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A New Regulation for Supporting a Circular Economy in the Plastic Industry: The Case of Peru (Short Communication)

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Abstract

The present study shows the regulatory proposal related to plastic by the Peruvian government and also, the previous initiatives are described so that it can be taken as a reference for the successful implementation in other countries, taking into account the regulatory and business aspects at the same time.
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... While it is true that the vast majority of products can benefit from changing packaging, this may not always be possible for specific products. Nonetheless, much emphasis has been placed on managing plastic waste, anticipating reduced use, and correct management (Alvarez-Risco et al., 2020;Wagner & Schlummer, 2020). More broadly, this can be one of the principles of approaches for the circular economy: ecological management of manufacturing materials. ...
... Different regions are reporting their findings; these are not necessarily possible in other locations. For example, details on local efforts and lessons were reported for Africa (Charles et al., 2019;Lee, 2019), Asia (Lehmann, 2018;Lobova et al., 2020), Oceania (Halog et al., 2021;Oughton et al., 2021), Europe (Calisto Friant et al., 2021;Domenech & Bahn-Walkowiak, 2019), and Latin America (Alvarez-Risco et al., 2020;Brenes-Peralta et al., 2020). ...
Chapter
Organizations have been transforming their operations under the circularity scheme, leading to a series of changes to make the supply chain sustainable. In this chapter, various components of circularity in processes are described. Detailed information is presented on companies making efforts to develop or implement supply chains based on the circular economy, such as ports. In addition, the necessary certifications are discussed to achieve harmonization regarding electrification of vehicles and agreed to global principles aligned with the Paris Agreement to achieve decarbonization of the oceans.
... The COVID-19 pandemic has altered society affecting business including tropical small-scale fishing communities [1], e-commerce and trade [2], freight transport [3], retail investors [4], and agricultural production [5]. It has also been reported to have significant effects on workers [6][7][8][9][10][11], regulations [12][13][14], entrepreneurship [15,16], education [17][18][19], intellectual property [20], firms [21], prices [22,23], tourism [10,24,25], and the general public [13,14,[26][27][28][29][30][31][32]. As with previous pandemics, COVID-19 has led to various limitations on access to essential products being brought about [33]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has affected and afflicted human lives and been a transformative catalyst leading to closure of many companies, disrupting mental health, and reducing access to food and exacerbating food insecurity. This presents an opportunity to reflect on and examine genetically modified (GM) foods and their effective legislative regulation for the benefit of consumers. This review presents a detailed analysis of GM foods’ regulation in Peru and the analysis of certain specific cases that show the need for greater regulation of the industry.
... A life cycle assessment (LCA) based on processes and an input and output analysis was agreed upon; it was calculated based on tourism consumption using a Japanese input and output table, and the industry, in general, showed that total emissions were around 136 million tCO 2 per year. Regarding the Table 1 Impact of COVID-19 in different sectors Education [9,10,19,22,24,54,83,84,130] Entrepreneurship [4,16,27,28,39,42,43,47,52,86,90] Health sector [1,8,11,13,21,40,45,55,61,81,101,104,125,128,129] Hospitality [63,70,73,77,124] Intellectual property [12,15,59,65,76,82,98,107,127] Population [6,25,51,71,87,99,105,108,120,123,125] Prices [36,56,68,72,85,97] Tourism [38, 41, 46, 48-50, 67, 109] Trade [2,3,5,29,31,44,57,79,88,113,118,126] Violence against women [34,53,62,69,102,106,119] relationship by percentages according to sectors, it was determined that mainly transportation represents 56.3%, souvenirs 23.2%, gasoline 16.9% and accommodation 9.8%, food and beverages 7.5% and activities 3%. Lu et al. [89] investigated the potential of virtual tourism in the tourism industry's recovery during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. ...
Chapter
This chapter aims to analyze the tourism sector globally and the creation of virtual tourism. It is presented along with the previous context of the sector and the damage made by the COVID-19 pandemic. This lens shows how virtual tourism emerged as an alternative to traditional tourism while people worldwide were forced to stay home during the uncertainty of the pandemic. Virtual tourism would be related to the arising environmental tendencies expected to be embraced by the industry companies to make tourism a more sustainable economic activity and, therefore, reduce its carbon footprint through circularity. Finally, it also analyses the possibility of its per durability once the consequences and lags of the pandemic are solved. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
... The world changed dramatically by COVID-19. Some specific areas involved include education [5,12,17], tourism [35][36][37], violence against woman [39,90], prices [27,68], research [41], intellectual property [24], health care [22,11,40,92,116,118,119,120], entrepreneurship [25,13,18,38], commerce [10,20,15,43,70], hospitality [115], and citizens behavior [11,84,117]. ...
Chapter
Virtual education has appeared to upgrade traditional education in different dimensions, such as easing the learning process, developing new teaching methodologies, and eliminating distance barriers. Since the pandemic outbreak by COVID-19, this situation has intensified, forcing students and educators to adapt to this new scenario, which involves staying at home and using electronic devices for long hours, which seems to contribute positively to the environment, as there is no need to attend education centers where physical installations and different services are used. However, little has been said about the environmental impact of virtual learning. Nevertheless, to have a transparent approach and determine virtual education sustainability, it is essential to analyze its implications. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
Chapter
When energy is considered, the circular economy seeks ways to reduce the environmental impact of energy systems by reducing energy use and waste generation. Design facets related to energy, especially energy selection and energy efficiency, are essential considerations in the circular economy and are described in this chapter. The descriptions are supported by background material on energy and its conversion. Then, energy use is discussed, and its impact on the environment is described. Efficiencies and other measures of merit for energy use are presented, and designs for energy selection and energy efficiency are described, highlighting energy-related design factors for the circular economy. For illustration, an example is presented.
Chapter
The textile and food industries are two sectors whose water consumption generates a significant environmental footprint. The production of industries must be focused on sustainability if the organizations for these sectors are improved. Therefore, it is necessary to focus the analysis on the sustainable alternatives applied in the supply chain by applying circular strategies. This chapter presents water use and its water footprint in the industries above. In addition, some strategies applied to improve water footprint levels—which involve water consumption and pollution—through circular strategies are presented. Finally, some trends and external and internal factors that can determine the successful implementation of a sustainable supply chain are presented. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
Chapter
Year by year, the waste footprint has been increasing significantly; thousands of tons of waste generated by various industry sectors is already bringing irreparable changes in the world. One of the principal industries that produce these effects is the fashion industry, which used to follow a traditional linear fashion promoted by marketing where consumption by demand becomes a “necessity.” However, this perspective has been changing, where the final consumer nowadays is more conscious about the process and the negative aspects that fast fashion means for the environment and the social aspect. This current chapter analyzes the aspects that the fashion industry generates, such as economic, environmental, and social impact, and the solution that provides the fashion and textile circularity for the sector with practical cases being implemented. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
Chapter
The academic and scientific literature agreed that the current economic, social, and environmental contexts require it to be treated immediately, especially in the packaging industry. Even though countries, organizations, and consumers took action to solve these problems, a change in the economic situation impacts the environmental and social ones and vice versa. To address all of them simultaneously, developing an economic model considering the three factors is necessary. This chapter discusses how a circular economy can lead to economic and sustainable growth, focusing on the packaging industry and carbon footprint. Analyzing what is currently done can also show a general picture of the current circular economy practices worldwide. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
Chapter
Companies that offer a good have a significant carbon footprint due to the production of their products. In this way, a selection of more environmentally friendly materials is sought to reduce pollution, so that unused or no longer helpful raw materials can be reused in the production of other derived products. This research details a circular economy framework for carbon footprint reduction, focusing on material selection. Most of the articles reviewed date from 2017 to 2021, demonstrating that the topic is new to the research area. Based on the literature review, research on the circular economy in feedstock sorting has focused on the recovery and recycling of waste to facilitate circularity in future. The framework presented also allows analysis from an eco-efficiency point of view because it considers economic and environmental aspects that improve products and processes using technologies. This way provides professionals with a new approach to efficiently cost-effectively managing their waste. In addition, circularity can be especially useful for the long-term strategy work of various companies regardless of the sector they are in, but which are in the goods production sector. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
Chapter
Unsustainable food supply chains are negatively affecting the environment. As a result, this topic has been debated worldwide, and several actors came to the same conclusions: intervention and actions are a must. Nonetheless, this approach was not standardized, and countries and companies are implementing circular economies differently. This chapter aims to outline the current circular economy approach taken internationally and discuss the barriers of this last. A qualitative analysis was conducted by collecting several case studies and understanding the identified practices and challenges. In the findings, the authors discovered that countries’ policies remain weak globally, though the demand is increasing. Drawbacks and limitations such as economic resources, technological innovation, and incentives are evidenced. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
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Plastic is an indispensable material to our everyday life. However, some negative properties, for example, the durability under mild conditions, pose threat to the natural environment. The circular economy is an effort to mimic the loop-closing attribute of nature in anthropogenic systems. To bring plastics in such circularity in term of circular economy, a number of issues have to be handled from the quality of the recycled material to the acceptance of its use in new products. It is sometimes only a subtle step what we can do easily. Freely available under the following link until 27.12.2018: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1Y0b83HVLKaZMQ
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The paper provides an overview of the literature on Circular Economy (CE) theoretical approaches, strategies and implementation cases. After analyzing different CE approaches and the underlying principles the paper then proceeds with the main goal of developing tools for CE implementation. Two tools are presented. The first is a CE Strategies Database, which includes 45 CE strategies that are applicable to different parts of the value chain. The second is a CE Implementation Database, which includes over 100 case studies categorized by Scope, Parts of the Value Chain that are involved, as well as by the used Strategy and Implementation Level. An analysis of the state of the art in CE implementation is also included in the paper. One of the observations from the analysis is that while such Parts of the Value Chain as Recovery/Recycling and Consumption/Use are prominently featured, others, including Manufacturing and Distribution, are rarely involved in CE. On the other hand, the Implementation Levels of the used Strategies indicate that many market-ready solutions exist already. The Scope of current CE implementation considers selected products, materials and sectors, while system changes to economy are rarely suggested. Finally, the CE monitoring methods and suggestions for future development are also discussed in this paper. The analysis of the theoretical approaches can serve as an introduction to CE concept, while the developed tools can be instrumental for designing new CE cases.
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Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source.
The Paris Agreement. Retrieved on 13
UNFCC, (2018). The Paris Agreement. Retrieved on 13 January 2019 from https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/ the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement.
Law that regulates the plastic of a single use and the disposable containers
CBD, (2015). Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Retrieved on 13 January 2019 from https://www.cbd.int/sp/targets/. Gobierno del Perú, (2018). Law that regulates the plastic of a single use and the disposable containers. Retrieved on 13 January 2019 from https://busquedas.elperuano.pe/ normaslegales/ley-que-regula-el-plastico-de-un-solo-uso-y-los-recipientes-ley-n-30884-172 4734-1/