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Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper belongs to the family Papilionaceae. It is an erect hairy annual plant with long twining branches. The flowers are small and yellow in color, while fruits are cylindrical. The pods are hairy containing 1-4 seeds per pod. Seeds are used as nervine tonic and in urinary reflex disorder. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, vitamin C and steroids. Seeds posses antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. The present review provides an updated information on its medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2020; 9(1): 1307-1309
E-ISSN: 2278-4136
P-ISSN: 2349-8234
JPP 2020; 9(1): 1307-1309
Received: 14-11-2019
Accepted: 18-12-2019
Mehreen Zaheer
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Faculty of Pharmacy and
Pharmaceutical Sciences,
University of Karachi, Karachi,
Salman Ahmed
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Faculty of Pharmacy and
Pharmaceutical Sciences,
University of Karachi, Karachi,
Muhammad Mohtasheemul
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Faculty of Pharmacy and
Pharmaceutical Sciences,
University of Karachi, Karachi,
Corresponding Author:
Muhammad Mohtasheemul
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Faculty of Pharmacy and
Pharmaceutical Sciences,
University of Karachi, Karachi,
A review of medicinal uses, phytochemistry and
pharmacology of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper
Mehreen Zaheer, Salman Ahmed and Muhammad Mohtasheemul Hassan
Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper belongs to the family Papilionaceae. It is an erect hairy annual plant with long
twining branches. The flowers are small and yellow in color, while fruits are cylindrical. The pods are
hairy containing 1-4 seeds per pod. Seeds are used as nervine tonic and in urinary reflex disorder. The
phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, vitamin C and
steroids. Seeds posses antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. The present review
provides an updated information on its medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.
Keywords: Vigna mungo, medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology
Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper is a member of family Papilionaceae. It is an annual and important
short duration pulse crop native to central Asia. It is staple crop in Central and South East
Asia. However, it is extensively used only in India. It is summer pulse crop with short duration
(90 120) days and high nutritive value [1].
Vigna mungo seeds
Table 1: Name of Vigna mungo in different languages [2, 3]
Mash kalai/ Mashkalair dal
Black gram, Urd bean, Urad bean, Black lentil, Black matpe bean, Mungo bean, Mash bean
Ambérique, Haricot urd
Urdbohne, Linsenbohne
Urd dal
Fagiolo indiano nero, Fagiolo mungo nero
Ke tsuru azuki
Uddina bele
Uzhunnu parippu
Uddachi dal
Feijão-da-India, feijão-preto
Fasal mungo, Fasol' vidov
Frijol mungo, Fréjol negro, Frijol negro, Lenteja negra, Urd
Ulutham paruppu, Ulundo
Minapa pappu
Thuaa dahm
Urd daal
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Table 2: Taxonomy [4, 5]
Sub tribe
Azukia mungo (L.) Masam.
Phaseolus hernandezii Savi
Phaseolus mungo L.
Phaseolus roxburghii Wight & Arn.
Seedling with epigeal germination.
Macroscopy of seed [6]
Hilum at (or almost at) the level of seed coat, Aril present, Funicle present, Aril massive, Narrow hilum with small
tracheid bar, Macrosclereids 48.8 pirn in height.
Table 3: Nutritional value of seeds [3, 7]
Essential minerals
1.0-4.3 g/kg
3.0 g/kg
3.9-6.5 g/kg
18 mg/kg
560 mg/kg
99 mg/kg
Amino acid (g / 100 g)
Traditional medicinal uses
Vigna mungo seeds are traditionally used as food and leaves
as vegetable. Seeds are used as nervine tonic for the treatment
of male sterility problems and act as a good aphrodisiac agent.
It is also used to treat urinary reflex disorder. Oil of seeds is
used to treat neurological problems like hemiplegia, polio
myelitis and rheumatological problems [8, 9].
Pharmacological activities
Different extracts of Vigna mungo have shown following
pharmacological properties.
Pharmacological activity
Aqueous: methanol (80:20)
Antioxidant [10]
Petroleum ether or alcohol
Immunostimulatory [11]
Petroleum ether, ethanol/water
Immunomodulatory [12]
Methanol, chloroform
Aphrodisiac [13]
Petroleum ether or alcohol
Antihyperlipidemic [14]
Petroleum ether, acetone
Antihyperlipidemic [15]
Anticonvulsant [16 ]
Anti-osteoarthritic [17]
Antidiabetic [18]
Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective [19]
Antifungal [20]
Antiviral (HIV reverse transcriptase inhibition) [21]
Enterokinase inhibition [22]
Antimicrobial [23]
Cooked pulse
Antidiabetic [24]
Petroleum ether
Hepatoprotective against CCl4 toxicity [25]
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory, [26]
Anti-oxidant and nootropic and [27]
Diuretic [24]
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Albumin, globulin, glutelin, prolamin, lectin [28, 29]
Alkaloid [13]
B-Sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol [10, 13]
Condensed tannins [10, 13]
Flavonoid [10, 13 ]
Glycoside [30]
Phenolic compounds [10, 13]
Saponin [13]
The traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of
V. mungo presented in this review could be helpful for future
studies and research. The plant has good future prospective
for discovery of new molecules and pharmacological
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traditional Siddha Medicine. Int. J Curr. Res. Chem.
Pharm. Sci. 2017; 4(7):1-7.
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Vigna mungo L. extract in male SpragueDawley rats.
Journal of Immunotoxicology. 2010; 7(3):213-218.
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immunomodulatory activity of Vigna mungo (L) hepper.
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13. Sajja R et al., Pharmocological evaluation of potential
aphrodisiac activity of methanolic and chloroform
extracts of Vigna mungo seeds in male Albino rats.
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14. Solanki YB, Jain SM. Antihyperlipidemic activity of
Clitoria ternatea and Vigna mungo in rats.
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Journal of Nutrition. 1983; 113(6):1104-1108.
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Hepper. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2011; 4(6):1943-
17. Patel DV, Sawant MG, Kaur G. Evaluation of anti-
osteoarthritic activity of Vigna mungo in papain induced
osteoarthritis model. Indian Journal of Pharmacology.
2015; 47(1):59-64.
18. Mou SJ et al., Antihyperglycemic studies with boiled and
non-boiled Vigna mungo seeds. Journal of Applied
Pharmaceutical Science. 2015; 5(12):135-137.
19. Nitin M, Ifthekar S, Mumtaz M. Evaluation of
hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of
aqueous extract of Vigna mungo (Linn.) Hepper on
rifampicin-induced toxicity in albino rats. International
Journal of Health & Allied Sciences. 2012; 1(2):85-91.
20. Ye X, Ng TB. A chitinase with antifungal activity from
the mung bean. Protein Expression and Purification.
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21. Cheung AH, Wong JH, Ng TB. Trypsin-chymotrypsin
inhibitors from Vigna mungo seeds. Protein and Peptide
Letters. 2009; 16(3):277-284.
22. Bhat PG, Jacob RT, Pattabiraman T. Enzyme inhibitors
from plants: Enterokinase inhibitors in tubers and seeds.
Journal of Biosciences. 1981; 3(4):371-377.
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antinutritional factors in plants-A review. African Journal
of Biotechnology. 2008; 7(25):4713-4721.
25. Anitha K et al., Protective effect of Vigna mungo (L.)
against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity.
International Journal of Pharmacology Research. 2012;
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ulcerogenic activity of Vigna mungo Linn. leaves.
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(L.) Hepper. Advances in Bio Research. 2010; 1(2):6-16.
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Hepper. Open Research Journal of Phytotherapy &
Pharmacognosy. 2013; 1(1):01-09.
... TAXONOMY 3, 5,7,8,11,14,15,16,17,18,19 Kingdom: Plantae ...
... Flowers are bisexual, papilionaceous, small; bracteoles linear to lanceolate, exceeding the calyx. Flowers are yellow and in dense clusters 14,17 . ...
... Black gram is grown mainly in Central and Southeast Asia. It is widely distributed in tropical West Africa and extensively cultivated all over India 5,7,14,16,18,25 . The Guntur District ranks first in Andhra Pradesh for the production of black gram in India 3 . ...
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Māsh (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper belongs to the family Papilionaceae. It is one of the important legume crops extensively cultivated in India and other parts of the world. Pulses and legumes have been gaining interest because they are an excellent source of bioactive compounds. The objective of this present review is to compile all relevant information regarding the medicinal uses of Vigna mungo. It is rich in flavonoids, isoflavonoids, phytoestrogens, phenolic acids, enzymes, fibers, starches, trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, lectins, saponins, tocopherols, fatty acids, and proteins. Most of the reported components are from the seed part of the black gram. Various processes like cooking, soaking, and germination affect bioactive components. Studies have shown the presence of bioactive compounds in other parts of the plant like leaves, pods, roots, stems, etc. which are normally considered as a waste product. Hence there is a need to isolate and characterize novel bioactive components from other parts of the black gram plant. This review demonstrates that Vigna mungo is rich in bioactive components and able to cure and prevent diseases in addition to its basic nutritional value. Keywords: Māsh, Vigna mungo, black gram, bioactive components, legumes
... Black gram, scientifically named Vigna mungo (VM), is a plant the seeds of which are one of the medicinally valued lentils used in South-Asian countries. Black gram is an annual herb and a member of papilionaceae family, the vertical length of which is almost 30 to 100 cm (Zaheer et al., 2020). The seeds are very nutritious and enriched with protein, potassium, calcium, iron, niacin, thiamine, riboflavin and folate. ...
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The study was designed to investigate the pharmacological potential of 70% methanolic extract of Vigna mungo for the management of hyperthyroidism and estrus cycle disturbances in female rats. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed. Hyperthyroidism was induced by administering levothyroxine (600 µg/kg; orally) for 14 days. Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, fats, and oils. The extract (300, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg; orally) and carbimazole (30 mg/kg; orally) were administered individually for the next 14 days. The extract showed dose-dependent antithyroid potential, as evidenced by the decrease in T3 and T4, and the increase in TSH levels. Body weight, body temperature, fasting blood glucose levels, and prolonged diestrus phase were reversed towards normal and significant effects on the morphology of the thyroid gland and ovary of the rats were observed. Therefore, the findings reveal that V. mungo has the potential to treat experimentally-induced hyperthyroidism and estrus cycle disturbances. Article Info
Leguminosae (Fabaceae or Papilionaceae) is one of the largest angiospermic families. Consisting of several important plants which are also called as legumes, leguminosae is the third largest plant family. This review presents a report on a few select legumes such as Cicer arietinum (Chick pea), Medicago sativa (Alfa alfa), Vigna mungo (Black gram), and Pisum sativum (Pea). The essentiality of protein contents of the select legumes has been highlighted. There are several methods stated for the protein quantitation such as Biuret, Kjendahl, Bradford, Lowry, Smith, Warburg-Christian, etc. The most recommended and majorly employed protein analysis methods are of Bradford (1976) and Lowry’s (1951).
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Background: Non-specific low back pain is a leading contributor to disease burden and works absenteeism worldwide with a lifetime prevalence of 60-70% in industrialized countries. This clinical study aimed to assess the efficacy of hot fomentation with half-baked medicated bread (khubz) compared to hot water bag fomentation to alleviate pain and disability in non-specific low back pain. Methods: In this randomized-controlled study, fifty-four patients with low back pain were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either hot fomentation (Takmīd-e-haar) with half-baked medicated bread in the test group or hot water bag fomentation in the control group, on the lumbosacral region daily for 30 min for 15 consecutive days. Patients were assessed statistically using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) at baseline, 7th and after treatment (15th day). Results: After the intervention, statistically significant improvements (p < 0.001) were observed in VAS and ODI scores in both the groups on the intragroup comparison. The test treatment showed better efficacy in comparison to the control treatment with a mean difference of 1.75 in VAS (p < 0.0001) and 8.20 in ODI (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The tested intervention showed significantly better efficacy in comparison to the hot water bag fomentation probably due to the analgesic (musakkin-i-alam), anti-inflammatory (muḥallil-i-awrām), and demulcent (mulaṭṭif) properties of the ingredients of tested Unani formulation in addition to the effects of heat. It may therefore be concluded that medicated fomentation is an effective, safer, feasible, and less expensive regimen for patients with non-specific low back pain. Trial registration: The Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI/2020/03/024107).
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Vignamungo (L.)Hepper belonging to the family Fabaceae (Papilionaceae) commonly known as Black gram or Urd. It is an erect hairy annual plant with long twining branches, flowers are small and ye llow in color; fruits are cylindrical and pods are hairy containing 1-4 seeds per pod. The present study provides updated information on its pharmacognostic, phytochemical analysis and pharmacological roperties. The phytochemical analysis of the powdered seeds revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, steroids and vitamin C qualitatively, whereas flavonoids was analysed quantitatively too. It can be used medicinally as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ulcerogenic , hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulatory, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, narcotic activity. Differential extraction yielded aqueous extract 40.16%, methanol extract 15.50%, ethanol extract 12.07%, chloroform extract 9.88%, petroleum ether extract 0.34% and Quantitative pharmacognostic analysis gave moisture content 14.60%, alcohol extractive value 4.00%, water extractive value 23.6%, chloroform extractive value 2.80%, petroleum ether extractive value 0.8%, total ash 2.5%, acid–insoluble ash 0.50% and water soluble ash 1.0%.Water soluble extractives are more than alcohol soluble extractives show more water soluble constituents in the seeds. Keywords: Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, Pharmacognostic evaluation, Physico-chemical character, phytochemical studies
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The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activity of extract of leaves of Vigna Mungo linn. (Leguminosae) were investigated as well as the mechanisms of action. The extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the formation of paw edema induced by    carrageenan in rat and increased reaction latency to thermal pain in rat in a dose-dependent manner. The extract caused a significant (P<0.05) dose-dependent ulceration of rat gastric mucosa and concentration-dependent inhibition of hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of red blood cell. Also the extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the activates of the phospholipase A2 and prostaglandine synthesis in a concentration related manner. These suggest that the leaves posses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activities mediated through sequential inhibition of the enzymes responsible for prostaglandine synthesis from arachidonic acid. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of glycoside, tannins, alkaloid, flavonoids and Saponins. Acute toxicity studies established an oral LD50 greater than 3000 mg/kg.
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This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Vigna mungo hydroalcoholic extract (VMHA) by papain induced osteoarthritis (OA) in the rat model. OA was induced by intra-articular injection of papain (4% w/v) along with cysteine (0.03 M) on day 1, 4 and 7 in rats and VMHA was administered orally in three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) after last papain injection. The anti-osteoarthritic activity was evaluated by measuring knee joint diameter, grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time. Histopathological analysis and acute toxicity study were also performed. VMHA improved inflammatory condition with all the doses, but significant (P < 0.05) attenuation of inflammation was present only with 400 mg/kg dose. The grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time were also significantly (P < 0.05) improved at dose level of 100 mg/kg however other two doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) were not found to be effective. VMHA did not show any mortality or any toxic clinical signs after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose. VMHA improved arthritic condition by significantly reducing pain and inflammation.
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In recent years, the desire to adopt a healthy diet has drawn attention to legume seeds and food products derived from them. Mash bean is an important legume crop used in Pakistan however a systematic mapping of the chemical composition of mash bean seeds is lacking. Therefore seeds of four mash bean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, family Leguminoseae) cultivars (NARC-Mash-1, NARC-Mash-2, NARC-Mash-3, NARC-Mash-97) commonly consumed in Pakistan have been analyzed for their chemical composition, antioxidant potential and biological activities like inhibition of formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) activity and tyrosinase inhibition activity. The investigated cultivars varied in terms of biochemical composition to various extents. Mineral composition indicated potassium and zinc in highest and lowest amounts respectively, in all cultivars. The amino acid profile in protein of these cultivars suggested cysteine is present in lowest quantity in all cultivars while fatty acid distribution pattern indicated unsaturated fatty acids as major fatty acids in all cultivars. All cultivars were found to be rich source of tocopherols and sterols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) fingerprints of seed flour and extracts indicated major functional groups such as polysaccharides, lipids, amides, amines and amino acids. Results indicated that all investigated cultivars possessed appreciable antioxidant potential. All cultivars are rich source of protein and possess sufficient content of dietary fiber, a balanced amino acid profile, low saturated fatty acids and antioxidant capacity that rationalizes many traditional uses of seeds of this crop besides its nutritional importance. The collected data will be useful for academic and corporate researchers, nutritionists and clinical dieticians as well as consumers. If proper attention is paid, it may become an important export commodity and may fetch considerable foreign exchange for Pakistan.
Vigna mungo is a common leguminous crop cultivated in Bangladesh for its edible seeds, which are consumed following boiling or cooking. Since many lentil plants are known to have antihyperglycemic activity, it was of interest to determine the antihyperglycemic potential of seeds of V. mungo both in its boiled and non-boiled form. In oral glucose tolerance tests conducted in glucose-loaded Swiss albino mice, crude methanol extract of non-boiled seeds reduced blood glucose levels by 29.1, 36.5, 42.6, and 48.9%, respectively, at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg per kg body weight. At the afore-mentioned four doses, the percent reductions in blood glucose levels were, respectively, 24.1, 35.1, 39.4, and 46.5% with crude methanol extract of boiled seeds. Glibenclamide, a standard antihyperglycemic drug was observed to reduce blood glucose levels by 48.2%, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg. Thus the extracts of both non-boiled and boiled seeds demonstrated good antihyperglycemic potential comparable to glibenclamide and can be used as a readily available alternative to alleviate high blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.
The present study was conducted to investigate the aphrodisiac activity of methanolic and chloroform extracts of seeds of Vigna mungo (MEVM and CEVM) in male albino rats. The aphrodisiac activity of MEVM and CEVM was evaluated by observing sexual behavioral parameters including Mount frequency (MF), Mount latency (ML), Ejaculatory latency (EL), Intromission latency (IL), Intromission frequency (IF), Ejaculation frequency (EF) and Post ejaculatory interval (PEI) and biochemical parameter like serum testosterone concentration in male rats. Both extracts were administered orally at doses of 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in MF, IF, EF as well as a significant decrease (p<0.05) in ML, IL, EL and PEI was observed when compared to control groups. There was also a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum testosterone concentration were recorded. The results of the present study demonstrate that MEVM and CEVM enhance sexual activity in male rats. This improvement in sexual function might be due to the presence of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, saponins, steroids and flavonoids found in the methanoic and chloroform seed extracts of Vigna mungo.
Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of seeds of Vigna mungo (AEVM) (fabaceae) against rifampicin-induced liver and kidney damage in rats. Settings and Design: Albino rats of either sex (200-250 g) were selected and divided in to eight groups of six animals in each. Four groups for hepatoprotective activity and four groups for nephroprotective activity. Group 1 was normal control, group 2 was positive control, group 3 was treated with standard drug, group 4 was treated with AEVM. Similarly it was done for nephroprotective activity. The results are evidenced on the basis of physical, biochemical, histological, and functional parameters. Materials and Methods: Drugs used are rifampicin, silymarin, diagnostic kits (SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and BIT) for hepatoprotective activity. BUN, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid for nephroprotective activity. Seed powder of Vigna mungo was extracted with water. Preliminary phytochemical tests were done to identify the phytoconstituents. The hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of the AEVM were assessed in rifampicin-induced hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic rats. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by "Tukey-Kramer" multiple comparison tests. Results: The AEVM showed the presence of amino acids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, phytic acid, total phenolic compounds, saponins, and tannins. Rifampicin produced significant changes in physical (increased liver weight, decreased body weight), biochemical (increase in serum glutathione pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (BIT) level, increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, and serum uric acid level), histological (damage to hepatocytes, nephrons), and functional (barbiturates-induce sleeping time) induced by rifampicin in liver and kidney parameters, respectively. Pretreatment with AEVM significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, and histological changes induced by rifampicin in the liver and kidney, respectively. Conclusion: The AEVM possessed statistically significant hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity.
Vigna radiata (mung bean) and Vigna mungo (mash bean) of the family Fabaceae are among staple food in Pakistan. The experiments were conducted on these beans to determine the proximate composition such as moisture, ash, fibre, fat and protein content. The protein isolates from V. radiata and V. mungo was prepared and their functional properties (foaming, nitrogen solubility index and SDS gel electrophoresis) were also analyzed. All biochemical constituents were analyzed using official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (2005). Results show that they have high protein content and play significant role in human nutrition. These beans have high nitrogen solubility and less fat content; which is a characteristic generally needed for healthy food. This research concluded that V. radiata has high percentage of moisture (9.74 ± 0.19), fat (1.35 ± 0.048) and protein content (22.5 ± 0.24) as compared to V. mungo (7.9 ± 0.06, 1.01 ± 0.01, 21.3 ± 0.24, respectively). 54 and 33% of protein isolates were made from V. radiata and V. mungo, respectively. The functional properties analysis enhances their acceptability in food industry.