This chapter addresses the nature of disability, how it can best be ameliorated, which training techniques and medical treatments are most effective, particularly after single incident brain injury, and the organisational structures required for their optimal delivery. A holistic biopsychosocial individualised multi&;#x02010;dimensional rehabilitation programme includes: reiterative ... [Show full abstract] multi&;#x02010;disciplinary assessment, problem definition and measurement, goal&;#x02010;setting and treatment planning, treatment delivery, evaluation of effectiveness, and reassessment with a view to further treatment. Non&;#x02010;invasive therapy interventions and task&;#x02010;related training in the context of neural damage are an integral part of the rehabilitation process after a neurological event, and aim to optimise a person&;#x00027;s functional ability. Cardio&;#x02010;respiratory training and exercise classes may reverse the detraining effects of immobility and reduced activity seen in many chronic conditions. Symptoms related to neurological impairments caused by either single incident or chronic progressive conditions can cause distress and impact on function.