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Influence of Intercropping Cowpea with Some Maize Hybrids and N Nano-Mineral Fertilization on Productivity in Salinity Soil

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... Many investigators documented significant maize hybrids variations regarding growth, yield and its attributed, as Hassaan (2018) who showed that the TWC 352 hybrid had higher number of rows ear -1 and higher grain yield in both seasons compared with the other tested hybrids. El-Hassanin et al. (2015), Awadalla and Morsy (2016), Eyasu et al. (2018), Ali and Abdelaal (2020), Casimir et al. (2020) and Yasser et al. (2020) found similar results. ...
... Similar results were also reported by Manikandan and Subramanian (2016), Al-juthery et al., (2019), Gomaa et al., (2020) and Mehrez et al., (2020). Yasser et al. (2020) found that applying 75% N mineral along with 25% N nano significantly increased number of green leaves plant -1 and leaf area index. Interaction effect: Interaction between maize hybrids and amino cat fertilizer (M×AA): ...
... Moreover, these differences in hybrids may be due to the differences in growth habits and the response of each one to environmental conditions controlled by genetic factors. Yasser et al. (2020) (2020), El-Mekser et al. (2020) and Casimir et al. (2020). ...
... Many investigators documented significant maize hybrids variations regarding growth, yield and its attributed, as Hassaan (2018) who showed that the TWC 352 hybrid had higher number of rows ear -1 and higher grain yield in both seasons compared with the other tested hybrids. El-Hassanin et al. (2015), Awadalla and Morsy (2016), Eyasu et al. (2018), Ali and Abdelaal (2020), Casimir et al. (2020) and Yasser et al. (2020) found similar results. ...
... Similar results were also reported by Manikandan and Subramanian (2016), Al-juthery et al., (2019), Gomaa et al., (2020) and Mehrez et al., (2020). Yasser et al. (2020) found that applying 75% N mineral along with 25% N nano significantly increased number of green leaves plant -1 and leaf area index. Interaction effect: Interaction between maize hybrids and amino cat fertilizer (M×AA): ...
... Moreover, these differences in hybrids may be due to the differences in growth habits and the response of each one to environmental conditions controlled by genetic factors. Yasser et al. (2020) (2020), El-Mekser et al. (2020) and Casimir et al. (2020). ...
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This study was carried out during 2018 and 2019 seasons at the Experimental Farm of the Water Studies and Research Complex (WSRC) Station, National Water Research Center, Toshka Region, Egypt (22°32′16″N, 31°30′40″E), to study the effect of two amino cat fertilizer concentrations (AA1: 100 cm 3 fed-1 and AA2: 200 cm 3 fed-1), six different combinations of mineral NPK and nano-fertilizers (F1= 0.0 fertilizers-control treatment, F2= 100% mineral NPK (120:30:24 kg fed-1), F3= 100% Nano NPK)10 kg fed-1), F4=75% mineral NPK +25% Nano NPK , F5=75% Nano NPK +25% mineral and F6= 50% mineral NPK +50% Nano NPK(on grain production and its attributes as well as net economic return on two yellow maize hybrids (M1: T.W.C. 353 and M2: T.W.C. 360). The experiment was laid out in a strip split-plot design with three replications, where amino cat fertilizer allocated in vertical-plots, fertilization treatments were arranged in horizontal-plots and maize hybrids were occupied the sub-plots. Studied traits were number of days to 50% tasseling, number of green leaves plant-1 , ear leaf area, plant height, ear length, number of ears plant-1 and grain yield fed-1. Obtained results showed that maize hybrids, amino cat fertilizer, fertilization treatments, and their interactions significantly influenced most studied traits in both seasons. TWC 353 hybrid gave the maximum mean values of all studied traits in both seasons. Foliar spraying with 200 cm 3 amino cat fertilizer was significantly associated with corresponding increases in all studied traits especially grain yield (3.02 and 3.06 ton fed-1) in the 1 st and 2 nd seasons, respectively. Maximum average values of studied traits were obtained using 50% mineral fertilization + 50% nano-NPK fertilization in both growing seasons. Foliar appliction of TWC 353 hybrid with 200 cm 3 amino-fertilizer, beside fertilization by 50% mineral NPK+50% NPK nano-fertilizers (M1AA2F6), recorded the highest values for net farm incom (12926 L.E fed-1), net farm return (6360 L.E fed-1), BCR (1.97) and economic efficiency (net return/total costs=0.97). This result is due to the highest grain yield prodictivity under this treatment (3.77 ton fed-1) as an average of the two seasons compared with other treatments. Generally, it could be concluded that foliar spraying of maize hybrid TWC 353 with 200 cm 3 fed-1 amino cat fertilizer plus 50% mineral fertilization + 50% nano-NPK fertilization resulted in highest growth, production and net farm return under the environmental conditions of Toshka region.
... From another angle of view, the principal reasons for farmers to intercrop are flexibility, risk minimization against crop failure, soil conservation and maintenance, weed control and balanced nutrition [4,5]. Maize and cowpea plants can perform and produce better when grown with together than when in sole culture [3,[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. ...
... Profiles of light intensity and leaf area indices in crop canopies indicate that the taller crop has an advantage over its shorter crop companions [6]. The maximum LER = 1.67 was obtained with shorter maize hybrid (over-story crop), which offer less competition to intercropped crops than taller ones and the yield of cowpea (under-story crop) grown with shorter maize hybrids (SC 168) was higher than that produced with the taller ones TWC 321 [13]. Also, LER=1.65 was recorded when planting cowpea on the other side of maize rows as 100% cowpea: 100% maize as recommended by HamdAlla., et al. [3]. ...
... SC 168, SC 176, TWC 353 and TWC 360 in sole cultures and concluded that sown SC 176 hybrid successfully improving production of maize yield and its components compared with TWC 353 or TWC 360. These results are also supported by El-Ghobashy., et al. [13]. ...
... Maize with soybean had significant advantage in yield, economy, land utilization ratio and reducing soil nitrate nitrogen(N) accumulation (Yitao et al., 2015). Land equivalent ratio without significant reduction in maize yield /fad. LER ranged from 1.81 to 1.56(Sherif 2010)75% of recommended dose of mineral N along with 25% nano urea, increased productivity of maize by 17.03 and 14.11% compared with mineral fertilization (Ijoyah et al., 2014;Yasser et al., 2020). The productivity of maize-cropping systems can be improved by intercropping soybean between maize plants as confirmed by high LER. ...
... Nitrogen (N) was better in nano fertilizer treatments than in the conventional fertilizer treatments indicating the fact that there is a scope of nano-fertilizer in crop agriculture. (Rameshaiah et al., 2015;Meena et al., 2017 andYasser et al., 2020). ...
... and straw yield (1.37 &1.07 ton/fad) in the both seasons, respectively. The nano-fertilizers have higher surface and reactive area it is mainly due to very less or smallest size of particles which provide more sites to facilitate different metabolic process in the plant system result production of more photosynthesis and intern more growth and yield (Meena et al., 2017 andYasser et al.,2020). (5) indicate that there was consistent and gradual increase in groundnut yield and its attributes with increasing the rate of nano nitrogen fertilization from 25% to 75%/fad. ...
... This is what makes the water after its magnetization lighter and easier to absorb than plants, which contributes to the acceleration of bioprocesses and then positively affects the growth and development of plants and the use of this technology does not leave environmental effects, toxicity, pollution [Toledo et al. (2008), Mehdizadeh (2016), Khrbeet et al. (2019)]. Improving soil properties and increasing its fertility is also one of the very important agricultural processes besides improving water properties for the purpose of increasing solubility with optimum absorption under conditions not suitable for plants (salt stress) as choosing the appropriate fertilizer in terms of quality and quantity under stress conditions and achieving growth and production optimum without negative effect may be due to additional effects with previously accumulated concentrations of salts in the soil which may reduce the elements ready for absorption [Jain and Jain (2019), Mehdizadeh et al. (2019), Al-Juthery et al. (2020), EL-Ghobashy et al. (2020), Yadav et al. (2020], the interaction between the interfering salts and the added fertilizers can be counterproductive to the plant [AL-Taey et al. (2019)], so it is very important to determine the amount of fertilizer added to the cultivated soil irrigated with saline water because it is the biggest problem facing agriculture today in many dry and semi-dry regions, including Iraq, and even those with good levels of water which is suffering from a rise in the water level of the earth [AL-Taey et al. (2018), Ding et al. (2020), Mahmood et al. (2020)]. In view of the economic importance of leguminous plants, including the chickpea plant, which belongs to the important leguminosae family, adapted to the conditions of arid and semi-arid regions in the world due to the ability of the crop to absorb water from the soil with high efficiency because it has a good root system [Al-Tawaha et al. (2020)] and its multiple uses as it is used as food for humans due to the high rate of protein digestion and its importance in increasing soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen through streptococcus bacteria [Benjandis et al. (2012)]. ...
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Three separate greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the bi-directional N transfer in a peanut and rice intercropping system using the direct 15N foliar feeding technique at N application rates of 15, 75 and 150kg ha–1. When peanut was used as the 15N donor plant, the atom% 15N in the rice shoot was consistently higher than in control rice, indicating that 15N transfer from peanut to the associated rice crop occurred. The percentage of N transfer (%NT) from peanut to the associated rice was 9.9%, 5.7% and 4.2% at the three N application rates, respectively. The N transferred from peanut to rice was 22.6, 15.5 and 8.2mg N plant–1, accounting for 10.9%, 6.4% and 3.1% of the total N accumulated in rice plants at the three N application rates, respectively. When rice functioned as the 15N donor plant, the %NTs were 4.4%, 2.1% and 1.4% and represented about 5.2%, 3.4% and 2.4% of total N accumulated in peanut shoot at the three N application rates, respectively. The net directional N transfer was from peanut to rice and this was calculated by the difference in the bi-directional transfers and was mainly due to peanut root decomposition. Thus, the %NTs were 10.7%, 6.3%, 5.1% and 3.5% on 28 July (the day on which peanut shoots were cut), 8 August, 28 August and 8 September, respectively, and correspondingly, the N transferred from peanut to rice represented 6.0%, 5.8%, 5.1% and 3.2% of the total N accumulated in the rice plants.
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Carbon nanotubes have shown promise as regulators of seed germination and plant growth. Here, we demonstrate that multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have the ability to enhance the growth of tobacco cell culture (55-64% increase over control) in a wide range of concentrations (5-500 μg/mL). Activated carbon (AC) stimulated cell growth (16% increase) only at low concentrations (5 μg/mL) while dramatically inhibited the cellular growth at higher concentrations (100-500 μg/mL). We found a correlation between the activation of cells growth exposed to MWCNTs and the upregulation of genes involved in cell division/cell wall formation and water transport. The expression of the tobacco aquaporin (NtPIP1) gene, as well as production of the NtPIP1 protein, significantly increased in cells exposed to MWCNTs compared to control cells or those exposed to AC. The expression of marker genes for cell division (CycB) and cell wall extension (NtLRX1) was also up-regulated in cells exposed to MWCNTs compared to control cells or those exposed to activated carbon only.
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