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Design, analysis and fabrication of utm hydraulic ram pump for water supply in remote areas

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span>This paper focuses on design, analysis and fabrication of hydraulic ram pump, which uses the force of gravity to deliver water to higher altitudes. It does not depend on electrical and fossil energy and robust, inexpensive, easy to install and maintain. All these qualities make it suitable for use in remote areas where water and electricity supply, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study is to construct a low cost UTM hydraulic ram pump for water supply in remote areas, provided that it must have a reliable design and made of materials available locally in Malaysia. The design must also be easy to assemble and dismantle, easy to maintain and durable with a long service life. In order to achieve these objectives, existing ram pump designs by other researchers were studied to provide the basics in designing the UTM hydraulic ram pump. The ram pump efficiency is 62%, based on drive pipe diameter of 3” and air chamber volume of 33.3 L. Referring to the guidelines and experimental data these design specifications allow a total of 7000 L/day (4.86 L/min) of water to be delivered to the storage tank. The power required is about 23.9 kW which is enough to overcome head losses of about 54.52 m. Through a test stand, the value of circulations is 49 cycle/minute and thus the overall performance of the ram pump can be calculated before installation in remote areas. Other factors such as the proper material selection and safety considerations were also prioritized.</span
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Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Vol. 17, No. 1, January 2020, pp. 213~221
ISSN: 2502-4752, DOI: 10.11591/ijeecs.v17.i1.pp213-221 213
Journal homepage: http://ijeecs.iaescore.com
Design, analysis and fabrication of UTM hydraulic ram pump
for water supply in remote areas
S. Sarip1, A. Q Mohd Radzi2, T. S. Hong3, R. Mohammad4, M. F. Yakub5, M. A. Suhot6,
H. M. Kaidi7
1,3,4,6,7Razak Faculty of Technology and Informatics, UTM Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Kelana Jaya Community College, Jabatan Pendidikan Politeknik Kolej Komuniti, Malaysia
5Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, UTM Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Article Info
ABSTRACT
Article history:
Received May 18, 2019
Revised Jul 22, 2019
Accepted Aug 7, 2019
This paper focuses on design, analysis and fabrication of hydraulic ram
pump, which uses the force of gravity to deliver water to higher altitudes. It
does not depend on electrical and fossil energy and robust, inexpensive, easy
to install and maintain. All these qualities make it suitable for use in remote
areas where water and electricity supply, especially in developing countries.
The aim of this study is to construct a low cost UTM hydraulic ram pump for
water supply in remote areas, provided that it must have a reliable design and
made of materials available locally in Malaysia. The design must also be
easy to assemble and dismantle, easy to maintain and durable with a long
service life. In order to achieve these objectives, existing ram pump designs
by other researchers were studied to provide the basics in designing the UTM
hydraulic ram pump. The ram pump efficiency is 62%, based on drive pipe
diameter of 3” and air chamber volume of 33.3 L. Referring to the guidelines
and experimental data these design specifications allow a total of 7000 L/day
(4.86 L/min) of water to be delivered to the storage tank. The power required
is about 23.9 kW which is enough to overcome head losses of about 54.52 m.
Through a test stand, the value of circulations is 49 cycle/minute and thus the
overall performance of the ram pump can be calculated before installation in
remote areas. Other factors such as the proper material selection and safety
considerations were also prioritized.
Keywords:
Fabrication
Hydraulic Ram
Pump
Remote Area
Water Supply
Copyright © 2020 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science.
All rights reserved.
Corresponding Author:
Shamsul Sarip,
Engineering and Technology,
Razak Faculty of Technology and Informatics,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Email: shamsuls.kl@utm.my
1. INTRODUCTION
The use of gravity and an environmental-friendly design makes the ram pump highly suited for
agriculture and livestock watering systems [1]. As the ram pump does not depend on electrical and fossil
energy [2], it is suitable for use in remote areas as a basic component in supplying water. It is also robust,
inexpensive, easy to install and maintain [3]. The ram pump could also be used in households to improve
energy usage, for free delivery of water, to irrigate gardens and as a component in water processing
technology [4]. The ram pump works efficiently over a wide range of flow rates with proper tuning and can
be made with simple work shop equipment [5].
Residents living in remote areas are known to face environmental and topographical limitations
when it comes to water supply, especially those living near hills or in forestry zones far from urban areas.
Therefore, the aim of this study is to construct a low cost UTM hydraulic ram pump for water supply in
remote areas. It would have a reliable design and be made from materials available locally in Malaysia
ISSN: 2502-4752
Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci, Vol. 17, No. 1, January 2020 : 213 - 221
214
market. The design must also be easy to assemble and dismantle and be as simple as possible to allow for
durability and a prolonged service life. Therefore, The Handbook of Ram Pump [5] and existing ram pump
designs by other researchers were studied to provide the basic details in designing the UTM hydraulic ram
pump. Several methods were employed during the design process, namely function analysis of the sub
components in the hydraulic ram pump, a morphological chart for studying alternatives, a conceptual
development using sketches, and weighted objectives [6-9].
This paper presents the design of a ram pump produced by the researchers using design process
techniques, design objective and conceptual design. The results obtained from experiments and installations
found that the height of the drive pipe greatly influenced flow rate and water delivery to storage tank.
2. RESEARCH METHOD
2.1. Design of UTM Hydraulic Ram Pump
The construction of a ram pump is simple where it consists of only two moving parts. The waste
water valve, also known as an impulse valve, and a check valve (or delivery valve) intermittently pumps
water without electrical energy from any source as it uses the free energy from the water hammer. Water
from the supply head flows through the drive pipe into the valve box. The waste valve is initially open to
release the water to the source and it quickly closes as the water flow increases. The closed valve causes the
pressure to increase within the pump valve box, an effect also known as water hammer. This allows the water
to flow through the delivery valve and delivers it to the storage box. At the same time, air enters the air valve
to pass the delivery valve and pressurizes the air chamber to close the delivery valve and pumps the water
through the delivery pipe to supply the storage tank. After the delivery valve is closed, the pressure in the
valve box is reduced which causes the waste valve to open and water flows again into the valve box.
The ram pump must adhere to the criteria in design considerations outlined in The Ram Pump
Handbook and also be comparable to existing and available products marketed in other countries [10-11].
Using the data of ram pump performance from Table 1, it was concluded that the Blake is the best suited for
our purposes. More experimental data of the Blake ram are provided in Table 2. Both tables were referred to
when calculating the pumping rate required in litres per day for the given head supply and delivery head
values. The comparative data between the Blake ram and UTM hydraulic ram pump was calculated to get the
pumping rate required as shown in Figure 1.
Table 1. Design Guidelines for Consideration in Hydraulic Ram Pump Design
Part
Consideration
Intake design
Intake will be a stream with a screen which must meet wildlife fish screen criteria set by the Department of Fish
and Wildlife. Water must be free of debris, sand and sediments [16-17]
Drive pipe
Drive pipe must be made from a non-flexible material for maximum efficiency (last 20 feet of pipe is galvanized
iron or steel pipe) with the length of drive pipe at least 4 to 5 times the vertical fall or supply head H. Drive pipe
diameter will be used to obtain the size of hydraulic ram pump [18-19]. The pipe must be thick and straight, avoid
any upward bends or humps (air trap), always submerged to avoid air entering the pipe as the bubbles will absorb
the energy of pressure pulse [5]. A lower head supply and longer length drive pipe will require a supply tank to
ensure the supply source is higher than the flow in the drive pipe.
Pump
The base foundation must be located above the 100-yard flood zone. The pump must be mounted to a solid concrete
base to overcome the vibration and water impact loads by using stainless steel studs, nuts and bolts to prolong
service life [20].
Delivery pipe
Minimize the distance to the storage tank to increase pumping rate. For a long delivery pipe, a smaller size is
recommended to maintain the steady flow with less friction [21]. A house pipe hose with an internal bore of 20mm
is strong enough and satisfactory for the delivery pipe selection.
Impulse valve
A heavy weight and a long stroke allow high flow rates as the waste water passes through the impulse valve. This
will build up the impact of hammer pulse that is recommended for higher heads; while a small weight and short
stroke is recommended for more ‘beat’ to quickly deliver larger volumes to lower heads [21 -22].
Delivery
valve
A large opening to allow the pumped water to enter the air chamber with less friction to flow. A simple valve such
as clap check valve or clack valve can be used with one way directional valve type [21-22].
Air chamber
A larger air chamber makes it possible to compress and cushion the pressure pulse from the ram cycle, thus
allowing for a steadier flow past the delivery pipe with less friction loss. Some suggest the size of air chamber be
equal to the volume of the delivery pipe [22]. The air-filled pressure chamber creates a buffer, absorbing water
hammer and turning the intermittent pumping into a steady flow [23-24].
Air valve
The air valve, or snifter valve, is a simple valve hole (eg: 1 mm before the delivery valve) with split pin type and it
can be any valve to allow new air to top up the air in the air chamber. The available air will exist together with the
turbulence of water entering the delivery pipe [5]. The size of the air valve does not have much effect and a hole
size of less than 1mm is sufficient [8, 25].
Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci ISSN: 2502-4752
Design, analysis and fabrication of UTM hydraulic ram pump for water supply in remote areas (S. Sarip)
215
The basic operation, and application of a hydraulic ram pump were discussed in the earlier sections
and the design consideration factors for such pump are further reviewed in detail in section 2.2. The UTM
hydraulic ram pump is required to supply water to a remote area with a head supply of 2 m and a delivery
head of 20 m.
Table 2. Capacity of Blakes Ram [5]
Size of ram pump (Blakes)
1
2
3
3 ½
4
5
6
Internal diameter
(bore)
mm
32
38
51
63.5
76
101
127
Supply discharge Qs
From
7
12
27
45
68
136
180
(liters/min)
to*
16
25
55
96
137
270
410
Maximum height to which
ram pump will pump water
(hd)
meters
150
150
120
120
120
105
105
*Note: The higher values of Qs are the volumes of water used by the ram pump at their maximum efficiency;
the pumps do not have the capacity to pass larger amounts that those given.
Figure 1. Hydraulic ram pump for use in remote areas [5]
2.2. Design Considerations
The main factors as recommended by pump manufacturers and the handbook are; the difference in
height of water source and pump location (vertical fall as supply head) Hs, the difference in height between
the pump location and tank storage or usage location (delivery head) HD, the quantity of flow from the
source or supply per minute Qs, the length of the drive pipe, the quantity of water required (pumping flow
rate) QD, and the length of delivery pipe to the storage [12-15]. The site condition of supply and delivery
head and supply discharge Qs must first be measured before a ram size can be chosen to pump at the required
rate. The design parameters for a hydraulic ram pump according to Muhammed [6] are: volumetric
discharge from the drive pipe, velocity of fluid flow in the driven pipe, Reynolds number, friction factor of
the pipe, head loss in the pipe, velocity of fluid in T-junction, loss due to sudden enlargement at the T-
junction, losses in pipe fittings, water acceleration in driven pipe, the drag force, pressure of fluid, power
required and efficiency of hydraulic ram. In this study, the data were calculated and summarized in the ram
pump specification section with most of the data obtained was from the experimental findings and results
obtained from other researchers and from The Ram Pump Handbook [5]. From the given pump requirements,
with the supply head Hs of 2 m and the delivery head HD of 20 m, and from required pumping capacity, the
data for the supply discharge for the ram pump has been obtained.
To supply water to remote areas where the supply head Hs is 2 m and the delivery head HD is 20 m
and using the discharge supply Qs of 88.6 litres per minute, the efficiency of the pump is 65% for parameters
calculated using Table 1 as recommended by Watt [5].
The length of the drive pipe calculated according to Calvert’s equation is as follows:

 (1)
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Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci, Vol. 17, No. 1, January 2020 : 213 - 221
216
 as recommended by Watt [5], when D = 3” = 0.075m, then L= 0.075 m x 500=37.5m
Minimum of drive pipe length of 4 or 5 times supply head H [5].
L= 4 H (2)
supply head H = 2 m, L= 4 x 2 m = 8 m.
Hence, the value of 37.5 m was selected as the length of the drive pipe and as mentioned by
Watt [5], the best efficiency of a ram pump when the supply head is one third of the delivery head is equal to
6.67m. The value of H (2 m), due to the remote area requirements, will be used in subsequent calculations as
depicted in Appendix A which shows sample calculations of the Ram pump parameters (see section 2.2). If
the efficiency of the pump is 65% and if the pumping rate is 7000 litres per day, the expected value of supply
discharge for the ram pump is as follows:
From Table 3, with of 2 m and the delivery head of 20 m, and if the flow rate down the drive
pipe is 1 litre/min, then 79 litres/min of water will be pumped each day to the header tank (supply tank).
However, 7000 litres/day (4.86L/min) is the minimum requirement for the ram pump to supply water to
remote areas.

  (3)
Referring to Watt [5], the ram size No. 4 is satisfactory (Table 2), or in other words a ram with an
internal bore greater than 76 mm can pump water more than 7000 litres/day (4.86 L/min). Therefore the 3”
ram size was selected to meet the minimum requirement of pumping approximately 7000 L/day (4.86 L/min).
2.3. Conceptual Design
Figure 2 shows the prototype of the UTM hydraulic ram pump that was constructed using existing
local products at a low cost. By using these materials, it will be easy to maintain, and will perform with
high reliability.
Figure 2. UTM Hydraulic Ram Pump
Table 3 depicts the final specification for the UTM ram pump for supplying water to remote areas.
The head supply of 2.0 m and delivery head of 20.0 m has been used to determine the pump size as detailed
in section 2.2 and the calculated design parameters are detailed in Appendix A.
Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci ISSN: 2502-4752
Design, analysis and fabrication of UTM hydraulic ram pump for water supply in remote areas (S. Sarip)
217
Table 3. UTM Ram Pump Specification
Part
Specifications
Head Supply
2.0 m
Head Delivery
20.0 m
Supply Discharge
88.6 L/min
Calculated Pumped Capacity
7000 liters/day (4.86 L/min).
Ram Pump Efficiency
62%
Beat cycle
49 cycle/min
Drive Pipe
PVC pipe, Diameter 3”, Length 37.5 m
Delivery Pipe
PVC pipe, Diameter 1”- 1 unit
Impulse Valve
Brazen metal check valve 3” -1 unit
Delivery Valve
Brazen metal check valve 1” -1 unit
Air Chamber
Modified LPG tank 16 kg -1 units
Height =16” (24 cm)
Diameter = 31.8 cm
Volume= 33.3 L (Water)
NPT Thread Connecting Fitting Female T-Adaptor
Galvanized metal, Diameter 3” x 1 unit
Female Adaptor
PVC 3” -6 units
Female Adaptor
PVC 2” -1 units
Elbow Female Adaptor
Galvanized metal, Diameter 3” -1 unit
Reducer Fitting before air chamber
PVC 3” to 2”- 1 unit
Coupling T junction pipe for delivery pipe and air chamber
PVC Diameter 3” and 1” -1 unit
Total Head Losses
54.52 m
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Prior to installing the ram pump to supply water in a remote area, pilot tests were conducted in UTM
KL to collect data and tune the ram pump for proper operation. During testing on the prototype, the tank was
provided with 2 m supply head and the high flow rate into the tank is produced by using a water supply hose.
The 20 m delivery head is produced by using a rubber hose connected to a higher floor of a building. The
pump was found to meet the expected pumping requirement of 7000 L/min (4.86 L/min). However, a leakage
has occurred at the welding joint that connects the air chamber and the T-junction PVC pipe due to the
continuous pressure pulse absorption. Unsteady water delivery rate to the 1” hose delivery pipe was due to
material failure in the welding finish especially in the modified LPG tank. Based on guidelines and
experimental data by Watt [5], a ram pump size of 3”, drive pipe diameter of 3” and an air chamber volume
of 33.3 L are sufficient to deliver water to the header tank at a rate of 7000 litres/day (4.86 L/min) with a
calculated efficiency of 62%. The power required of about 23.9 kW is enough to overcome the head losses of
54.52 m as detailed in the appendixes and Table 2.
4. CONCLUSION
The modified LPG tank has able to provide enough air volume to absorb the pressure pulse to pump
water to the delivery head as high as 20 m with a pumping requirement of 7000 litres/day (4.86 L/min). The
leakage of air would reduce the continuous steady supply of water to the remote area. The material failure
during testing should be rectified so that the design will improve. The efficiency of 62% obtained was an
assurance that the ram pump with a size of 3”, drive pipe diameter of 3”, and air chamber volume of 33.3 L
was sufficiently well designed to deliver water to the header tank at 7000 litres/day (4.86 L/min) according to
the guidelines and experimental data from [5]. The power required of about 23.9 kW was enough to
overcome the head losses of about 54.52 m as detailed in the appendixes.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study was funded by IEEE Humanitarian Activities Communities (HAC) with project no.
R.K130000.7356.4B357 and DPUTMRAZAK, project no. R.K130000.7740.4J299.
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BIOGRAPHIES OF AUTHORS
Shamsul Sarip is an academic staff of Razak Faculty of Technology and Informatics, Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur. He received Diploma of Mechanical Engineering in 1995, Bachelor of Mechanical
Engineering in 1998, and Master of Mechanical Engineering in 2002 from the Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia. He then obtained his PhD in Mechanical Engineering from University of Bradford, United
Kingdom in 2012. He has been involved in the area of engineering design including lightweight disc brake,
micro hydro turbine, ram pump, marine current turbine and product development. He also involved in
university motor sport activities which required him to expand the knowledge to finite element analysis, heat
transfer, computational fluid dynamics and structure analysis.
Abdul Qoiyum Mohd Radzi holds a Bachelor in (Mechanical-Automotive) Engineering from Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia in 2007. He is currently studying Master of Science in Engineering Design at Razak
Faculty Technology and Informatics, UTM Kuala Lumpur. His interest is in Renewable Energy, Mechanical
Design Process and Analyzed, Design Optimization for Wind Turbine and Fluid Power.
Tung Siew Hong holds a Bachelor Degree in Electrical & Electronics Engineering from Universiti Tenaga
Nasional (UNITEN), Malaysia in year 2010. He is a practicing engineer registered with BEM, member of
IEM and IET. In year 2018, he was appointed as Regional Technical Manager in a Singapore-based
company, focused on Factory Automation & Intelligence solution, Robotics and Vision Inspection Systems.
Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci ISSN: 2502-4752
Design, analysis and fabrication of UTM hydraulic ram pump for water supply in remote areas (S. Sarip)
219
Roslina Mohammad is an academic staff at Razak Faculty of Technology and Informatics, Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. She received Diploma Mechanical Engineering in 2000, Bachelor
Engineering (Hons) Mechanical Engineering in 2003 and Master Science Mechanical Engineering, from
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia in 2007. She then obtained Ph.D. of Mechanical Engineering from University
of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia in 2011. She has an expertise in the area of solid and impact
mechanics and risk assessment and management. She has also been involved in the area of mechanical
fatigue particularly in analytical, numerical and experimental of fatigue of pipeline.
Fitri Yakub received his Dip Eng., and BEng. degrees in Mechatronics Engineering and Electronics
Engineering from University of Technology Malaysia in 2001 and 2006 respectively. He obtained MSc. in
Mechatronics Engineering from International Islamic University Malaysia in 2011. He received doctorate in
Automatic Control Laboratory, Tokyo Metropolitan University in 2015. His field of research interest
includes intelligent control, automatic and robust control, and motion control, which related to applications
of positioning systems, vehicle dynamics system, and vibration and control system.
Mohamed Azlan Suhot is an academic staff of Faculty of Technology and Informatics Razak, UTM Kuala
Lumpur. He received his bachelor and masters education in Materials Engineering from University Science
Malaysia in 1996 and 2000 respectively. He then pursued and finished his PhD in Composite Materials from
University of Southampton, United Kingdom in 2008. He has been involved in the area of renewable energy
especially involving installation of sustainable pumps and turbines in remote and rural area. He is also very
passionate in activities involving UTM students which also required him to be close with communities and
NGOs.
Hazilah Mad Kaidi received her B.Eng (Horns) in Electrical Engineering in Teleommunication, Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia, the M.Sc. degree in Telecommunication and Information Engineering at Universiti
Teknologi MARA and the Ph.D. degree from the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. She is currently a senior
lecturer at Razak Faculty of Technology and Informatics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Kuala Lumpur. Her
research interests include mobile and wireless communications, error control coding, relay networks,
cooperative communications, Hybrid ARQ Cross Layer Design and iterative receiver.
APPENDIX A
Table A. Calculation of the Design Parameters of UTM Hydraulic Ram Pump
No.
L
(m)
H
(m)
h(m)
Ds
(mm)
Dt
(mm)
Vs
(m/s)
Vd
(m/s)
Qs
(10-3
m3s-1)
Qd
(10-3
m3s-1)
Qw
(10-3
m3s-1)
Vt
(m/s)
P3
(kNm-2)
P
(kW)
%
1
37.5
2
20
75
75
6.01
19.02
135.3
9.336
125.96
2.11
1.63
23.9
69
The volumetric discharge from the drive pipe is given by
  (3.0)
When N=49 beat cycle/minute, then
QS = 49x 3.142 x 37.5 m (0.035)2/60
=135.3 x 10-3 m3s-1
The velocity of fluid flow in the drive pipe is given by
  (4.0)
=0.96
=6.01ms-1
The velocity of fluid flow in the delivery pipe is given by
  (3.0)
=0.96
=19.02ms-1
Discharge through delivery pipe is given by
= (4.0)
=

=9.336 x 10-3 m3s-1
Discharge through waste valve is given by
Qw=Qs-QD (7.0)
= (135.3-9.336) x 10-3 m3s-1
=125.96 x 10-3 m3s-1
Velocity of fluid flow in T-junction to air chamber is given by
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220
=
(5.0)


=2.11 ms-1
Velocity of fluid flow in elbow is given by
=
(6.0)


=28.51 ms-1
Velocity of fluid flow diffuser before the air chamber
=
(7.0)


=4.75 ms-1
Head losses
1. Head loss due to sudden enlargement at air chamber entrance
  
 (8.0)
=

=1.15m
2. Head loss due to sudden contraction of the brazen clap check valve
  
 (9.0)
K=0.5 refer to [10] page 121 for inlet shape and loss factor
= 0.5 

= 0.113 m
3. Head loss at inlet gate valve
  
 (10.0)
=0.5 

=0.92 m
4. Head loss at outlet of delivery valve
  
 (11.0)
K=0.29 refer to [12] page 130 for pvc valve (cock valve data for 1”)
with minimum possibility angle in closing angle (),
in most conditions the valve is almost always at maximum opening.
=0.29 

=5.3 m
5. Head loss due to the pipe fitting of the galvanized T junction pipe
  
 (12.0)
=0.5 

=0.268 m
6. Head loss due to the galvanized elbow connector pipe
  
 (13.0)
Ke=1.129 refer to [10] page 127 for loss factor for elbow (  )
=1.129 

=46.77 m
7. Reynolds number is given by
 
(14.0)
According to ASTM standard for water viscosity
at 20,   
 ,   
=

Re=4.5 x 105
8. Coefficient of friction is given by
Referring to [10] pages 116 for PVC as smooth pipe
for the equation of Nikuradse
f = 0.0032 + 0.221 x Re-0.237 for
Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci ISSN: 2502-4752
Design, analysis and fabrication of UTM hydraulic ram pump for water supply in remote areas (S. Sarip)
221
(Re = 105~3 x 106) (15.0)
= 0.0032 + 0.221 x (4.5 x 105)-0.237
= 0.0133
9. Water acceleration in the driven pipe, this acceleration is given by
  
  
 

 (16.0)
   
 
         




  
10. Drag force is given by the equation
 
 (17.0)
=
 

=7.2 N (-ve)
11. The pressure at the waste valve is obtained by
P3=
(18.0)
= 

=1.63 kNm-2
12. The power required can be calculated using this expression
P= (19.0)
=1000 x 9.81 x (20-2) x 135.3 x 10-3
=23.9 kW
13. The efficiency of the hydraulic ram pump is given by [5], h=Hd-Hs =20-2=18 m.
  
 x 100% (20.0)
=
 
=6
... One of the main parameters to be considered in designing the hydraulic ram includes; diameter of air column, length of air column and delivery head [9]. The Optimum size of the hydraulic ram pump is dependent on delivery head and flows, stroke length, weight of impulse valve and volume of air chamber [10]. The hydraulic ram pump performance is strongly dependent on performance parameters such as the drive pipe discharge, drive pipe length and volumetric discharge [11]. ...
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