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Prospects and challenges for cell-cultured fat as a novel food ingredient

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Abstract

Background: In vitro meat production has been proposed as a solution to environmental and animal welfare issues associated with animal agriculture. While most academic work on cell-cultured meat has focused on innovations for scalable muscle tissue culture, fat production is an important and often neglected component of this technology. Developing suitable biomanufacturing strategies for adipose tissue from agriculturally relevant animal species may be particularly beneficial due to the potential use of cell-cultured fat as a novel food ingredient. Scope and approach: Here we review the relevant studies from areas of meat science, cell biology, tissue engineering, and bioprocess engineering to provide a foundation for the development of in vitro fat production systems. We provide an overview of adipose tissue biology and functionality with respect to meat products, then explore cell lines, bioreactors, and tissue engineering strategies of potential utility for in vitro adipose tissue production for food. Regulation and consumer acceptance are also discussed. Key findings and conclusions: Existing strategies and paradigms are insufficient to meet the full set of unique needs for a cell-cultured fat manufacturing platform, as tradeoffs are often present between simplicity, scalability, stability, and projected cost. Identification and validation of appropriate cell lines, bioprocess strategies, and tissue engineering techniques must therefore be an iterative process as a deeper understanding of the needs and opportunities for cell-cultured fat develops.

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... This data indicated that the health-related benefits of plant-based meat could be an option to improve consumer acceptability as well as increase their positive experience with plant-based meat. Other attempts include improving the sensory profiles of meat analogs while increasing consumers' positive eating experiences [13,14], which could be a possible strategy to obtain a higher acceptance from consumers. Fig. 1. ...
... The fat contains essential lipids, such as omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the lipophilic vitamins A, D, K, and E [14]. In animal meat, lipids are stored in adipose cells or adipocytes in the form of triglycerides. ...
... It acts as a lubricant agent, by coating the tongue, teeth, and other parts of the mouth as well as interferes with the access of chemicals to receptor cells [25]. Saturated fat content is typically higher in beef and pork muscles than in fish and avian meats, which have higher PUFA contents [14]. Red meats have a low level of fat and cholesterol but a high concentration of ω-3 PUFAs, so their sensory profiles are different from white meat with livery, metallic, and bloody flavor; rough, tender, firm, and dry texture [26]. ...
Article
Due to environmental and ethical concerns, meat analogs represent an emerging trend to replace traditional animal meat. However, meat analogs lacking specific sensory properties (flavor, texture, color) would directly affect consumers' acceptance and purchasing behavior. In this review, we discussed the typical sensory characteristics of animal meat products from texture, flavor, color aspects, and sensory perception during oral processing. The related strategies were detailed to improve meat-like sensory properties for meat analogs. However, the upscaling productions of meat analogs still face many challenges (e.g.: sensory stability of plant-based meat, 3D scaffolds in cultured meat, etc.). Producing safe, low cost and sustainable meat analogs would be a hot topic in food science in the next decades. To realize these promising outcomes, reliable robust devices with automatic processing should also be considered. This review aims at providing the latest progress to improve the sensory properties of meat analogs and meet consumers' requirements.
... From the industry point of view, such cells need to be able to undergo efficient proliferation and differentiation at industrial scales. The cell lines should preferentially be stable, homogenous, resistant to environmental fluctuations and ideally, should possess low media requirements [159]. ...
... For the muscle tissue, the best choice would be the SCs and myoblasts [165], while for the fat tissue, the MSCs and DFAT cells are the simplest to isolate and culture, and both types can be relatively easily induced to adipogenesis [159] Currently, for mammalian muscle precursors, there are no commercially available cell lines, and the closest match for R&D-use only are the myoblasts from model species commonly used in other types of research e.g., cancer-related or neuroscience such as mice [166] and rats [167]. Rodent cell lines are not CA-relevant although it needs to be said that particularly mouse C2C12 and 3T3 cells are important "workhorses" in CM/CF R&D studies, as model cell lines. ...
... We refer the readers to the excellent recent review on CF prospects and challenges by Fish et al. [159] for more specifics on the single-cell suspension culture, MC-based culture, or aggregate/spheroid culture types (such as hanging drop technique [150] and method of using adipose spheroids with ECs which can form intraspheroidal vascular-like structures preventing necrotic core formation [231]). ...
Article
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Global food systems are under significant pressure to provide enough food, particularly protein-rich foods whose demand is on the rise in times of crisis and inflation, as presently existing due to post-COVID-19 pandemic effects and ongoing conflict in Ukraine and resulting in looming food insecurity, according to FAO. Cultivated meat (CM) and cultivated seafood (CS) are protein-rich alternatives for traditional meat and fish that are obtained via cellular agriculture (CA) i.e., tissue engineering for food applications. Stem and progenitor cells are the building blocks and starting point for any CA bioprocess. This review presents CA-relevant vertebrate cell types and procedures needed for their myogenic and adipogenic differentiation since muscle and fat tissue are the primary target tissues for CM/CS production. The review also describes existing challenges, such as a need for immortalized cell lines, or physical and biochemical parameters needed for enhanced meat/fat culture efficiency and ways to address them.
... Similarly to animal cell-cultivated protein tissues, fatrich tissue can be cultivated and mixed into various products including cultivated meat. (Fish et al., 2020). Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages as well as nerves and vasculature. ...
... The bioreactor conditions during scale-up are of great importance where nutrient supplementation, vitamins, growth factors, oxygen, as well as agitation power, and suspended or attached growth styles are chosen based on the specific requirements of the desired cell types. Several types of bioreactors have been demonstrated for in vitro cultivation of animal cells including but not limited to: T-flask, multilayer flask, hollow-fiber, fixed-bed, and suspension bioreactors (Fish et al., 2020). Sophisticated perfusion bioreactors offer promise for the cultivation of high densities of animal cells but suffer from high costs and lack of sufficiently demonstrated scale (Risner et al., 2021). ...
... Attached growth is carried out with scaffolding materials that allow for the attachment of anchorage-dependent cells. The selection of scaffolding materials is important and is well-reviewed by Datar and Betti (2010) and Fish et al. (2020). Important properties of scaffolding materials include texture, material, and geometry. ...
Article
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Cells cultivated in bioreactors offer many possibilities for the production of novel and nutritious food products. Scientific and technological advances in cellular agriculture and processing technologies have allowed for the development of new techniques to utilize in vitro animal cells, plant cells, and microorganisms to mimic the organoleptic and nutritional properties of traditional foods as well as to potentially develop entirely new product classes. This review compiles and discusses the state-of-the-art cellular production and processing systems including 3D printing of customizable cell-cultivated food products. In addition to the technological state-of-the art, this article reviews the nutritional characteristics of cell-cultivated foods, introduces examples of new food products, and compiles economic characteristics and environmental impacts of each production system as assessed through technoeconomic analyses and lifecycle assessments. The factors influencing consumer acceptance of cell-cultivated foods are articulated and the potential implications of these new technologies on traditional agricultural industries and food chains are discussed. Lastly, future research and development trajectories are introduced with suggestions for continued development. K E Y W O R D S cellular agriculture, cultured meat, filamentous fungi, future foods, microalgae
... Lipid oxidation contributes to the formation of flavor compounds, such as volatile aldehydes, lactones, ketones, alcohols, furans, hydrocarbons, acids, and esters, all of which play into extraordinarily complex relationship between fatty acids, volatiles, and their derivatives. 17 Muscle proteins contribute to a meaty taste, but the specific difference in flavors is largely attributed to lipid-derived compounds. Fat is also a substantial portion of meat cuts as they contain up to 2−12.7% intermuscular fat and up to 30% in specialized cuts. ...
... Fat is also a substantial portion of meat cuts as they contain up to 2−12.7% intermuscular fat and up to 30% in specialized cuts. 17 Demonstrating the importance of marbling is critical as it creates appropriate taste, texture, and mouthfeel of meats. ...
... Creating cell-cultured lipids for PBMA addition could significantly improve quality and consumer perception of the products without having to compromise on sustainability. 17 Adding specific speciesderived lipids to obtain their derived flavor compounds creates a more meat-like taste and mouthfeel to the product. Adipocyte cells identified in meat can contribute to fatty acid profiles. ...
... Even though meat is predominantly composed of muscle fi bers, fat occupies approximately 30% of the biomass, contributing to better fl avor, taste, texture, appearance, and nutrition [44][45][46]. More positive organoleptic consideration has been declared by consumers for a meat consisting of the higher fat levels [47]. ...
... Adipogenic diff erentiation of MSCs is induced by using a diff erentiation cocktail basically composed of insulin, dexamethasone, and Iso Butyl Methyl Xanthine (IBMX), and rosiglitazone. A wide variety of diff erentiation cocktails have been examined to promote adipogenesis[44,56]. Due to safety and cost-eff ectiveness concerns, optimization of the induction cocktails has become important. ...
Article
Cultivated meat (clean meat) is an emerging yet fast growing research field and industry with a great potential to overcome the limitations of traditional cattle meat production. Cultivated meat leverages the technologies of cell biology and tissue engineering, culturing multiple types of cells and assembling them into a tissue structure construct mimicking the muscle tissues of livestock animals. A sustainable cell source is the first and the utmost important component of cultivated meat technology. In this mini review, cell sources for the main cell types in cultivated meat (muscle cells and fat cells) are described. Stem cells with self-renewal and differentiation potential are the most prominent candidates. Progenitor stem cells from muscle tissues, mesenchymal stem cells isolated from many other tissues and induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) created from terminally differentiated cells have been used as cell sources for cultivated meat. To become a sustainable cell source, which can generate high quantity (extensive in vitro expansion) and high quality (stemness) cells for the making of cultivated meat, these cells still face the challenges and limitation intrinsically associated with in vitro culturing. The efforts and strategies to circumvent such limitations are also discussed.
... On the other hand, fat production is an important and often neglected component of most academic studies on cultured meat. Although fat typically accounts for a small part of the total meat content, it is a key component of the texture, nutrition, flavor, and appearance of meat (Fish et al., 2020). Developing edible biomaterial-based scaffolds that provide a highly biocompatible environment for supporting adipose and muscle cell agriculture is an inevitable necessity for the development of cultured meat that incorporates fat. ...
... Previous academic studies have focused on innovations for scalable muscle tissue culture; however, fat content in cultured meat is an important factor that affects flavor, taste, nutrition, and visual appearance. Developing suitable biomanufacturing strategies for adipose tissue from agriculturally relevant animal species may be particularly beneficial because of the potential use of cell cultured fat as a novel food ingredient (Stanford and Goodyear, 2018;Fish et al., 2020). Our study provides an insight into the production of cultured meat where the optimal ratio between muscle and lipid can be achieved by alternately stacking muscle-like and adipose-like layers. ...
Article
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Tissue engineered cultured meat has been proposed as an emerging innovative process for meat production to overcome the severe consequences of livestock farming, climate change, and an increasing global population. However, currently, cultured meat lacks organized tissue structure, possesses insufficient fat content, and incurs high production costs, which are the major ongoing challenges. In this study, a developed scaffold was synthesized using gelatin and soymilk to create a friendly environment for myogenesis and adipogenesis in C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells, respectively. The fat containing cultured meat was fabricated with an aligned muscle-like layer and adipose-like layer by stacking these layers alternately. The muscle-like layer expressing myosin and the adipose-like layer abundant in fat were sandwiched to form fat containing muscle tissue. The cytotoxicity and cell survival rate were evaluated using the WST-1 assay and live/dead staining. Myogenesis was confirmed by the expression of myogenin and myosin. The myotubes, myofibrils, and sarcomeres were observed under an inverted microscope, fluorescence microscope, and scanning electron microscope. Adipogenesis was evaluated by protein expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and oil droplet accumulation was determined by fluorescence microscopy with Nile Red stain. Extracellular matrix secretion was examined by safranin-O staining. In this study, the cultured meat was prepared with muscle-like texture with the addition of pre-adipocyte, where the multilayered muscle-like tissues with fat content would produce juicy cultured meat.
... In addition to the intrinsic taste of each cell, the ability of adipose and muscle cell lines to be co-cultured into thick tissue may become crucial for structured cultured meat products. Fat contributes to meat's taste, aroma, juiciness, and tenderness, and successful co-culturing could create structured meats such as steaks or pork chops [90]. Thick tissue with strong binding is used for a number of meat products, and would require the use of external binders if cells are not able to create these structures themselves in vitro [85]. ...
... Thick tissue with strong binding is used for a number of meat products, and would require the use of external binders if cells are not able to create these structures themselves in vitro [85]. All these cell attributes together could affect the sensory experience of cultured meat [85,90]. Although no data are publicly available, several groups have announced plans to work with cells from specific heritage breeds, with the idea that genetics partially determines the sensory properties of meat [91][92][93]: Cell Farm Food Tech aimed to produce mesenchymal stem cell lines from their native Argentinian cattle breeds [94], and three groups are researching the use of cells from Wagyu cows to make cultured beef [87,95,96]. ...
Article
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The need to produce immortal, food-relevant cell lines is one of the most pressing challenges of cellular agriculture, the field which seeks to produce meat and other animal products via tissue engineering and synthetic biology. Immortal cell lines have a long and complicated story, from the first recognized immortal human cell lines taken from Henrietta Lacks, to today, where they are used to assay toxicity and produce therapeutics, to the future, where they could be used to create meat without harming an animal. Although work in immortal cell lines began more than 50 years ago, there are few existing cell lines made of species and cell types appropriate for cultured meat. Cells in cultured meat will be eaten by consumers; therefore, cultured meat cell lines will also require unique attributes not selected for in other cell line applications. Specifically, cultured meat cell lines will need to be approved as safe for consumption as food, proliferate and differentiate efficiently at industrial scales, and have desirable taste, texture, and nutrition characteristics for consumers. This paper defines what cell lines are needed, the existing methods to produce new cell lines and their limitations, and the unique considerations of cell lines used in cultured meat.
... The production of CM principally involves the generation of the skeletal muscle tissue. However, it often includes adipocytes (for fat) [30], fibroblasts, and/or chondrocytes (for connective tissues) and endothelial cells (for vascularization) [31]. ...
... However, in order for the scaffold to be suitable for both muscle and adipose tissue formation, it needs to have appropriate stiffness for both tissue types, which is not a trivial task to fulfill, since muscle tissue needs a much more rigid and stiff scaffolding than the adipose tissue does [141,142]. This is why it is still challenging to design one solution for all types of meat components [30]. ...
Article
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Meat cultivation via cellular agriculture holds great promise as a method for future food production. In theory, it is an ideal way of meat production, humane to the animals and sustainable for the environment, while keeping the same taste and nutritional values as traditional meat and having additional benefits such as controlled fat content and absence of antibiotics and hormones used in the traditional meat industry. However, in practice, there is still a number of challenges, such as those associated with the upscale of cultured meat (CM). CM food safety monitoring is a necessary factor when envisioning both the regulatory compliance and consumer acceptance. To achieve this, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. This includes extensive development of the sensitive and specific analytical devices i.e., sensors to enable reliable food safety monitoring throughout the whole future food supply chain. In addition, advanced monitoring options can help in the further optimization of the meat cultivation which may reduce the currently still high costs of production. This review presents an overview of the sensor monitoring options for the most relevant parameters of importance for meat cultivation. Examples of the various types of sensors that can potentially be used in CM production are provided and the options for their integration into bioreactors, as well as suggestions on further improvements and more advanced integration approaches. In favor of the multidisciplinary approach, we also include an overview of the bioreactor types, scaffolding options as well as imaging techniques relevant for CM research. Furthermore, we briefly present the current status of the CM research and related regulation, societal aspects and challenges to its upscaling and commercialization.
... Since this milestone, more effort has been focused on generating cellbased adipose (i.e., fat) tissue; given its significant contribution to taste and texture. Advances in engineering fat tissue for use in food have been reviewed in depth elsewhere 41 . Aside from skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, ABM also contains connective tissue, vasculature networks, and supporting cell types (e.g., fibroblasts). ...
... Using small sample sizes, the nutrient content of cell cultures can be quantified via laboratory assays 27 . Different cell types contribute different sets of nutrients; differentiated muscle cells will likely be the primary source of protein and mature adipocytes can contribute to the fatty acid profile 41 . Certain compounds that are provided by ABM are not present in cultured cells. ...
Article
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Advances in farming technology and intensification of animal agriculture increase the cost-efficiency and production volume of meat. Thus, in developed nations, meat is relatively inexpensive and accessible. While beneficial for consumer satisfaction, intensive meat production inflicts negative externalities on public health, the environment and animal welfare. In response, groups within academia and industry are working to improve the sensory characteristics of plant-based meat and pursuing nascent approaches through cellular agriculture methodology (i.e., cell-based meat). Here we detail the benefits and challenges of plant-based and cell-based meat alternatives with regard to production efficiency, product characteristics and impact categories.
... With the goal of providing context to our discussion on capability requirements, notwithstanding the current limited access to state-of-theart information, this section presents a brief overview of the process for cultivated meat production as well as its most commonly used terminology (Table 1). For in-depth technical information please refer to Allan, De Bank and Ellis [22]; Ben-Arye and Levenberg [23]; Campuzano and Pelling [24]; Eswaramoorthy, Ramakrishna and Rath [25]; Fish et al., [26]; Ong, Choudhury and Naing [27]; Specht et al. [17]; Specht [28]; Stephens et al. [2]; Stephens, Sexton and Driessen [29], and Zhang et al. [30]. ...
... Some firms have also invested in specific technologies for the production of cell-based meat that mimic the texture and appearance of conventional meat. Although this can be partially achieved through three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds (Table 1), research initiatives have advanced the technology for producing meat through 3D-bioprinting, with the goal of enhancing cultivated meat similarity to conventional meat in aspects such as appearance, elasticity and texture [26]. The rationale is that the 3D-structure of meat may be more closely reproduced using specific spraying (bioprinting) devices [30]. ...
Article
Alternative protein sources such as cell-based meat are potentially associated with improvements in important issues related to the intensive industrial livestock production: animal welfare, environmental, food safety and the low efficiency of conventional meat production. However, little is known about the potential implications of the new cultivated meat technology for emerging countries. Thus, drawing on the Global Value Chain literature and on the blossoming literature on cell-based meat, we first discuss how this new chain may be structured. Then, based on the analysis of a set of companies that operate in the fast developing cultivated meat industry, core enabling capabilities that are required in order to enter the new meat value chain were identified; they encompass technological, business structuring, market positioning and relationship with stakeholder capabilities. It is likely that all listed capabilities are relevant for any country to access the livestock chain in transition. We propose reflections that may contribute to decisions which, in turn, may define aspects of the cultivated meat chain, for the sake of relieving animal suffering and taking care of our home planet, while providing all humans with quality food that meet their nutritional requirements and consumption desires.
... Canlı bir hayvan dokusundan alınan kas hücresinin serum takviyeli in vitro koşullarda ve biyoreaktörlerde, önce kas proteinlerini, ardından doku oluşumunu sağlayacak şekilde kopyalanması, hücrelerin elektrik alanlar veya diğer araçlar ile birleştirilerek, hizalanması ile çok hücreli dokuların elde edilmesi işlemidir [119]. Hücre kültürü yönteminin geliştirilmesi için embriyonik kök hücreler, indüklenmiş pluripotent kök hücreler, mezenkimal kök hücreler ve uydu hücreler dahil olmak üzere farklı hücre tipleri [110,120] ve progenitör hücreler veya fibroblastlar, miyoblastlar gibi çoğalabilen yetişkin hücreler üzerinde çalışmalar yapılmaktadır [121]. Yapılan bir çalışmada, geleneksel et üretimine göre 20 kat daha hızlı ve verimli bu teknolojinin ticarileştirilmesi ile, artan et talebinin daha düşük çevresel etkiyle karşılanabileceği bildirilmektedir [122]. ...
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Son yıllarda popülaritesi artan ve yeni ürün grupları arasında yer alan et analogları, çoğunlukla bitkisel proteinlerin hammadde olarak kullanıldığı ve son ürüne eti andıran formun kazandırılmasına dayalı ürünlerdir. Et analogları üretiminde baklagillerden yağlı tohumlara, buğdaydan alglere kadar birçok bitkisel kaynak hammadde olarak kullanılabilmekte, hammadde özelliklerine göre aroma arttırıcı ve renk verici gibi katkı ilavesi yapılarak ürüne istenilen özellikler kazandırılabilmektedir. Nihai ürün formunda et benzeri özellikler elde etmek için tüm hammaddeler ve katkı maddeleri geleneksel ve/veya modern işleme teknikleri ile işlenir. Bu işleme teknikleri arasında ekstrüzyon, yaygın olarak kullanılan ve kabul edilen bir yöntem olarak bilinmektedir. Et analoglarının hayvansal ürünlere ikame olarak tüketici tarafındaki kabul edilebilirliği, hammadde ve katkılar ile kullanılan üretim tekniğinin ürüne kazandırdığı kalite özelliklerine göre şekillenmektedir. Yakın gelecekte et analoglarının tüketim alışkanlıklarında yaygın yer bulacağı öngörülmektedir. Bu nedenle, üretime katılan bileşenler üzerine araştırmaların artması, üretim teknolojilerinin kullanımının yaygınlaşması ve geliştirilmesi ile üretime yönelik yasal düzenlemelerin yapılması kaçınılmaz olacaktır. Bu çalışmada yeni bir gıda olarak et analoğu ve kavramı, üretimin başlangıcından tüketici kabulüne kadar geniş bir perspektiften ele alınmıştır.
... Such concerns may or may not correlate with scientifically backed safety concerns and may show regional variation (Bryant et al. 2020). Many of the compounds commonly used in differentiation media for research purposes, e.g., IBMX for adipogenesis, are not food-grade (Fish et al. 2020). Knowledge of the signaling pathways mediating the effects of such reagents on cell fate may inform efforts to replace them with safe and effective alternatives. ...
Article
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Cultivated meat, also known as cultured or cell-based meat, is meat produced directly from cultured animal cells rather than from a whole animal. Cultivated meat and seafood have been proposed as a means of mitigating the substantial harms associated with current production methods, including damage to the environment, antibiotic resistance, food security challenges, poor animal welfare, and—in the case of seafood—overfishing and ecological damage associated with fishing and aquaculture. Because biomedical tissue engineering research, from which cultivated meat draws a great deal of inspiration, has thus far been conducted almost exclusively in mammals, cultivated seafood suffers from a lack of established protocols for producing complex tissues in vitro. At the same time, fish such as the zebrafish Danio rerio have been widely used as model organisms in developmental biology. Therefore, many of the mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in the formation of muscle, fat, and other relevant tissue are relatively well understood for this species. The same processes are understood to a lesser degree in aquatic invertebrates. This review discusses the differentiation and maturation of meat-relevant cell types in aquatic species and makes recommendations for future research aimed at recapitulating these processes to produce cultivated fish and shellfish.
... Production cost is the most significant challenge to meat substitute technology [16]. The high cost of production is one of the main reasons why meat substitutes are slow to be commercialized [73,74]. Although the price of PM products is somewhat higher than that of traditional meat, the price is acceptable to vegetarians and animal welfare advocates, creating a niche market. ...
Article
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The sustained growth of global meat consumption incentivized the development of the meat substitute industry. However, long-term global commercialization of meat substitutes faces challenges that arise from technological innovation, limited consumer awareness, and an imperfect regulatory environment. Many important questions require urgent answers. This paper presents a review of issues affecting meat substitute manufacturing and marketing, and helps to bridge important gaps which appear in the literature. To date, global research on meat substitutes focuses mainly on technology enhancement, cost reduction, and commercialization with a few studies fo-cused on a regulatory perspective. Furthermore, the studies on meat substitute effects on environmental pollution reduction, safety, and ethical risk perception are particularly important. A review of these trends leads to conclusions which anticipate the development of a much broader market for the meat substitute industry over the long term, the gradual discovery of solutions to technical obstacles, upgraded manufacturing, the persistent perception of ethical risk and its influence on consumer willingness to accept meat substitutes, and the urgent need for constructing an effective meat substitute regulatory system.
... Some ingredients produced by fermentation can be a solution in the future, as they can be presented as naturally fermented products and, at the same time, used for the formation of oleogels and bigels. Some possibilities of fermented compounds for future development of oleogels and bigels can include cell cultured fat (Fish et al., 2020) or even lipids and polysaccharides fermented from agricultural residues, such as cellulosic material (e.g., cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, starch, among others; Fajardo et al., 2021). EU and FDA approval of food additives/ingredients as well as FDA GRAS are not blanket approvals, and thus the food products where they are allowed, level, and purpose are still subject to legislation by these bodies and should be carefully taken into consideration when being used. ...
Article
The nutritional quality of processed foods is being increasingly questioned by consumers and the trend toward diets that promote health and well‐being has thus grown significantly. With this in mind, food science has sought to develop products replacing ingredients that can be harmful to consumers. This is not an easy task because, besides health‐ and well‐being‐related issues (e.g., nutritional and eventual nutraceutical properties), the new products must also meet consumers' expectations regarding sensory attributes (e.g., flavor, texture, color), while also complying with the legal regulations of the countries where they are supposed to be sold. These aspects are addressed in this article, with a special focus on the replacement of saturated fats by healthier options. Although saturated fats play an important role in many foods, as a consequence of their technological and organoleptic properties, consumption of saturated fats has been correlated with serious health issues. These factors highlight the need to replace saturated fats with healthier alternatives. One of the options to improve upon these problems is the use of edible structured oils that display a healthier fatty acid profile. As such, the development of oleogels and bigels has been of great interest as a solution for the replacement of saturated fat, and will be explored in‐depth in this review.
... It can be achieved dramatically for culture meat by incorporating encapsulated lipids, adipocytes, myoglobin, and hemoglobin. [23] Entomophobia Still, most world populations, especially in Europe, North America, and India, have feelings of fear and disgust towards insects (entomophobia) and do not consider insects food. This disgust factor or belief systems considering whole or their body parts of insects not suitable food items in developed countries and societies without previous history of entomophagy remains a crucial concern for developing insect farming on a large scale. ...
Article
With the ever-increasing global population, it is impossible to meet the demand for animal protein by relying only on conventional methods due to the depleting natural resources. It is very challenging to ensure a sustainable supply of animal proteins from a single source or form and requires a holistic approach by using all suitable options. The present review critically reviewed various technological, sustainability, nutritional value, regulatory framework, food safety challenge, and prospect aspects of plantbased meat analogs, in vitro meat, edible insect, and single-cell proteins as suitable candidates for future food security and supply of animal protein in a sustainable way. For in vitro meat, the technological challenge in the supply of raw inputs, large-size bioreactors, and scale-up remains a major issue. Although having a lower environmental impact, the acceptance of edible insects to more comprehensive sections and associated food safety risks remains a major concern. There is a need for uniform and proper regulations of these alternatives/novel foods across the globe, covering various aspects throughout the food supply chain. Plant-based meat analogs, in vitro meat, insects, and single-cell proteins along with conventional meat can meet the demand for high-quality protein in the near future.
... Several cell types are capable of adipogenic differentiation in vitro, including bone-and fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) 20 , de-differentiated fat (DFAT) cells 21 , embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) 2 and, reportedly, satellite cells (SCs) 22,23 . However, in vivo intramuscular fat is derived predominantly from a population of tissue-resident interstitial stem cells known as fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells, (henceforth referred to as FAPs) which have been identified in numerous species [24][25][26] , including bovine 27,28 , and which are marked by expression of cell surface receptors such as PDGFRα [28][29][30] . ...
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Cultured meat is an emergent technology with the potential for significant environmental and animal welfare benefits. Accurate mimicry of traditional meat requires fat tissue; a key contributor to both the flavour and texture of meat. Here, we show that fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells (FAPs) are present in bovine muscle, and are transcriptionally and immunophenotypically distinct from satellite cells. These two cell types can be purified from a single muscle sample using a simple fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) strategy. FAPs demonstrate high levels of adipogenic potential, as measured by gene expression changes and lipid accumulation, and can be proliferated for a large number of population doublings, demonstrating their suitability for a scalable cultured meat production process. Crucially, FAPs reach a mature level of adipogenic differentiation in three-dimensional, edible hydrogels. The resultant tissue accurately mimics traditional beef fat in terms of lipid profile and taste, and FAPs thus represent a promising candidate cell type for the production of cultured fat.
... The sensory attributes of a product such flavor and color plays important role in consumer acceptance. The color and flavor of cultured meat could be improved by adding heme compounds such as haemoglobin or myoglobin and incorporation of adipocytes or encapsulated lipids in media [119,120]. The typical flavour of meat products is resultant of several complex compounds originated during cooking such as cyclopentanone, pyrazine, furan, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-nonenal, 2,4-decadienal, thiopenes, etc. [121]. ...
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Abstract The in-vitro meat is a novel concept in food biotechnology comprising field of tissue engineering and cellular agriculture. It involves production of edible biomass by in-vitro culture of stem cells harvested from the muscle of live animals by self-organizing or scaffolding methodology. It is considered as efficient, environmental friendly, better ensuring public safety and nutritional security, as well as ethical way of producing meat. Source of stem cells, media ingredients, supply of large size bioreactors, skilled manpower, sanitary requirements, production of products with similar sensory and textural attributes as of conventional meat, consumer acceptance, and proper set up of regulatory framework are challenges faced in commercialization and consumer acceptance of in-vitro meat. To realize any perceivable change in various socio-economic and environmental spheres, the technology should be commercialized and should be cost-effective as conventional meat and widely accepted among consumers. The new challenges of increasing demand of meat with the increasing population could be fulfill by the establishment of in-vitro meat production at large scale and its popularization. The adoption of in-vitro meat production at an industrial scale will lead to self-sufficiency in the developed world.
... The specialization of several start-ups on cell-based fat production highlights the potential importance of fat in cultured meat flavour [33,34] . While differentiation of fat precursor cells into adipocytes is technically feasible [35][36][37][38][39] , certain limitations remain to be overcome, including the use of small molecules with uncharacterized food safety profiles and the generation of immature adipocytes [40,41] . Furthermore, the fabrication of structured meat containing both muscle and adipose cells requires complex co-culture or post-culture assembly methods that are currently lacking. ...
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Cultured meat has recently achieved mainstream prominence due to the emergence of societal and industrial interest. In contrast to animal-based production of traditional meat, the cultured meat approach entails laboratory cultivation of engineered muscle tissue. However, bioengineers have hitherto engineered tissues to fulfil biomedical endpoints, and have had limited experience in engineering muscle tissue for its post-mortem traits, which broadly govern consumer definitions of meat quality. Furthermore, existing tissue engineering approaches face fundamental challenges in technical feasibility and industrial scalability for cultured meat production. This review discusses how animal-based meat production variables influence meat properties at both the molecular and functional level, and whether current cultured meat approaches recapitulate these properties. In addition, this review considers how conventional meat producers employ exogenous biopolymer-based meat ingredients and processing techniques to mimic desirable meat properties in meat products. Finally, current biomaterial strategies for engineering muscle and adipose tissue are surveyed in the context of emerging constraints that pertain to cultured meat production, such as edibility, sustainability and scalability, and potential areas for integrating biomaterials and food biopolymer approaches to address these constraints are discussed. Statement of Significance Laboratory-grown or cultured meat has gained increasing interest from industry and the public, but currently faces significant impediment to market feasibility. This is due to fundamental knowledge gaps in producing realistic meat tissues via conventional tissue engineering approaches, as well as translational challenges in scaling up these approaches in an efficient, sustainable and high-volume manner. By defining the molecular basis for desirable meat quality attributes, such as taste and texture, and introducing the fundamental roles of food biopolymers in mimicking these properties in conventional meat products, this review aims to bridge the historically disparate fields of meat science and biomaterials engineering in order to inspire potentially synergistic strategies that address some of these challenges.
... A major scale-up challenge is for those cells that are anchorage-dependent, commonly referred to adherent cells. These are the most common form of animal cell and are widely used in all fields (i.e., regenerative medicine, cell therapy, to produce biologics etc.), including the production of cultured meat (mesenchymal stem cells, muscle satellite cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells are just some examples) (1,9). These cells need to adhere to a surface in order to remain viable and proliferate. ...
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Great importance is being given to the impact our food supply chain and consumers' food habits are having on the environment, human health, and animal welfare. One of the latest developments aiming at positively changing the food ecosystem is represented by cultured meat. This form of cellular agriculture has the objective to generate slaughter-free meat products starting from the cultivation of few cells harvested from the animal tissue of interest. As a consequence, a large number of cells has to be generated at a reasonable cost. Just to give an idea of the scale, there were billions of cells just in a bite of the first cultured-meat burger. Thus, one of the major challenges faced by the scientists involved in this new ambitious and fascinating field, is how to efficiently scale-up cell manufacture. Considering the great potential presented by cultured meat, audiences from different backgrounds are very interested in this topic and eager to be informed of the challenges and possible solutions in this area. In light of this, we will provide an overview of the main existing bioprocessing technologies used to scale-up adherent cells at a small and large scale. Thus, giving a brief technical description of these bioprocesses, with the main associated advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, we will introduce an alternative solution we believe has the potential to revolutionize the way adherent cells are grown, helping cultured meat become a reality.
... At cooking temperatures, interactions between unsaturated fatty acids and hydrogen sulfides also result in thiopenes (meaty flavor), which are another important flavor component of meat (Mottram, 1991). Fat and lipophilic flavor compounds could be integrated into cultured meat through fat-producing adipocytes and/or fat encapsulation (Box 2) (Fish, Rubio, Stout, Yuen, & Kaplan, 2020). The extent to which the flavor of cultured meat is determined by compounds naturally occurring in cellular components of meat and/or may be tuned by adding supplemental compounds to the culture media will be an important topic for future investigation. ...
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Background The environmental impact of meat consumption requires immediate action. Cultured meat—which is emerging through technologies to grow meat ex vivo—has exciting potential to offset the burden of livestock agriculture by providing an alternative method to sustainably produce meat without requiring individuals to become vegetarian. However, consumer uptake of cultured meat may be challenged by negative public perceptions. Scope and approach In this Review, we assert that the academic sector can play a vital role by understanding and communicating the science of cultured meat to the public. Here, we discuss how crosstalk between the science and technology of cultured meat and the behavioral sciences will be critical to overcome challenges in public perceptions, and ultimately to realize the environmental benefits of cultured meat. We identify research and outreach priorities for the academic sector as well as potential policy actions to achieve the maximum benefits of cultured meat for planetary health.
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Chapter
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Cultured meat, also known as ‘in-vitro meat’ or ‘clean meat’, holds the potential solution to environmental sustainability along with conventional meat alternatives, including plant-based meat, insects, algae, and pulses. A critical step to its widescale acceptance is consumer perception. Both qualitative research and quantitative analysis are being carried out to enhance the acceptability of cultured meat. In this review, consumer behavior towards cultured meat is accessed to understand the current market scenario. Psychological factors that can hinder or improve cultured meat acceptance are discussed. Consumer social factors geared towards consumer behavior on cultured meat are also summarized. As per the research findings, meat lovers are more likely to try cultured meat owing to the attached sustainability claims. The consumers' concerns about the unnaturalness of cultured meat should be addressed in order to encourage them to get more acquainted with the product and modify their attitudes about it. Marketing tactics of labeling it as ‘clean meat’ rendered better purchasing as compared to other terms. Furthermore, educating the masses likely reduced the unfamiliarity with newly marketed products resulting in improved consumer perception of cultured meat.
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Cellular agriculture provides a potentially sustainable way of producing cultivated meat as an alternative protein source. In addition to muscle and connective tissue, fat is an important component of animal meat that contributes to taste, texture, tenderness, and nutritional profiles. However, while the biology of fat cells (adipocytes) is well studied, there is a lack of investigation on how adipocytes from agricultural species are isolated, produced, and incorporated as food constituents. Recently we compiled all protocols related to generation and analysis of adipose progenitors from bovine, porcine, chicken, other livestock and seafood species. In this review we summarize recent developments and present key scientific questions and challenges that need to be addressed in order to advance the biomanufacture of ‘alternative fat’.
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Alternative proteins, such as cultivated meat, have recently attracted significant attention as novel and sustainable food. Fat tissue/cell is an important component of meat that makes organoleptic and nutritional contributions. Although adipocyte biology is relatively well investigated, there is limited focus on the specific techniques and strategies to produce cultivated fat from agricultural animals. In the assumed standard workflow, stem/progenitor cell lines are derived from tissues of animals, cultured for expansion, and differentiated into mature adipocytes. Here, we compile information from literature related to cell isolation, growth, differentiation, and analysis from bovine, porcine, chicken, other livestock, and seafood species. A diverse range of tissue sources, cell isolation methods, cell types, growth media, differentiation cocktails, and analytical methods for measuring adipogenic levels were used across species. Based on our analysis, we identify opportunities and challenges in advancing new technology era toward producing “alternative fat” that is suitable for human consumption.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to take stock of current knowledge on the potential benefits and weaknesses of cultured muscle to produce meat. Made from stem cells or proliferating muscle cells, cultured “meat” has been presented by its supporters, who are mainly private actors (start-ups), as a food similar to “conventional” meat but more sustainable, even if strong scientific arguments are lacking to support this assessment. There is no consensus about its sanitary and nutritional qualities for human consumption and about its low potential environmental impact. In addition, many issues of market, legislation, ethics, and consumer perception remain to be overcome.
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Cultured meat is an emergent technology that cultivates cells in three-dimensional scaffolds to generate tissue for consumption. Fat makes an important contribution to the flavor and texture of traditional meat, but there are few reports on cultured fat. Here, we demonstrated the construction of cultured fat by inoculating porcine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) on peanut wire-drawing protein (PWP) scaffolds. First, we demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promoted cell proliferation and maintained adipogenic differentiation ability. Then, we generated cultured fat and found that cultured fat decreased the texture of PWP scaffolds. Moreover, 43 volatile compounds were detected by headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS), of which 17 volatile compounds showed no significant differences between cultured fat and porcine subcutaneous adipose tissue (pSAT), which indicated that cultured fat and pSAT had certain similarities. Collectively, this research has great promise for improving the quality of cultured meat.
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Animal fat as the key component of sensory experience impacts texture, juiciness, and aroma pleasantness of meat, which indicates the necessity of designing fat mimetics in meat alternatives. In this study, high internal phase emulsions (HIPE) with tunable flavor release as fat mimetics based on glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and phytosterol were prepared, and the effects of GA and phytosterol concentrations on the microstructural, rheological, and flavor release properties of HIPE were evaluated. Phytosterol crystals-enriched oil droplets were trapped inside the GA fibrillar matrix as stabilizers. HIPE containing higher GA and phytosterol concentrations exhibited smaller droplet size and better viscoelastic attributes. Additionally, phytosterol played a synergistic role with GA to form a double-fiber microstructure at the oil-water interface. This hierarchical microstructure of oil phase, interface and aqueous phase in the HIPE could regulate the release of hydrophilic and lipophilic meat volatiles. HIPE as fat mimetics with unique microstructure have potential applications in meat alternatives.
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Cell-cultured fat could provide important elements of flavor, nutrition, and texture to enhance the quality and therefore expand consumer adoption of alternative meat products. In contrast to cells from livestock animals, insect cells have been proposed as a relatively low-cost and scalable platform for tissue engineering and muscle cell-derived cultured meat production. Furthermore, insect fat cells have long been cultured and characterized for basic biology and recombinant protein production but not for food production. To develop a food-relevant approach to insect fat cell cultivation and tissue engineering, Manduca sexta cells were cultured and induced to accumulate lipids in 2D and 3D formats within decellularized mycelium scaffolding. The resultant in vitro fat tissues were characterized and compared to in vivo fat tissue data by imaging, lipidomics, and texture analyses. The cells exhibited robust lipid accumulation when treated with a 0.1 mM soybean oil emulsion and had "healthier" fat profiles, as measured by the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids. Mycelium scaffolding provided a simple, food-grade approach to support the 3D cell cultures and lipid accumulation. This approach provides a low-cost, scalable, and nutritious method for cultured fat production.
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Cell-based meat has attracted great attention in recent years as a novel product of future food biomanufacturing and a breakthrough in the global food industry. Previous reports mainly focus on the relatively independent investigation of the nature and consumer acceptance of cultured meat, and there is limited research upon its commercialization, safety, and quality control. Based on the existing literature, we overview current cultured meat startups distribution, product varieties, investment, and financing status. Furthermore, the challenges of commercializing cultured meat products are systematically discussed from the aspects of key technologies, safety and supervision, and market expectation. Finally, some strategies and prospects related to the marketing of cultured meat are put forward. Although some cultured meat startups’ development and financing results are exciting, the greatest obstacles to the market promotion of cultured meat products are the large-scale production, safety assessment, improvement of a supervision system, and product-based market survey influenced by technology challenges.
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In response to a growing population and rising food demand, the food industry has come up with a wide array of alterations, innovations, and possibilities for making meat in vitro. In addition to revolutionizing the meat industry, this advancement also has profound effects on the environment, health, and welfare of animals. Thus, rather than using slaughtered animals, animal cells are employed to generate cell-based meat, with the cells' proliferation and differentiation taking place in the culture environment. The primary goal of this paper is to examine the overall mechanism and numerous approaches involved in the creation of cell-based meat. It also covers upcoming issues like technical, consumer, and regulatory issues, environmental concerns, the economy, cost of the product, health and safety concerns, and ethical, religious, and societal taboos. Finally, it assesses the future prospects of cell-based meat production. Graphical abstract:
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Artificial meat shows great promise as a method for use in future food production. It is predicted that traditional meat will be insufficient with the increasing human population. In addition, artificial meat has many advantages in terms of human health, such as being sustainable for the environment, controlled fat content, and absence of antibiotics and hormones compared to traditional meat. Artificial meat, also known as cultured meat, is produced through in vitro myogenesis, which includes muscle tissue-based protein products, stem cell culture, and differentiation, and mature muscle cell processing for flavor and texture. Artificial meat production consists of a sequential process; firstly muscle sampling for stem cell collection and followed by muscle tissue dissociation and muscle stem cell isolation, primary cell culture, high cell culture, and ending with muscle differentiation and maturation. A deep understanding of the process by considering its pros and cons will help not only artificial meat production but also the food industry in business sectors seeking new biomaterials. By explaining the methods utilized for artificial meat production, this study is created to prepare for the new era of cellular agriculture as well as for application in academia and industry.
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Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) harbor the capacity of unlimited self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential which are crucial for basic research and biomedical science. Establishment of PSCs with defined features were previously reported from mice and humans, while generation of stable large animal PSCs has experienced a relatively long trial stage and only recently has made breakthroughs. Pigs are regarded as ideal animal models for their similarities in physiology and anatomy to humans. Generation of porcine PSCs would provide cell resources for basic research, genetic engineering, animal breeding and cultured meat. In this review, we summarize the progress on the derivation of porcine PSCs and reprogrammed cells and elucidate the mechanisms of pluripotency changes during pig embryo development. This will be beneficial for understanding the divergence and conservation between different species involved in embryo development and the pluripotent regulated signaling pathways. Finally, we also discuss the promising future applications of stable porcine PSCs.
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The food industry has come up with a wide range of innovations, changes, and possibilities to create meat through in vitro conditions as a result of a proportionally expanding population and food demands. This breakthrough has the potential to completely transform the meat business, with far-reaching repercussions for the environment, human health, and animal welfare. Thus, animal cells rather than slain animals are used to make cell-based meat, where the proliferation and differentiation of the cells take place in the culture media. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the overall mechanism and various techniques involved in cell-based meat production. It also discusses upcoming challenges such as technical, consumer, regulatory aspects, environmental issues, product costs, the economy, health safety concerns, ethical, religious, and social taboos. Finally, it analyzes the prospects of the cell-based meat production technique.
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Background Cultivated (CM) has emerged as a breakthrough technology to produce meat in the lab, which will not only be nutritious (protein-rich) but also mimic the organoleptic properties of conventional meat. However, being in nascent stage, CM technology is facing various limitations. Fermentation, on the other hand, has existed for centuries and is traditionally associated with textural and flavour enhancements in food. The recent developments in the fermentation technology have garnered increased interest among the players in the alternative protein sector. Scope and approach This paper discusses how the incorporation of fermentation technology, especially biomass and precision fermentation, into the manufacturing process of CM can potentially alleviate or even eliminate some of its limitations. We have also discussed the technology and product focus and geographical spread of companies in the fermentation and CM space. Key findings and conclusions The use of fermentation to produce food ingredients and the industry's fast growth reflects its applicability to CM or alternative protein industries. As the CM industry develops, fermentation continues to engage in essential roles in the CM production process through the provision of natural food-safe ingredients, which could potentially enhance the taste, texture, post-production nutrition and shelf life of the product. Production of ingredients may be derived from engineered metabolic pathways or biomass fermentation with mycelial and macrofungal species. A sizeable proportion of fermentation companies are yielding ingredients of relevance to the CM space. It is postulated that its application will continue to broaden with future research and development.
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Cultivating meat from stem cells rather than by raising animals is a promising solution to concerns about the negative externalities of meat production. For cultivated meat to fully mimic conventional meat's organoleptic and nutritional properties, innovations in scaffolding technology are required. Many scaffolding technologies are already developed for use in biomedical tissue engineering. However, cultivated meat production comes with a unique set of constraints related to the scale and cost of production as well as the necessary attributes of the final product, such as texture and food safety. This review discusses the properties of vertebrate skeletal muscle that will need to be replicated in a successful product and the current state of scaffolding innovation within the cultivated meat industry, highlighting promising scaffold materials and techniques that can be applied to cultivated meat development. Recommendations are provided for future research into scaffolds capable of supporting the growth of high‐quality meat while minimizing production costs. Although the development of appropriate scaffolds for cultivated meat is challenging, it is also tractable and provides novel opportunities to customize meat properties. Cultivating meat from cells is a promising solution to the environmental, ethical, health, and food‐security challenges associated with conventional meat production. Cultivated meat will require the development of scalable, low‐cost, and edible or biodegradable scaffolds to support cell growth. This review discusses the unique challenges of cultivated meat scaffolding and highlights promising materials and processing methods worthy of further investigation.
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Sustainability discussions bring in multiple competing goals, and the outcomes are often conflicting depending upon which goal is being given credence. The role of livestock in supporting human well-being is especially contentious in discourses around sustainable diets. There is considerable variation in which environmental metrics are measured when describing sustainable diets, although some estimate of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of different diets based on varying assumptions is commonplace. A market for animal-free and manufactured food items to substitute for animal source food (ASF) has emerged, driven by the high GHG emissions of ASF. Ingredients sourced from plants, and animal cells grown in culture are two approaches employed to produce alternative meats. These can be complemented with ingredients produced using synthetic biology. Alternative meat companies promise to reduce GHG, the land and water used for food production, and reduce or eliminate animal agriculture. Some CEOs have even claimed alternative meats will 'end world hunger'. Rarely do such self-proclamations emanate from scientists, but rather from companies in their efforts to attract venture capital investment and market share. Such declarations are reminiscent of the early days of the biotechnology industry. At that time, special interest groups employed fear-based tactics to effectively turn public opinion against the use of genetic engineering to introduce sustainability traits, like disease resistance and nutrient fortification, into global genetic improvement programs. These same groups have recently turned their sights on the 'unnaturalness' and use of synthetic biology in the production of meat alternatives, leaving agriculturists in a quandary. Much of the rationale behind alternative meats invokes a simplistic narrative, with a primary focus on GHG emissions, ignoring the nutritional attributes and dietary importance of ASF, and livelihoods that are supported by grazing ruminant production systems. Diets with low GHG emissions are often described as sustainable, even though the nutritional, social and economic pillars of sustainability are not considered. Nutritionists, geneticists, and veterinarians have been extremely successful at developing new technologies to reduce the environmental footprint of ASF. Further technological developments are going to be requisite to continuously improve the efficiency of animal source, plant source, and cultured meat production. Perhaps there is an opportunity to collectively communicate how innovations are enabling both alternative- and conventional-meat producers to more sustainably meet future demand. This could counteract the possibility that special interest groups who promulgate misinformation, fear and uncertainty, will hinder the adoption of technological innovations to the ultimate detriment of global food security.
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Movement is central to life. Neuromuscular tissues control voluntary movement in humans and many other living creatures, offering significant advantages in adaptability and robustness as compared to abiotic actuators. The impressive functional capabilities of neuromuscular tissues have inspired researchers to attempt de novo synthesis of the biological motor system via tissue engineering. This article highlights key recent advances in tissue engineering skeletal muscle and discusses promising strategies to control engineered muscle via biological neural networks and abiotic soft electronic interfaces. Challenges associated with cell sourcing, biomaterials design, and scalable precision manufacturing, along with emerging strategies to address those challenges, are presented. Finally, we highlight how engineered neuromuscular tissues have enabled studying, controlling, and deploying them as actuators in a range of real-world applications including drug discovery, regenerative medicine, cellular agriculture, and soft robotics. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to The Author(s), under exclusive License to the Materials Research Society.
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As future foods, cultured meat is produced by culturing animal cells ex vivo rather than raising and slaughtering animals. It is a promising way to address concerns about resource consumption, environmental pollution, public healthy that associated with conventional livestock production. In the past two years, dozens of cultured meat-related start-ups have been founded and millions of dollars have been raised, demonstrating the high business enthusiasm, broad market prospects and high profitability expected. However, currently many startups are yet determining, optimizing steps of the process or trying to scale-up, so it is still a very long way before cultured meat becomes comparable to the conventional meat. Here, we review the industry status of cultured meat around the world from geographical distribution, potential products, and funding landscape and identify the challenging technologies in large-scale manufacturing of cultured meat covering aspects from culture medium optimization, bioreactor designation, scaffold fabrication and cost reduction. Moreover, we discuss the challenges related to policy formulation and public acceptance of cultured meat.
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Cultured meat, as a cellular agriculture product, utilizes tissue engineering techniques and consequently faces not only cell culture challenges but also scale-up limitations. To ensure cultured meat is financially viable, efficient bioprocess design for scale-up is required. In this mini-review we focus on the design of the expansion bioreactor, and put it in context of the entire bioprocess by providing an overview of the upstream and downstream process considerations. As a full-scale cultured meat bioprocess is still hypothetical we include a review of the key factors and fundamental cell biology parameters required as input data for the design of a process with a product that is not only viable but price competitive. This review highlights the vital aspects of a cultured meat bioreactor design that are often overlooked when parallels are drawn against fermentation processes such as brewing or recombinant protein production in the pharmaceutical industry. Practical application and awareness of the concepts presented here will enable more accurate estimation of the production expenses and raw material requirements. This will form a basis for both further academic research and the design of industrial-scale processes in the field of cultured meat and the wider field of tissue engineering-based cellular agriculture.
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The contribution of the livestock sector to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as the worsening of animal welfare, with the intensification of production methods, have become increasingly relevant. Our contribution investigates the environmental impacts, in terms of methane and nitrous oxide emissions, of animal-based policies supported by the European Union. We examine factors affecting the adoption and the magnitude of related budget of Measure 215—animal welfare—of Rural Development Programmes 2007–2013. Our focus is cattle farming in Italy. The results highlight that the problem of animal welfare is highly perceived in regions with greater livestock intensity, also where GHG emissions are relevant. Given the adoption of measure 215, more budget tends to be allocated in regions where livestock units are particularly high. In addition, from the analysis emerges the bargaining position of regions with a higher propensity to the agricultural sector.
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Recent years have seen increasing interest in research on consumer acceptance of clean meat. Whilst some consumers are enthusiastic about the prospect of reducing the health risks, environmental harms, and animal welfare implications associated with conventional meat production, others have concerns about the product's taste, price, safety, and naturalness. Some evidence suggests that acceptance of clean meat will vary substantially across cultures, though there is currently a lack of quantitative research in Asia and country comparisons on this topic. Both are likely to be important areas given the forecasted increase in meat consumption in developing countries. Participants (n = 3.030) were recruited through the research panel CINT to take an online questionnaire about clean meat and plant-based meat. The participants were representative of China, India, and the U.S. in terms of age and gender, though participants in India and China were disproportionately urban, high income, and well-educated. As well as clean meat, participants were asked about plant-based meat, a conceptually similar product with similar potential to displace demand for conventional meat. They also answered the Meat Attachment Questionnaire and the Food Neophobia Scale. We compared these variables between countries, and used regression models to identify which demographic and attitudinal factors predicted purchase intent toward both products. We found significantly higher acceptance of clean and plant-based meat in India and China compared to the USA. We also found significantly higher food neophobia and significantly lower meat attachment in India compared to China and the USA. We identified several demographic patterns of clean and plant-based meat acceptance as well as which beliefs were important predictors of acceptance within each country. In particular, higher familiarity predicted higher acceptance of plant-based and clean meat across all countries. We found high levels of acceptance of clean meat in the three most populous countries worldwide, and with even higher levels of acceptance in China and India compared to the USA. These results underline the importance of clean meat producers exploring new markets for their products, especially as meat consumption in developing countries continues to rise.
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received a great deal of attention over the past 20 years mainly because of the results that showed regeneration potential and plasticity that were much stronger than expected in prior decades. Recent findings in this field have contributed to progress in the establishment of cell differentiation methods, which have made stem cell therapy more clinically attractive. In addition, MSCs are easy to isolate and have anti-inflammatory and angiogenic capabilities. The use of stem cell therapy is currently supported by scientific literature in the treatment of several animal health conditions. MSC may be administered for autologous or allogenic therapy following either a fresh isolation or a thawing of a previously frozen culture. Despite the fact that MSCs have been widely used for the treatment of companion and sport animals, little is known about their clinical and biotechnological potential in the economically relevant livestock industry. This review focuses on describing the key characteristics of potential applications of MSC therapy in livestock production and explores the themes such as the concept, culture, and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells; bovine mesenchymal stem cell isolation; applications and perspectives on commercial interests and farm relevance of MSC in bovine species; and applications in translational research.
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Chicken mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as an avian culture model to better understand osteogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic pathways and to identify unique bioactive nutrients and molecules which can promote or inhibit these pathways. MSCs could also be used as a model to study various developmental, physiological, and therapeutic processes in avian and other species. MSCs are multipotent stem cells that are capable of differentiation into bone, muscle, fat, and closely related lineages and express unique and specific cell surface markers. MSCs have been isolated from numerous sources including human, mouse, rabbit, and chicken with potential clinical and agricultural applications. MSCs from chicken compact bones have not been isolated and characterized yet. In this study, MSCs were isolated from compact bones of the femur and tibia of day-old male broiler chicks to investigate the biological characteristics of the isolated cells. Isolated cells took 8–10 days to expand, demonstrated a monolayer growth pattern and were plastic adherent. Putative MSCs were spindle-shaped with elongated ends and showed rapid proliferation. MSCs demonstrated osteoblastic, adipocytic, and myogenic differentiation when induced with specific differentiation media. Cell surface markers for MSCs such as CD90, CD105, CD73, CD44 were detected positive and CD31, CD34, and CD45 cells were detected negative by PCR assay. The results suggest that MSCs isolated from broiler compact bones (cBMSCs) possess similar biological characteristics as MSCs isolated from other chicken tissue sources.
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Tissue engineering is primarily associated with medical disciplines; thus, research has focused on mammalian cells. For applications where clinical relevance is not a constraint, it is imperative to evaluate the potential of alternative cell sources to form tissues in vitro. Specifically, skeletal muscle tissue for bioactuation and cultured foods could benefit from the inclusion of invertebrate cells, due to less stringent growth requirements and versatile features related to biomass. Here, we used a Drosophila muscle cell line to demonstrate the benefits of insect cells relative to those derived from vertebrates. The cells were adapted to serum-free media, transitioned between adherent and suspension cultures, and manipulated via hormones. Furthermore, we analyzed scaffolds to support muscle growth and assayed cellular protein and minerals to evaluate nutrition potential. The insect muscle cells exhibited advantageous growth patterns and hold unique functionality for tissue engineering applications beyond the medical realm.
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In Japan, Wagyu cattle include four Japanese breeds; Black, Brown, Shorthorn, and Polled. Today, the renowned brand name Wagyu includes not only cattle produced in Japan, but also cattle produced in countries such as Australia and the United States. In recent years, the intramuscular fat percentage in beef (longissimus muscle) from Japanese Black cattle has increased to be greater than 30%. The Japanese Black breed is genetically predisposed to producing carcass lipids containing higher concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids than other breeds. However, there are numerous problems with the management of this breed including high production costs, disposal of untreated excrement, the requirement for imported feed, and food security risks resulting from various viral diseases introduced by imported feed. The feeding system needs to shift to one that is more efficient, and improves management for farmers, food security for consumers, and the health environment for residents of Japan. Currently, we are developing a metabolic programming and an information and communications technology (ICT, or Interne of Things) management system for Wagyu beef production as future systems. If successful, we will produce safe, high-quality Wagyu beef using domestic pasture resources while solving the problems of how to utilize increasing areas of abandoned agricultural land and to make use of the plant-based feed resources in Japan's mountainous areas.
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as primary candidates for cell-based therapies due to their multiple effects in regenerative medicine. Pre-conditioning of MSCs under physiological conditions—such as hypoxia, three-dimensional environments, and dynamic cultivation—prior to transplantation proved to optimize their therapeutic efficiency. When cultivated as three-dimensional aggregates or spheroids, MSCs display increased angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects as well as improved stemness and survival rates after transplantation, and cultivation under dynamic conditions can increase their viability, proliferation, and paracrine effects, alike. Only few studies reported to date, however, have utilized dynamic conditions for three-dimensional aggregate cultivation of MSCs. Still, the integration of dynamic bioreactor systems, such as spinner flasks or stirred tank reactors might pave the way for a robust, scalable bulk expansion of MSC aggregates or MSC-derived extracellular vesicles. This review summarizes recent insights into the therapeutic potential of MSC aggregate cultivation and focuses on dynamic generation and cultivation techniques of MSC aggregates.
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Over the last decades, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been the focus of intense research by academia and industry due to their unique features. MSC can be easily isolated and expanded through in vitro culture by taking full advantage of their self-renewing capacity. In addition, MSC exert immunomodulatory effects and can be differentiated into various lineages, which makes them highly attractive for clinical applications in cell-based therapies. In this review, we attempt to provide a brief historical overview of MSC discovery, characterization, and the first clinical studies conducted. The current MSC manufacturing platforms are reviewed with special attention regarding the use of bioreactors for the production of GMP-compliant clinically relevant cell numbers. The first commercial MSC-based products are also addressed, as well as the remaining challenges to the widespread use of MSC-derived products.
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Collagen scaffolds are often utilized in tissue engineering applications where their performance depends on physical and mechanical properties. This study investigated the effects of collagen source (bovine, porcine, and ovine tendon) on properties of collagen sponge scaffolds cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Scaffolds were tested for tensile and compressive properties, stability (resistance to enzymatic degradation), pore size, and swelling ratio. No significant differences in tensile modulus were observed, but ovine scaffolds had significantly greater ultimate strain, stress, and toughness relative to bovine and porcine scaffolds. No significant differences in compressive properties, pore size, or swelling ratio were observed as a function of collagen source. Ovine scaffolds were more resistant to collagenase degradation compared to bovine samples, which were more resistant than porcine scaffolds. In comparison to bovine scaffolds, ovine scaffolds performed equivalently or superiorly in all evaluations, and porcine scaffolds were equivalent in all properties except enzymatic stability. These results suggest that collagen sponges derived from bovine, porcine, and ovine tendon have similar physical and mechanical properties, and are all potentially suitable materials for various tissue engineering applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Background Excessive energy intake has been identified as a major contributor to the global obesity epidemic. However, it is not clear whether dietary patterns varying in their composition of food groups contribute. This study aims to determine whether differences in per capita availability of the major food groups could explain differences in global obesity prevalence. Methods Country-specific Body Mass Index (BMI) estimates (mean, prevalence of obesity and overweight) were obtained. BMI estimates were then matched to mean of three year-and country-specific availability of total kilocalories per capita per day, major food groups (meat, starch, fibers, fats and fruits). The per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and prevalence of physical inactivity for each country were also obtained. SPSS was used for log-transformed data analysis. ResultsSpearman analyses of the different major food groups shows that meat availability is most highly correlated with prevalence of obesity (r = 0.666, p < 0.001) and overweight (r = 0.800, p < 0.001) and mean BMI (r = 0.656, p < 0.001) and that these relationships remain when total caloric availability, prevalence of physical inactivity and GDP are controlled in partial correlation analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis indicates that meat availability is the most significant predictors of prevalence of obesity and overweight and mean BMI among the food groups. Scatter plot diagrams show meat and GDP adjusted meat are strongly correlated to obesity prevalence. Conclusion High meat availability is correlated to increased prevalence of obesity. Effective strategies to reduce meat consumption may have differential effects in countries at different stages of the nutrition transition.
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Lipid-free fibroblast-like cells, known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells, can be generated from mature adipocytes with a large single lipid droplet. DFAT cells can re-establish their active proliferation ability and can transdifferentiate into various cell types under appropriate culture conditions. The first objective of this study was to compare the multilineage differentiation potential of DFAT cells with that of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on mesenchymal stem cells. We obtained DFAT cells and ASCs from inbred rats and found that rat DFAT cells possess higher osteogenic differentiation potential than rat ASCs. On the other hand, DFAT cells show similar adipogenic differentiation, and chondrogenic differentiation potential in comparison with ASCs. The second objective of this study was to assess the regenerative potential of DFAT cells combined with novel solid scaffolds composed of PLGA (Poly d, l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) on periodontal tissue, and to compare this with the regenerative potential of ASCs combined with PLGA scaffolds. Cultured DFAT cells and ASCs were seeded onto PLGA scaffolds (DFAT/PLGA and ASCs/PLGA) and transplanted into periodontal fenestration defects in rat mandible. Micro computed tomography analysis revealed a significantly higher amount of bone regeneration in the DFAT/PLGA group compared with that of ASCs/PLGA and PLGA-alone groups at 2, 3, and 5 weeks after transplantation. Similarly, histomorphometric analysis showed that DFAT/PLGA groups had significantly greater width of cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone than ASCs/PLGA and PLGA-alone groups. In addition, transplanted fluorescent-labeled DFAT cells were observed in the periodontal ligament beside the newly formed bone and cementum. These findings suggest that DFAT cells have a greater potential for enhancing periodontal tissue regeneration than ASCs. Therefore, DFAT cells are a promising cell source for periodontium regeneration.
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Establishment of embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines has been successful in mouse and human, but not in farm animals. Development of direct reprogramming technology offers an alternative approach for generation of pluripotent stem cells, applicable also in farm animals. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent practically limitless, ethically acceptable, individuum-specific source of pluripotent cells that can be generated from different types of somatic cells. iPSCs can differentiate to all cell types of an organism’s body and have a tremendous potential for numerous applications in medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology. However, molecular mechanisms behind the reprogramming process remain largely unknown and hamper generation of bona fide iPSCs and their use in human clinical practice. Large animal models are essential to expand the knowledge obtained on rodents and facilitate development and validation of transplantation therapies in preclinical studies. Additionally, transgenic animals with special traits could be generated from genetically modified pluripotent cells, using advanced reproduction techniques. Despite their applicative potential, it seems that iPSCs in farm animals haven’t received the deserved attention. The aim of this review was to provide a systematic overview on iPSC generation in the most important mammalian farm animal species (cattle, pig, horse, sheep, goat, and rabbit), compare protein sequence similarity of pluripotency-related transcription factors in different species, and discuss potential uses of farm animal iPSCs. Literature mining revealed 32 studies, describing iPSC generation in pig (13 studies), cattle (5), horse (5), sheep (4), goat (3), and rabbit (2) that are summarized in a concise, tabular format.
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Engineered skeletal muscle holds promise as a source of graft tissue for the repair of traumatic injuries such as volumetric muscle loss. The resident skeletal muscle stem cell, the satellite cell, has been identified as an ideal progenitor for tissue engineering due to its role as an essential player in the potent skeletal muscle regeneration mechanism. A significant challenge facing tissue engineers, however, is the isolation of sufficiently large satellite cell populations with high purity. The two common isolation techniques, single fiber explant culture and enzymatic dissociation, can yield either a highly pure satellite cell population or a suitably large number or cells but fail to do both simultaneously. As a result, it is often necessary to use a purification technique such as pre-plating or cell sorting to enrich the satellite cell population post-isolation. Furthermore, the absence of complex chemical and biophysical cues influencing the in vivo satellite cell "niche" complicates the culture of isolated satellite cells. Techniques under investigation to maximize myogenic proliferation and differentiation in vitro are described in this article, along with current methods for isolating and purifying satellite cells.
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Cell-based meat, or cultured meat is at the early commercialization stage, but thorough considerations of the scaling-up challenges are scarce and the physiological data of animal muscle cells required by reliable process design are severely lacking. To make cultured meat an economically viable source of animal proteins, we propose a rational approach towards the design of a large scale air-lift reactor for cultured meat manufacturing. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is used as a primary tool to provide an a priori estimation of the mass transfer and mixing performance of the reactor and the effects of reactor internals are investigated. The mass transfer coefficient of 36 1/h, energy dissipation rate of 46 W/m³ and a mixing time of 103 s are all within acceptable ranges typical to animal cells. It is estimated that a single reactor of 300 m³ can supply the meat demand of a population of 75,000.
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Cultured meat, or tissue engineered meat, is a promising alternative to conventional meat production. In order to realistically mimic the multiple tissue types found in beef, food-compatible methods for bovine fat tissue engineering must be developed. We present a protocol for the isolation of adipose tissue-derived preadipocytes and subsequent adipogenic differentiation through free fatty acid stimulation. Differentiating preadipocytes can be either grown in 2D culture conditions or seeded in 3D alginate scaffolds. Differentiation is visually confirmed through lipophilic staining.
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Cultured meat grown in-vitro from animal cells is being developed as a way of addressing many of the ethical and environmental concerns associated with conventional meat production. As commercialisation of this technology appears increasingly feasible, there is growing interest in the research on consumer acceptance of cultured meat. We present a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, and synthesize and analyse the findings of 14 empirical studies. We highlight demographic variations in consumer acceptance, factors influencing acceptance, common consumer objections, perceived benefits, and areas of uncertainty. We conclude by evaluating the most important objections and benefits to consumers, as well as highlighting areas for future research.
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Adipocytes are one of the major stromal cell components of the human breast. These cells play a key role in the development of the gland and are implicated in breast tumorigenesis. Frequently, directional stromal collagen I fibres are found surrounding aggressive breast tumours. These fibres enhance breast cancer cell migration and are associated with poor patient prognosis. We sought to recapitulate these stromal components in vitro to provide a 3D model comprising human adipose tissue and anisotropic collagen fibres. We developed a human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) cell line capable of undergoing differentiation into mature adipocytes by immortalising hMSCs, isolated from breast reduction mammoplasties, via retroviral transduction. These immortalised hMSCs were seeded in engineered collagen I scaffolds with directional internal architecture and adipogenesis was chemically induced, resulting in human adipose tissue being synthesised in vitro in an architectural structure associated with breast tumorigenesis. Subsequently, fluorescently labelled from an established breast cancer cell line were seeded into this model, co-cultured for 7 days and imaged using multiphoton microscopy. Enhanced breast cancer cell migration was observed in the adipose-containing model over empty scaffold controls, demonstrating an adipocyte-mediated influence on breast cancer cell migration. Thus, this 3D in vitro model recapitulates the migratory effects of adipocytes observed on breast cancer cells and suggests that it could have utility with fresh breast tumour biopsies as an assay for cancer therapeutic efficacy in personalised medicine strategies.
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In a hypothetical choice experiment consumers were given the option of purchasing burgers that were made from beef, plant-based protein, or cultured meat. Willingness to purchase plant-based and cultured meat burgers is linked to age, sex, views of other food technologies, and attitudes towards the environment and agriculture. Although consumers were told that all burgers tasted the same, there was a marked preference for beef burgers. A mixed-logit model predicts that, if prices were equal, 65% of consumers would purchase the beef burger, 21% would purchase the plant-based burger, 11% would purchase the cultured meat burger, and 4% would make no purchase. Preferences for plant-based and cultured meat burgers are found to be highly, but not perfectly, correlated.
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Cultured meat could be a more environment- and animal-friendly alternative to conventional meat. However, in addition to the technological challenges, the lack of consumer acceptance could be a major barrier to the introduction of cultured meat. Therefore, it seems wise to take into account consumer concerns at an early stage of product development. In this regard, we conducted two experiments that examined the impact of perceived naturalness and disgust on consumer acceptance of cultured meat. The results of Experiment 1 suggest the participants' low level of acceptance of cultured meat because it is perceived as unnatural. Moreover, informing participants about the production of cultured meat and its benefits has the paradoxical effect of increasing the acceptance of traditional meat. Experiment 2 shows that how cultured meat is described influences the participants' perception. Thus, it is important to explain cultured meat in a nontechnical way that emphasizes the final product, not the production method, to increase acceptance of this novel food.
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Tissue engineering is a promising method for the regeneration of oral and maxillofacial tissues. Proper selection of a cell source is important for the desired application. This review describes the discovery and usefulness of Dedifferentiated Fat (DFAT) cells as a cell source for tissue engineering. DFAT cells are a highly homogeneous cell population (high purity), highly proliferative, and possess a multilineage potential for differentiation into various cell types under proper in vitro inducing conditions and in vivo. Moreover, DFAT cells have a higher differentiation capability of becoming osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes than do bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells and/or adipose tissue‐derived stem cells. The usefulness of DFAT cells in vivo for periodontal tissue, bone, peripheral nerve, muscle, cartilage, and fat tissue regeneration were reported. DFAT cells obtained from the human buccal fat pad (BFP) is a minimally invasive procedure with limited aesthetic complications for patients. The BFP is a convenient and accessible anatomical site to harvest DFAT cells for dentists and oral surgeons, and thus is a promising cell source for oral and maxillofacial tissue engineering. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Serum-free suspension cultures are preferably required for recombinant protein production due to its readiness in upstream/downstream processing and scale-up, therefore increasing process productivity and competitiveness. This type of culture replaces traditional cell culturing as the presence of animal-derived components may introduce lot-a-lot variability and adventitious pathogens to the process. However, adapting cells to serum-free conditions is challenging, time-consuming, and cell line and medium dependent. In this chapter, we present different approaches that can be used to adapt mammalian cell lines from an anchorage-dependent serum supplemented culture to a suspension serum-free culture.
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During mouse embryo development, both muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) and brown adipocytes (BAs) are known to derive from the same Pax7⁺/Myf5⁺ progenitor cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for the cell fate control remain unclear. In Pax7-null MPCs from young mice, several BA-specific genes, including Prdm16 and Ucp1 and many other adipocyte-related genes, were upregulated with a concomitant reduction of Myod and Myf5, two muscle lineage-determining genes. This suggests a cell fate switch from MPC to BA. Consistently, freshly isolated Pax7-null but not wild-type MPCs formed lipid-droplet-containing UCP1⁺ BA in culture. Mechanistically, MyoD and Myf5, both known transcription targets of Pax7 in MPC, potently repress Prdm16, a BA-specific lineage-determining gene, via the E2F4/p107/p130 transcription repressor complex. Importantly, inducible Pax7 ablation in developing mouse embryos promoted brown fat development. Thus, the MyoD/Myf5-E2F4/p107/p130 axis functions in both the Pax7⁺/Myf5⁺ embryonic progenitor cells and postnatal myoblasts to repress the alternative BA fate.
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Meat flavor is affected by the major precursors, proteins, and lipids. In this chapter the main reactions involved in the development of cooked meat aroma are fully described: lipid degradation, Maillard reactions, Strecker degradation, thiamine degradation, and carbohydrate degradation. In addition, the different isolation and identification techniques used for flavor characterization of the volatile compounds present in meat are described together with techniques used for evaluation of potent odorants such as odor activity value and olfactometry analysis. The aroma compounds in cooked meat from different animal species have been summarized together with those pre- and postslaughter factors affecting it. The antemortem factors are age, breed, sex, fat level, fat profile, and composition while postmortem factors are aging, cooking, storage after cooking, and the development of off-flavors due to irradiation and storage. Finally, the development of meat product flavor through wet and dry curing is explained and the main aroma compounds defined.
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Meat is an important source of nutrients for most people wanting to consume a balanced diet. It is high in protein with a good balance of amino acids and high in several minerals and vitamins, which play important roles in metabolism and are more easily assimilated from meat than from other foods. The high levels of saturated relative to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and of n-6 to n-3 PUFA, especially in the ruminant species, have been criticized, mainly on the grounds of cardiovascular health, and this has encouraged animal and meat scientists to search for ways of changing meat fatty acid composition using different feed ingredients. In the ruminants, grass feeding and the use of linseed and algae can improve the fatty acid profile, but most attempts have fallen short of the point where nutritional claims can be made, except for sheep-fed grass and algae. Meat from nonruminants, such as pork, can be fortified to supply useful levels of n-3 fatty acids by feeding linseed, fish oils, and algae. In all cases, high levels of PUFA need protection from oxidation, which can cause loss of freshness. This is achieved by incorporating a high level of vitamin E in the diet and using packaging and processing procedures which minimize oxidation.
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Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit and implicit attitude toward cultured meat. Three experiments were conducted using a Solomon four-group design to rule out pretest sensitization effects. The first experiment (N = 190) showed that positive or negative information about cultured meat changed the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. This effect was smaller for participants who were more familiar with cultured meat. In the second experiment (N = 194) positive information was provided about solar panels, an attitude object belonging to the same sustainable product category as sustainable food products such as cultured meat. Positive information about solar panels was found to change the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. Using mood induction, the third experiment (N = 192) ruled out the alternative explanation that explicit attitude change in experiment 1 and 2 was caused by content free affect rather than category based inferences. The implicit attitude appeared insensitive to both information or mood state in all three experiments. These findings show that the explicit attitude toward cultured meat can be influenced by information about the sustainability of cultured meat and information about a positively perceived sustainable product. This effect was shown to be content based rather than merely affect based. Content based information in a relevant context could therefore contribute to the commercial success of cultured meat.