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# Soft Fingertips With Tactile Sensing and Active Deformation for Robust Grasping of Delicate Objects

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Soft fingertips have shown significant adaptability for grasping a wide range of object shapes thanks to elasticity. This ability can be enhanced to grasp soft, delicate objects by adding touch sensing. However, in these cases, the complete restraint and robustness of the grasps have proved to be challenging, as the exertion of additional forces on the fragile object can result in damage. This paper presents a novel soft fingertip design for delicate objects based on the concept of embedded air cavities, which allow the dual ability of adaptive sensing and active shape changing. The pressurized air cavities act as soft tactile sensors to control gripper position from internal pressure variation; and active fingertip deformation is achieved by applying positive pressure to these cavities, which then enable a delicate object to be kept securely in position, despite externally applied forces, by form closure. We demonstrate this improved grasping capability by comparing the displacement of grasped delicate objects exposed to high-speed motions. Results show that passive soft fingertips fail to restrain fragile objects at accelerations as low as ${0.1 m/s^{2}}$ , in contrast, with the proposed fingertips, delicate objects are completely secure even at accelerations of more than ${5 m/s^{2}}$ .
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IEEE ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION LETTERS. PREPRINT VERSION. ACCEPTED JANUARY, 2020 1
Soft Fingertips with Tactile Sensing and
Active Deformation for Robust Grasping of
Delicate Objects
Abstract—Soft ﬁngertips have shown signiﬁcant adaptability
for grasping a wide range of object shapes thanks to elasticity.
This ability can be enhanced to grasp soft, delicate objects by
adding touch sensing. However, in these cases, the complete
restraint and robustness of the grasps have proved to be challeng-
ing, as the exertion of additional forces on the fragile object can
result in damage. This paper presents a novel soft ﬁngertip design
for delicate objects based on the concept of embedded air cavities,
which allow the dual ability of tactile sensing and active shape-
changing. The pressurized air cavities act as soft tactile sensors
to control gripper position from internal pressure variation; and
active ﬁngertip deformation is achieved by applying positive
pressure to these cavities, which then enable a delicate object to
be kept securely in position, despite externally applied forces, by
form closure. We demonstrate this improved grasping capability
by comparing the displacement of grasped delicate objects
exposed to high-speed motions. Results show that passive soft
ﬁngertips fail to restrain fragile objects at accelerations as low
as 0.1m/s2, in contrast, with the proposed ﬁngertips delicate
objects are completely secure even at accelerations of more than
5m/s2.
Index Terms—Soft Sensors and Actuators, Grasping, Gripper
and Other End-Effectors.
I. INTRODUCTION
The need for robotic grasping and manipulating soft objects
without damage has been growing in farming, industrial, and
household environments [1]. Soft and fragile objects such as
fruits, vegetables, or other non-rigid food products tend to
either break or deform if too much force is applied [2]. Both
the agricultural sector and the food industry are currently
urging for such grippers in the continuous automation of
their processes, for increased efﬁciency, hygiene, and quality—
e.g., [3], Human workers can easily handle delicate products
without crushing them for tasks such as gripping, positioning,
orienting, and placing. In contrast, robot grippers face great
Manuscript received: September, 10, 2019; Revised November, 17, 2019;
Accepted January, 20, 2020.
This paper was recommended for publication by Editor Kyu-Jin Cho upon
evaluation of the Associate Editor and Reviewers’ comments. *This work was
supported in part by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
grant EP/R020833/1.
1Liang He, Qiujie Lu, Nicolas Rojas, and Thrishantha Nanayakkara are
with the Dyson School of Design Engineering, Imperial College London, 25
Exhibition Road, London SW7 2DB, UK. L.he17@imperial.ac.uk
versity College London, London, UK s.abad-guaman@ucl.ac.uk
Research, Av. Granados E13-55 e Isla Marchena, No.44, Quito, 170503,
Fig. 1. Embedded air cavities in the proposed soft ﬁngertips allow the
dual ability of soft tactile sensing, via internal pressure variation, and active
deformation, via positive pressure. The active shape-changing allows keeping
delicate objects securely in position despite external forces being applied.
difﬁculties to grasp soft and fragile objects with different size,
stiffness, and shape [4]. Natural food products like fruits, for
instance, tend to get bruised when high contact pressure is
applied on the contact point [5]. In addition, the modeling
of the contact point and the gripper is limited due to the
shape and ripeness variation of natural fruits. The grasping also
needs to be robust enough to be manipulated in high speed for
production efﬁciency. The challenge is how to ensure precision
robust grasping with controllable applied force on soft objects.
Currently, rigid contact grippers [6], soft robotic grippers
[7], and air with suction cups [8] are designed to be used
in the food industry for pick and place tasks. Rigid grippers
have the advantages of high precision control with the ease of
integrating tactile, position, and torque sensors [9]. A stable
grasping force and dexterous manipulation of the object can be
achieved with force and position feedback [10]. However, rigid
grippers are lacking adaptability, and they are prone to cause
damages when manipulating very fragile and soft objects.
Conversely, soft grippers such as the starﬁsh gripper with
the embedded pneumatic networks (PneuNets) [11] and phase
changing grippers like the universal gripper with granular
jamming material [12] show high resilience and compliance.
The high adaptability of soft robotic grippers indeed increased
the performance in grasping delicate food products with lower
contact pressure, yet the precise modeling and robustness are
very challenging compared to rigid grippers [13]. In addition,
most grasping tasks with soft grippers are enabled by power
grasp, which disabled the capability for in-hand and precision
2 IEEE ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION LETTERS. PREPRINT VERSION. ACCEPTED JANUARY, 2020
manipulation [14]. Specialized grasping technologies based on
airﬂow such as suction cups and Bernoulli principle grippers
are possible to handle objects with different sizes and work
with multiple objects at the same time [15], [8]. However,
the airﬂow-based technologies work poorly with products that
have rough surfaces, porous structure, and irregular shapes.
The product surface can also get damaged or marked during
grasping and manipulation.
One solution to achieve robust soft object grasping is to
enable form closure and tactile sensing with ﬁngertips that
can change the morphology. Form closure is created when
the object is fully constrained by contacts of the grippers,
irrespective of the magnitude of the forces [16], [17]. Thus,
the required force to prevent the object from escaping can
be signiﬁcantly reduced in industrial pick and placing tasks
compared to two-point pitch grasp [18] which relies on friction
(force closure). The increased contact areas between the object
and gripper can also improve the grasping stability as shown
in [19], where the shape of the ﬁngertips are designed to adapt
the object based on contact primitives. Tactile sensors, such
as capacitive [20], optical [10], and piezoelectric [21] sensors
are commonly being employed on the ﬁngers for sensing
to detect grasping force and increase accuracy [22], [10].
Fingertip designs with embedded sensors can also achieve high
resolution and relatively soft contact when interacting with
the object [23], [24]. However, conventional tactile sensors
are difﬁcult to integrate with high softness grippers and soft
ﬁngertips that can produce active deformation.
In this paper, we propose a novel ﬁngertip design that has
the dual ability of tactile sensing and active shape-changing
(Fig. 1) with the same set of pneumatic-controlled hardware.
The ﬁngertips are integrated and tested with a traditional
grasper with four-bar-linkage ﬁngers based on the GR2 gripper
[25]. The grasper itself without the designed ﬁngertips is
inappropriate for soft object grasping as a high contact force is
needed for securing the object in hand. Our aim is to combine
the advantages of soft robot design with a rigid gripper to
change the soft ﬁngertip geometry via positive pressures and
use pressure variations for tactile sensing. By active changing
the shape of the ﬁngertips to adapt to the object shape,
implementations such as 2D form-closure grasping can be
created in regard to the object sizes. Combining the dual
function of the soft ﬁngertips allows the gripper to be able to
grasp soft and delicate objects with low contact force, while
being robust enough for high-speed manipulations.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section II
introduces the design and control of the dual-soft ﬁngertips
and modiﬁed gripper. Experiment results of crushing tests with
sensorised soft cylindrical objects of different size and escap-
ing tests with these at high speed are detailed in section III
and IV, respectively. Finally, section V provides a conclusion
and discussion of the work.
II. FI NG ERT IP DE SI GN A ND CO NT ROL
A. Fingertip design
The ﬁngertip structure was designed with the consideration
of the planar grasping motion for demonstrating the proposed
Fig. 2. (a) Schematics of the dual-function ﬁngertip design. (b) Fingertip
thickness wand (c) shore hardness variation of inﬂation (blue) and deﬂation
(red) tests. The x-axis label of b is the same as c. (d) Sensor output values
versus applied surface load for ﬁngertips of different inﬂated pressure.Three
dual-functionality. The soft ﬁngertip is designed with silicone
rubber (Ecoﬂex 0030 with part A, part B mixing ratio of 1:1,
from Smooth-on, USA) to ensure safe interaction with soft
objects. Two half-cylindrical air cavities made from the same
silicone rubber are created and cast inside the soft ﬁngertip
for sensing and inﬂation. The base of the soft ﬁngertip is 3D
printed with VeroClear on a Stratasys Object 260 3D printer.
The structure of the base is designed to ensure the silicone
ﬁngertip fully secures on the base and grow in the desired
direction during inﬂation. Fig. 2a. shows the schematics of the
dual-function ﬁngertip design. This ﬁgure also demonstrates
a scenario where the ﬁngertips are inﬂated to adapt to the
object shape actively, and a 2D form-closure grasping can be
therefore achieved. With different inﬂated air cavity sizes, the
ﬁngertips can be controlled to adapt to the grasping object.
According to the ideal gas law, PV =nRT (where, P,V, and
Tare the pressure, volume, and absolute temperature, n,Rare
the number of moles of gas and the ideal gas constant), the
internal air pressure shows a co-relation to the volume change
of the air cavity when n,R,Tare constant. Considering the
incompressibility of silicone, the volume change of the air
cavity caused by external force can be measured with a pres-
sure sensor. Previous work [26] about pneumatic deformation
HE et al.: SOFT FINGERTIPS WITH TACTILE SENSING AND ACTIVE DEFORMATION 3
Fig. 3. (a) Kinematic chain of the gripper during grasping task. P1, P2, P3, and P4 are revolute joints on the left gripper. P5 is the middle point of the
ﬁngertip rigid surface. P6 is the middle point of the silicone surface of the ﬁngertip. θis the input angle to close/open the mechanism. ρis the ﬁxing angle
of the central triangular link after locked in place. D is the distance between two grippers measured from the middle points. The gripper moves symmetric
during the grasping task in this study. (b) Sample data of the pressure reading of the four air cavites when grasping a 30mm cylinder. The four subplots are
represented from the four sensing air cavities (L1, L2, R1, and R4), respectively.
sensing conﬁrms that the air cavity can be used as a force
sensor with the reading from pressure sensors.
We use the embedded air cavities as soft tactile sensors to
control the gripper position with the internal pressure data.
When the air cavity is inﬂated, the deformation of the air
cavity causes shape change of the gripper’s ﬁngertip. The
mechanical properties (size and hardness) of the ﬁngertip
were tested and shown in Fig. 2. Thickness wand shore
hardness were collected at the widest part of the ﬁngertip
with a caliper and a type C Durometer (resolution of 0.5 HC),
respectively. For a single trial, the ﬁngertip was inﬂated by
step around 5 kPa to measure those mechanical properties,
same as the deﬂation. The curves represent the average data of
5 trials of inﬂation/deﬂation tests in a continuous cycle. The
ﬁngertip thickness wincreases from 22 mm to 29 mm and
the shore hardness of the ﬁngertip increases from 20 HC to
33.5 HC during inﬂation (102 kPa to 150 kPa). The measured
shore hardness of the original Ecoﬂex 0030 is 25 HC. The
ﬁngertip exhibits a hardness change during inﬂation from
softer to stiffer compared to original ﬁngertips. Fig. 2 also
shows that the hysteresis is 0.005 for thickness and 0.062
for shore hardness as a consequence of material hysteresis.
The maximum measured variability was 0.9 mm for thickness
and 2.3 HC for shore hardness. The sensitivity of the tactile
sensor was evaluated by applying a load to the center of one of
the ﬁngertip cavities. A 3D printed probe with the tip diameter
of 20 mm was mounted on an ANT130 XY-stage (Aerotech
Inc., accuracy of 2.5 µm) with an ATI Mini40-E Force/Torque
sensor (SI-40-2, ATI Industrial Automation, USA, resolution
of 0.02 N) attached to perform the calibration. The load was
applied incrementally until the sensor reading saturated. Due to
the maximum intake load of the XY-stage, the maximum force
was recorded at around 20 N. A clear increase of sensing range
was observed when inﬂating the air cavity. The maximum
sensing range of the non-inﬂated state cavity is around 10 N,
Fig. 4. Pneumatic diagram for the ﬁngertip control. All 4 pressurized
air cavities are controlled and measured independently. The dashed square
indicates the components of the ﬁngertips while pressure sensors, solenoid
valves, the air reservoir, and the air pump are connected externally. Black lines
indicate the pneumatic connections, red lines indicate the sensors signals, and
blue lines indicate control signals.
while the maximum range increased to more than 20 N when
the air cavity is inﬂated to 50 kPa. The load was also gradually
removed to evaluate the hysteresis: no visible hysteresis was
shown for the inﬂated pressure 0,10,25,and 40 kPa; small
hysteresis was shown with the 50 kPa. Sensor output with
load showed good linearity (r2>0.99) for the inﬂated pressure
0,10,25,and 40. Data for inﬂated pressure 50 kPa showed
lower linearity with average r2=0.98. Signals were recorded
at 1000 Hz. The system showed good sensitivity with less than
0.05 N with characterization method found in [24] (0.0287N,
0.0263N, 0.0222N, 0.0218N, and 0.0351N for the inﬂated
pressure 0,10,25,40 and 50 kPa). Additional ﬁltering can
further reduce the signal noise to increase the sensitivity and
reliability of the ﬁngertips. Data are shown in Fig. 2d.
B. Gripper and ﬁngertips control
We redesigned the GR2 gripper with a gear mechanism
instead of a tendon-driven actuation to increase the actuation
4 IEEE ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION LETTERS. PREPRINT VERSION. ACCEPTED JANUARY, 2020
Fig. 5. 3D printed soft cylinders with pneumatic sensors in variation sizes.
accuracy, as well as locked the central triangular link to
simplify the grasping stage. Two Dynamixel MX-64T servo
motors (ROBOTIS, South Korea) were used to control the
gears via a U2D2 USB communication converter with Labview
2018. Fig. 3a. shows the kinematic chain of the gripper during
the grasping task. The linkage between P1 and P4 are ﬁxed in
this study to make the GR2 gripper perform as a traditional
ﬁxed-geometry base two-ﬁnger robot gripper. During grasping
tasks, the soft air cavities on the ﬁngertips deform when the
gripper grasps an object. The sensing data in Fig. 3 shows the
demonstrated pressure variations of all four air cavities (L1,
L2 on the left ﬁngertip and R1, R2 on the right ﬁngertip) when
grasping a 30mm cylindrical object.
The pneumatic diagram in Fig. 4 shows the connection
of the four soft air cavities in the ﬁngertips and external
hardware. The air cavities were connected with 4 pressure
sensors (PSE 543-R06, SMC Corporation, Japan), 5 solenoid
valves (Z031C, Sirai, Italy), one air reservoir, and an air pump.
A National Instrument DAQ (USB-6341) with Labview 2018
was used to measure the internal air pressure and control the
experiment. The internal air pressure of each soft air cavities
(L1, L2, R1, R2) was controlled separately with a closed-loop
pressure controller. The pressure increase was achieved by a
proportional controller with the air pump while a computer-
controlled solenoid valve (S5) was used in the system to
decrease the pressure. Since the air cavities have a small
volume, an air reservoir was used to stabilize the internal
pressure without overshoot. When closing the solenoid valves
S1, S2, S3, and S4, the internal air mass in the air cavity was
maintained. Then, the air cavities L1, L2, R1, and R2 can
be used for sensing tasks by measuring the internal pressure
variations through the pressure sensors P1, P2, P3, and P4,
respectively. When the shape-changing of the ﬁngertips is
needed, the controller will be used to inﬂate the soft air cavities
to desired pressure conditions.
III. CRUS HI NG TEST WITH SO FT OBJECTS
A. Soft testing Objects
The experiment focuses on demonstrating the sensing ca-
pability and repeatability of the tactile sensors during soft
object grasping. In order to quantify the impact of the gripper
on soft objects, 3D printed soft cylinders with the same
concept of pneumatic sensing of the ﬁngertips were used in
this study. The soft cylinders are airtight and connected to
a pressure sensor where the internal pressure change of the
cylinder represents the amount of deformation caused by an
Fig. 6. Type 1 ﬁngertips with only silicone pad and type 2 ﬁngertips with
pressurized air cavities
external force. Five soft sensing cylinders with the diameter
D0=10,20,30,40,50 mm, length of 50 mm, and 1.5 mm
thickness were 3D printed using combinations of TangoPlus
and VeroClear on an Object 260 3D printer [27] with the
material FLX9960-DM (Fig. 5).
B. Gripper position control with tactile sensors
Two types of ﬁngertips (Fig. 6) were tested to show the
comparison results on grasping soft cylindrical objects. Firstly,
only position control of the gripper with ﬁngertip type 1
(pure silicone ﬁngertip with no sensor) were used to grasp
the soft object to the distance between two ﬁngers D=0.9D0,
D=0.8D0,D=0.7D0, and D=0.6D0, where D0is the initial
diameter of the soft object without deformation. The smaller
the distance Dbetween the two ﬁngers, the larger deformation
will be caused by the grasp. The relative pressure change
inside the soft object reﬂects the deformation quantitatively.
During the test, each object was placed in the center of
the grippers. This procedure was repeated 5 times for each
grasping condition. Secondly, position control with ﬁngertip
tactile sensors was enabled with ﬁngertip type 2 to detect
the object during grasping. We implemented a closed-loop
controller based on the pressure information from the 4 air
cavities on the ﬁngertips to control the input angle θof the
gripper during the test [28]. The controller is described as
θk=
θk1+˙
θdtif P
kP
s
θk1if P
s<P
kP
t
θk1˙
θdtif P
t<P
k
(1)
and
θmin θkθmax (2)
where, θkis the present angle of the motor, P
kis the highest
pressure change among the 4 sensed pressures from L1, L2,
R1, and R2 (to mitigate the grasping position errors), ˙
θdis
the reference velocity to open/close gripper, tis the time
step, P
sand P
tare the lower and higher band pressure (within
sensor sensing range, see Fig. 2d), and θmin and θmax are the
minimum and maximum rotation angle of the gripper. During
the tactile sensing experiment, P
swas set to be 0.1 kPa while P
t
was set to be 0.12 kPa. In the experiment, the signal sampling
rate from the pressure sensors was 1000 Hz and a Median
ﬁlter with window size of 100 was applied to the signal. We
performed 15 trials for each soft object by placing them in
the center of the grippers for testing the repeatability of the
sensor.
HE et al.: SOFT FINGERTIPS WITH TACTILE SENSING AND ACTIVE DEFORMATION 5
Fig. 7. The ﬁgure shows the relative internal pressure change when feedback control is enabled with tactile sensors on the ﬁngertips during the grasping test.
The results with 5 soft cylinders 1-5 with the diameter D0=10,20,30,40,50 mm are shown in sub-ﬁgures a-e, respectively, a standard deviation of 15
trials is shown. The y-axis label is same for sub-ﬁgures a-e.
Fig. 8. The relative internal pressure change of the soft objects during stable grasping. The result of tactile sensors on ﬁngertips are shown with comparison
to results of set gripper positions D=0.9D0,0.8D0,0.7D0,0.6D0. The result with 5 soft cylinders 1-5 with the diameter D0=10,20,30,40,50 mm are
shown in sub-ﬁgures a-e, respectively,a standard deviation of 15 trials is shown.The y-axis label is same for sub-ﬁgures a-e.
For only the position control experiment, the input angle
θof the gripper was calculated with given distance D using
the bilateration method [29]. Two vectors p4,5and p4,3are
connecting point P
4to P
5and point P
4to P
3, as shown in Fig. 3.
These two vectors can form a bilateration matrix, Z4,5,3, and
then p4,3can be computed as:
p4,3=Z4,5,3p4,5(3)
where
Z4,5,3=1
2s4,5s4,3+s4,5s5,344,5,3
44,5,3s4,3+s4,5s5,3,(4)
and
4,5,3=±1
4q(s4,3+s4,5+s5,3)22(s2
4,3+s2
4,5+s2
5,3),(5)
with 4,5,3being the oriented area of the triangle deﬁned by
points P
4,P
5, and P
3(4453). The positive or negative of it
implies that p4,3can point in one of two directions. When P
3
is to the right of vector p4,5, the oriented area is negative;
otherwise it is positive. With the same equation, P
2can be
computed with the same theory by points P
5,P
3, and P
2(4532):
P
2=P
5+Z5,3,2p5,3.(6)
A detailed description of these formulae can be found in [29],
[30].
C. Results
Fig. 7 shows the crushing test results of the ﬁngertip
with tactile sensors. During grasping, the internal pressure
of the grasped soft objects exhibit a gradual increase until
the increased contact pressure triggered the controller to
stabilize. For all the trials, the sensor shows good consistency
and repeatability with a average standard deviation error
of 0.24, 0.34, 0.42, 0.25, and 0.08 kPa for soft cylinders
D0=10,20,30,40,50 mm, respectively. When the ﬁngertips
interact with a soft object during grasping tasks, the relative
sensitivity of the tactile sensors is affected by the stiffness
of the ﬁngertips and the stiffness of the soft object. When the
stiffness of the ﬁngertips is ﬁxed, as shown in the experiments,
the tactile sensors are more sensitive when the object is
stiffer. In the study, although all of the soft cylinders are 3D
printed with the same material and same thickness, the smaller
diameter cylinders would have higher strain energy density
due to the structure. Thus, smaller cylinders exhibit higher
stiffness. On the other hand, smaller volume soft cylinders
would cause a larger pressure change with the same amount
of deformation (PV =nRT where n,R,Tare constants).
Considering the two factors (structure stiffness and volume),
soft cylinder 2 D0=20mm exhibits the highest pressure
variation during grasping in the experiment.
The stabilized pressure data from the soft objects with
closing gripper distance D=0.9D0,0.8D0,0.7D0,0.6D0
are compared with the test when tactile sensors are used for
control with pressure limit sets between P
s=0.1 kPa and
6 IEEE ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION LETTERS. PREPRINT VERSION. ACCEPTED JANUARY, 2020
Fig. 9. (a) Experiment setup for the escaping test. The robot arm only moves
up and down with gradually increased speed and acceleration after the object
is secured in hand. (b) Two 0.5 N standard calibration weights were attached
on the soft object.
TABLE I
SET P RES SU RES F OR TH E ES CAP IN G TES T
Soft object diameter D0[mm] 10 20 30 40 50
Set pressure [kPa] 2 1.2 1.5 1 0.5
P
t=0.12 kPa. The relative internal pressure comparison results
between ﬁngertips with and without tactile sensors are shown
in Fig. 8. It proves that deformation can be kept below 0.7
of the original diameter for all 5 different sized soft cylinders
under current set limit conditions. The set limit condition P
s
and P
tcan be tuned for lower or higher force grasp. The
sensitivity of the ﬁngertips can also be increased by reducing
the material stiffness.
IV. ESCAPING TEST WITH HIGH-SP EE D MANIPULATION
A. Experiment setup
In the industrial environment, products are commonly
picked and placed from one location to another location.
Grasping the product with a gripper and ensuring the product
“follows” the trajectory of the manipulator is essential. With
only force closure by contact friction, the grasping normally
requires relatively high force, which makes it inappropriate
for soft and fragile products. By having form closure or
caging grasps, the capability of the object to “follow” the
manipulator without escaping can be signiﬁcantly increased.
In this experiment, we attach the gripper on a UR5 robot arm
(Universal Robots, Denmark) to test the performance of the
ﬁngertips during high-speed manipulations. We expect the type
2 ﬁngertips with active deformation can secure the grasping
object better under high-speed manipulation compare to type
1 ﬁngertips with only silicone pads.
Fig. 9 shows the setup of the experiment. The robot arm
was programmed to do a sinusoidal movement with gradually
increased speed and acceleration after the gripper grasped
the object and secured it in hand. Type 2 ﬁngertips with
active shaping changing ability and type 1 ﬁngertips with only
silicone pads were tested separately with soft objects with the
diameter D0=10,20,30,40,50 mm. 0.5 N standard calibration
a.
b.
c.
Fig. 10. (a) Gripper position during the escaping test. (b) Gripper acceleration
during the escaping test. (c) Relative moving distance between the gripper and
object during the escaping test. Red and blue cross marks show the position
and acceleration where the object loss in contact with type 1 ﬁngertips and
type 2 ﬁngertips, respectively. 15 trials for each ﬁngertip are shown.
weights were attached on each side of the soft object to add ex-
tra initial inertia (shown in Fig. 9 b). Relative moving distance
calculated based on the distance change between the gripper
and object were used to evaluate the grasping robustness.
Motion tracking cameras (Flex 3 OptiTrack, NaturalPoint, Inc.,
USA) were used to record the gripper and object position
during manipulations with pre-attached reference markers. The
internal pressure change of the soft object was recorded and
used as a reference to ensure equal force was applied to
the object between type 1 and type 2 ﬁngertips. Before each
manipulation, type 2 ﬁngertip cavities were inﬂated to a certain
size to adapt to the object shape until the soft object reached
the set pressure. Active shape-changing of the ﬁngertips is
needed to ensure the form-closure created for objects with
different diameters. Table I shows the set pressures of the 5
soft objects in the test. Each soft object was tested 3 times for
repetition.
B. Result
Fig. 10 a. shows the gripper position represented by the
end-effector of the UR5 robot arm as they move together as
a rigid body. Fig. 10 b. shows the acceleration of the gripper
during the test. Fig. 10 c. shows the relative moving distance
between the object and the gripper with 15 trials of test for
HE et al.: SOFT FINGERTIPS WITH TACTILE SENSING AND ACTIVE DEFORMATION 7
Fig. 11. (a) Form-closure model of the inﬂated ﬁngertips with 4 Kel vin Voight models. (b) Example sensing data from the 4 pressurized soft cavities L1,
L2, R1, and R2 for the time period of 40 s to 55 s of one trial of soft object D0=30 mm test. Moving trajectory and acceleration during the period are
shown in Fig. 10.
pure silicone ﬁngertips shown in red and dual-soft ﬁngertips
shown in blue for the 5 different soft objects. When the relative
distance between the object and gripper is greater than 5 mm,
the object will be considered as “escape” during the test. All
the tests carried out with ﬁngertips type 2, with active changed
shape, successfully secured the object during the high-speed
manipulation test with accelerations more than 5 m/s2. Only
1 out of the 15 trials experiment for ﬁngertip type 2 had
displacement larger than 5 mm. In contrast, none of the 15
trials with ﬁngertips type 1 passed the test, while the object
started to show “offset” when the gripper starts moving and
“loss contact” at manipulation accelerations as low as 0.1 m/s2.
The positions where the “escape” happened are marked with
cross marks in Fig. 10 a. and b. A clear oscillation can be
observed from the relative moving distance data, as shown in
Fig. 10 c.
During the manipulation tasks with ﬁngertips type 1, friction
is mainly used to secure the object in hand Ffmg =matand
Ff6µsN, where Ffis the friction between ﬁngertips and the
object, mis the mass of the object, atis the object acceleration
in vertical direction, µsis the static coefﬁcient of friction,
and Nis the applied normal force from the grasping. The
object starts losing contact with the gripper when its inertia
overcomes the static friction when the acceleration is high. The
object will be secured again when the gripper reduces its speed
when approaching the peak points. The oscillations observed
in Fig. 10 c. for type 1 ﬁngertips manipulations reﬂects these
short-period of secured grasps.
For the manipulation tasks with ﬁngertips type 2, small
oscillations can also be observed, particularly during high
acceleration periods. However, the oscillations are relatively
smaller in amplitudes compare to ﬁngertips type 1, and the
causes for the oscillations of the two types of ﬁngertips are
different. The form-closure structure formed by the active
shape-changing ﬁngertips will also act as soft dampers to
reduce the contact force between the gripper and soft object.
Viscoelastic material such as silicone can be modelled by con-
necting a spring and a dashpot in parallel as Kelvin Voight
model [31]. Fig. 11a. shows the model of grasping with form-
closure ﬁngertips. During high accelerations, the ﬁngertips will
thus deform according to the direction and amplitude of the
acceleration. The form-closure structure will then behave like
a tight caging with shock absorbers which allow the object to
move during dynamic conditions. Extra protection of the soft
object can be provided with smaller contact force compared
to rigid form-closure grippers. This explains the oscillation of
the relative distance between the object and gripper for type
2 ﬁngertips during high-acceleration manipulations.
In addition, the inﬂated ﬁngertips can also sense the force
between the object and different area of the ﬁngertips during
the manipulation. Fig. 11 b. shows the sensor reading from
L1, L2, R1, and R2 pressurized air cavities during a period
of manipulation. The data is shown by one trial of soft object
3 and D0=30 mm manipulation test for the period of 40
to 55 s. The sensor reading data reﬂects the oscillations
in the relative moving distance, as shown in Fig. 10 c.
Clear oscillations of the relative pressure can be observed
when higher and lower forces were applied to the object.
In the experiment, the cylindrical object was placed in the
center of the gripper. Due to the in-hand location of the
cylindrical object and the sinusoidal movement, the top two
pressurized air cavities L1 and R1 show similar trend while
the bottom two pressurized air cavities L2 and R2 show
opposite trends. When the object moves upward relative to
the gripper, the top two sensor readings increase while the
bottom two sensor readings decrease. The curved morphology
of the ﬁngertips allows the tactile sensors to sense forces in
different conﬁguration compared to its original non-inﬂated
states. The in-hand position and force distribution of the object
can, therefore, be monitored during the manipulation.
V. CONCLUSIONS
This paper presents the concept of a soft ﬁngertip design
with the dual function of tactile sensing and active shape-
changing. The ﬁngertips are integrated on a traditional grasper
with four-bar-linkage ﬁngers based on the GR2 robot gripper,
with pressure feedback control to enable safe grasping with
soft and delicate objects. The proposed ﬁngertips achieve
8 IEEE ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION LETTERS. PREPRINT VERSION. ACCEPTED JANUARY, 2020
form closure by inﬂating different sections to change its
shape during grasping. With the soft form-closure structure,
the gripper can not only secure the object for high-speed
manipulation but also reduce the increased contact impact
force caused by inertia. In addition, when the ﬁngertip is
inﬂated, the change of its morphology would change the way
the ﬁngertip senses, from ﬂat to a curved baseline.
In this study, we limited the objects to soft sensorised cylin-
drical objects with different diameters to clearly demonstrate
the dual function of active shape-changing and sensing of
the ﬁngertip. Objects from the YCB grasping test were also
grasped with a success rate of 100% (repeated 3 times) to
show the grasping reliability and repeatability. Selected testing
videos are also included in the supplementary materials[32].
One limitation of the current design is that actuation of the
ﬁngertip for shape-changing of a single air cavity cannot be
achieved simultaneously with its sensing function. Further
detailed calibrations of the ﬁngertips and design of more
speciﬁc controllers are needed for future applications.
Rigid grippers have the advantages of low cost, simple
but precise control, and high reliability while soft robotic
grippers are able to safely interact with delicate objects due to
its high adaptability and low contact pressure. The ﬁngertip
design we proposed combined the advantages of rigid and
soft robotic grippers by: 1) using rigid mechanism for precise
general grasping and manipulation, 2) applying soft gripper
actuation in a local contact level to retain safe interaction
with the object, and 3) integrating soft tactile sensing on
the ﬁngertip for feedback control. Grippers with such dual-
function ﬁngertips have the advantage to be used in food
industries with food products that are easy to bruise, tear, or
deform. Compared to the prehensile approach by most soft
robotic grippers, the form closure (which can behave like a
tight caging with shock absorbers) achieved by the ﬁngertips
active shape-changing provides the potential to manipulate the
object without immobilizing it. Future study will focus on
using the shape-changing and tactile sensing ability of the
ﬁngertip for dexterous in-hand manipulation.
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Contact models for soft fingertips are able to precisely compute deformation when information about contact forces and object position is known, thus improving the traditional soft finger contact model. However, the functionality of these approaches for the study of in-hand manipulation with robot hands has been shown to be limited, since the location of the manipulated object is uncertain due to compliance and closed-loop constraints. This paper presents a novel, tractable approach for contact modelling of soft fingertips in within-hand dexterous manipulation settings. The proposed method is based on a relaxation of the kinematic equivalent of point contact with friction, modelling the interaction between fingertips and objects as joints with clearances rather than ideal instances, and then approximating clearances via affine arithmetic to facilitate computation. These ideas are introduced using planar manipulation to aid discussion, and are used to predict the reachable workspace of a two-fingered robot hand with fingertips of different hardness and geometry. Numerical and empirical experiments are conducted to analyse the effects of soft fingertips on manipulation operability; results demonstrate the functionality of the proposed approach, as well as a trade-off between hardness and depth in soft fingertips to achieve better manipulation performance of dexterous robot hands.
Conference Paper
The global food industry is facing many challenges due to the impact of climate change, ever-changing demands by consumers, and increasing legislative pressures by the government, which have resulted in several drivers for changes. Current large-scale rigid manufacturing systems are increasingly seen as incapable of supporting the underlining requirements for implementation of such changes. In this context, one of the key requirements is the need for improved flexibility and reconfigurability of production facilities, often provided by adoption of Industrial Robots in other manufacturing sectors. However, despite their recent technological advancements, in particular the advent of the 4th industrial revolution (Industry 4.0), and significant reduction in overall implementation cost over the last two decades, the uptake of industrial robots in food processing has been slow. This paper explores the application of industrial robots in food manufacturing, the benefits of their use and the challenges currently hindering their uptake.
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This paper presents a novel kinematically redundant planar parallel robot manipulator, which has full rotatability. The proposed robot manipulator has an architecture that corresponds to a fundamental truss, meaning that it does not contain internal rigid structures when the actuators are locked. This also implies that its rigidity is not inherited from more general architectures or resulting from the combination of other fundamental structures. The introduced topology is a departure from the standard 3-RPR (or 3-RRR) mechanism on which most kinematically redundant planar parallel robot manipulators are based. The robot manipulator consists of a moving platform that is connected to the base via two RRR legs and connected to a ternary link, which is joined to the base by a passive revolute joint, via two other RRR legs. The resulting robot mechanism is kinematically redundant, being able to avoid the production of singularities and having unlimited rotational capability. The inverse and forward kinematics analyses of this novel robot manipulator are derived using distance-based techniques, and the singularity analysis is performed using a geometric method based on the properties of instantaneous centers of rotation. An example robot mechanism is analyzed numerically and physically tested; and a test trajectory where the end effector completes a full cycle rotation is reported. A link to an online video recording of such a capability, along with the avoidance of singularities and a potential application, is also provided.
Conference Paper
This paper focuses on the grippers or end effectors that are attached with robots to interact with the environment. The analysis of the fundamental deformation of soft fingertips are discussed. In order to analyze the deformation effect, the dynamic relation of a five-fingered object manipulation using soft fingertips are explained. One way to grip the object with soft finger tips in a way that a viscoelastic material is attached at the tip of gripper. This viscoelastic material is then modelled as spring and damper and by including the friction between the finger tips and the object. We model this system using bond graph technique and then simulated in 20sim. Further we study the effects in variation of friction, damping and stiffness in simulation results, which shows that the deformation effect of soft fingertips during the gripping process is crucial for stable manipulation.