies offers concepts and detailed cases of interest to those involved in policy development and management, as well as providing a foundation of ideas and experiences, an account of the place-focused practices of governance and an approach to the analysis of governance dynamics. For those in the planning field itself, this book re-interprets the role of planning frameworks in linking spatial patterns to social dynamics with twenty-first century relevance.
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