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Whistleblowing, Human Rights, and Mental Health/Well-being: Implications for Advanced Generalist Practice

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Abstract

The Human Rights Triptych, consisting briefly of the U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, at its center; guiding principles, declarations, and conventions on the right panel; and implementation measures on the left, can serve as guidelines for whistleblowers to engage in defending human rights and for states to protect them. Whereas whistleblowing generally refers to those in organizations exposing abuses, this article expands that notion to include unethical practices in the helping and health professions broadly defined. By way of example, it pays attention to issues pertaining to the promotion of mental health/well-being. With the metaphor of saving victims downstream from a burning ship, this essay contends that whistleblowing often comes too late. While important to save drowning victims, one must also put out the fire upstream. The whistleblower, referred to interchangeably here as a human rights defender, ought to be concerned about ethics, which may be intuitive, but human rights documents elucidate. S/he must be on the lookout for proactive measures to promote mental health, rather than reactive measures alone. Defending human rights, thus directly consistent with advanced generalist practice, can take place at various levels of intervention: the meta-macro, macro, mezzo, micro, and meta-micro.
1 23
Journal of Human Rights and Social
Work
e-ISSN 2365-1792
J. Hum. Rights Soc. Work
DOI 10.1007/s41134-019-00112-1
Whistleblowing, Human Rights, and
Mental Health/Well-being: Implications for
Advanced Generalist Practice
Joseph Wronka
1 23
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Whistleblowing, Human Rights, and Mental Health/Well-being:
Implications for Advanced Generalist Practice
Joseph Wronka
1
#Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019
Abstract
The Human Rights Triptych, consisting briefly of the U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, at its center; guiding
principles, declarations, and conventions on the right panel; and implementation measures on the left, can serve as guidelines
for whistleblowers to engage in defending human rights and for states to protect them. Whereas whistleblowing generally refers
to those in organizations exposing abuses, this article expands that notion to include unethical practices in the helping and health
professions broadly defined. By way of example, it pays attention to issues pertaining to the promotion of mental health/well-
being. With the metaphor of saving victims downstream from a burning ship, this essay contends that whistleblowing often
comes too late. While important to save drowning victims, one must also put out the fire upstream. The whistleblower, referred to
interchangeably here as a human rights defender, ought to be concerned about ethics, which may be intuitive, but human rights
documents elucidate. S/he must be on the lookout for proactive measures to promote mental health, rather than reactive measures
alone. Defending human rights, thus directly consistent with advanced generalist practice, can take place at various levels of
intervention: the meta-macro, macro, mezzo, micro, and meta-micro.
Keywords Whistleblowing .Advanced generalist practice .Ethics .Rights defenders .Mental illness .Special rapporteur .
Human rights
Toward the Creation of a Human Rights
Culture
The Oxford Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care de-
fines whistleblowing as: The action of someone in an orga-
nization who reveals abusive attitudes and/or practices that are
taking or have taken place(Harris and White 2018, p. 1). The
Global Social Work Statement of Ethical Principles, further-
more, asserts:
Social work is a practice-based profession and an aca-
demic discipline that facilitates social change and devel-
opment, social cohesion, and the empowerment and lib-
eration of people. Principles of social justice, human
rights, [emphasis added] collective responsibility and
respect for diversities are central to social work.
Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences,
humanities and indigenous knowledge, social work en-
gages people and structures to address life challenges
and enhance wellbeing. (2018, p. 1)
This article argues, in brief, that human rights documents
and discourse in general can serve as a theoretic, yet, practical
foundation, to encourage and protect whistleblowers to pro-
mote social justice addressing, among other things, societal
structures to enhance well-being.
In 1998 the U.N. General Assembly adopted the Declaration
on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and
Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally
Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms known
in brief and more commonly as The Declaration on the Rights of
Human Rights Defenders (DRHD). In 2018 the 20th anniversa-
ry of that document, U.N. Special Rapporteur, Mr. Michel Frost
(France) on the Rights of Human Rights Defenders (Office of
High Commissioner of Human Rights 2018) issued a concept
note Raising the visibility of human rights defenders on the
occasion of the anniversary of the Declaration on human rights
defenderswhich states, among other things, the Declaration
has been increasingly under attack. The vulnerability of the
Declaration is also due to the lack of familiarity of many actors
*Joseph Wronka
jwronka@springfieldcollege.edu; josephwronka@gmail.com
1
Springfield College, School of Social Work and Behavioral Sciences,
Springfield, MA, USA
Journal of Human Rights and Social Work
https://doi.org/10.1007/s41134-019-00112-1
Author's personal copy
with it(2018, p. 1). Among such actors can be included those
inthehelpingandhealthprofessions,socialworkinparticular.
Yet, it can be broadly defined to include professionals, parapro-
fessionals, anyone who is involved in the care of clients or
patients, depending on the context, to promote their well-being,
both physical and mental, which are interrelated.
This essay then is largely to promote awareness of the DHRD,
which provides a clear blueprint to protect those called
whistleblowers, who ultimately are those who can also be called
human rights defenders. Although whistleblowers most com-
monly are those who reveal abusive practices in organizations
as the above definition suggests, this essay argues that organiza-
tions ought to be seen in the broadest sense to include profes-
sions, in this instance the helping and health professions, if not
also social structures of society at large that hinder societal and
individual well-being, thus violating human rights generally. By
way of example, this essay will also discuss the 1991 U.N. doc-
ument Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and for the
Improvement of Mental Health Care (PPMI), and the 1990
U.N. Principles of Medical Ethics Relevant to the Role of
Health Personnel, Particularly Physicians, in the Protection of
Prisoners and Detainees Against Torture, and Other Cruel,
Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, referred to
more commonly as the Principles of Medical Ethics (PME),
which enunciate rather concretely, what these violations (i.e.,
abusive attitudes and practicesin the definition above) are in
regard to those persons who have a mental disability,more
accurately perhaps a mental differing ability.Those documents
in brief can provide a basis for defending human rights, more
commonly referred to as whistleblowing, of people entrusted to
the care of those in the helping and health professions.
This article will conclude by looking at implications of this
discussion for advanced generalist practice social work/public
health model of helping and health care (Wronka 2017). Such a
model calls for multi-pronged levels of intervention that are both
proactive and reactive, urging the potential whistleblower who is
ultimately a human rights defender, to have a vision, the vision
of the eagle,as advocated by the great spiritual leader of the
Lakota Sioux Crazy Horse (TaShunke Witko 2018), himself an
early human rights defender, to recognize and intervene in prob-
lems before they arise, thus also looking at structural issues..
Therefore, using the metaphor of saving people downstream
from a ship on fire upstream, the whistleblower must also be
cognizant of the causes of social and individual malaises. Such
a model calls for a "lived awareness" of human rights principles
in our minds and hearts (Creating a Human Rights Culture,
2019) and a multi-pronged etc.
The Human Rights Triptych
It is important to recognize initially where the DHRD, the
PPMI, and PME fit into what has been called the Human
Rights Triptych, which consists in brief of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), the authoritative def-
inition of human rights standards at its center; guiding princi-
ples, declarations, and conventions which elaborate upon the
UDHR on the right panel; and implementation mechanisms
on the left. This discussion should place those documents in
context.
Briefly, then, the UDHR, a progeny of the U.N. Charter, is
an historical-philosophical-religious compromise. It consists
of five crucial notions: (1) human dignity in Article 1,
reflecting substantively the Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition;
(2) non-discrimination in Article 2 on the basis of such char-
acteristics as race, gender, national origin, or political opinion
integral also to those traditions; (3) civil and political rights in
Articles 221, such as freedoms of speech, the press, worship,
and peaceful assembly reminiscent of the Age of
Enlightenment; (4) economic, social, and cultural rights, in
Articles 2227 as rights to meaningful and gainful employ-
ment, rest and leisure, medical care, including thus mental
health care, security in old age, social protections for the fam-
ily as the fundamental unit of society, special protections for
motherhood and children, education teaching tolerance and
friendship, and participation in cultural life, evoking the Age
of Industrialization; and (5) solidarity rights, reflecting the
failure of domestic sovereignty to solve global problems, in
Articles 2830 calling for a just social and international or-
der,intergovernmental cooperation, duties, and limitations of
rights, which have given sustenance to rights to peace, a clean
environment, humanitarian disaster relief, development, self-
determination, global distributive justice, the preservation of
the common and cultural heritages of humanity, like the
oceans, space, and cultural and religious landmarks, and the
promotion of world citizenship (Wronka 2017). That human
rights are interdependent and indivisible is integral to human
rights discourse. What, after all, is freedom of speech to a
person who is homeless, lacking access to health care and
lives in a world at war?
On the right there are nine major international conventions,
which largely elaborate upon rights in the UDHR, considered
treaties: Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR); Economic,
Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR); the Elimination of
Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW); the Elimination
of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD); the Rights
of the Child (CRC); the Protection of the Rights of All
Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW);
the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD); the
Convention Against Torture (CAT); and the International
Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced
Disappearances (CPAPED) (Wronka 2017). Thus, the UDHR
urges special care and assistancefor motherhood and chil-
dren (Article 25). CEDAW elaborates that such protections
should be accorded to mothers during a reasonable period
before and after childbirth wherein working mothers
J. Hum. Rights Soc. Work
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should be accorded paid leave or leave with adequate social
security benefits(Article 10). The USA, which is the primary
focus of this article, has ratified ICCPR, CAT, and CERD,
which, according to the Supremacy Clause of the U.S.
Constitution, Article VI, must, because they have the status
of international treaty, become law of the land and the
judges bound thereby(Weissbrodt, Fionnuala, Fitzpatrick,
and Newman, 2009).
Other documents, such as, in brief, the Principles for
the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness (PPMI),
Principles of Medical Ethics (PME), and the Declaration
of Human Rights Defenders (DHRD), the foci of this
article, are also part of the right panel. Those are in addi-
tion to a plethora of others, including, but not limited to
the following: Guiding Principles on Extreme Poverty and
HumanRights,DeclarationontheRightsofIndigenous
Peoples, Declaration on the Rights of Peasants, and the
Genocide Convention. Regarding the former, the point is
that they can inform debates as to what areas of human
rights violations a whistleblower, more accurately to em-
phasize, a human rights defender (to be discussed further
below), can provide meaningful participation to eradicate
such violations and then how s/he can be protected, while
doing so.
The left panel on implementation consists briefly of the
periodic filing of reports by countries roughly every five
years on progress toward compliance with ratified docu-
ments; taking part in the Universal Periodic Review
(UPR) where every U.N. member countrys human rights
practices, which can be defined not only by conventions
but also by declarations and guiding principles, come be-
fore the Human Rights Council every four years; the
appointing of special rapporteurs who report on select
themes, such as on Human Rights Defenders (2018), erad-
ication of extreme poverty (2017), privacy (2015), con-
temporary forms of slavery (2014), and democracy and a
just equitable order (2012); world conferences, such as on
Climate Change (2017), Indigenous Peoples (2014), and
Water (2013) generally with follow-ups every five years;
and select countriessituations, such as by special rappor-
teur on extreme poverty Philip Alston on extreme poverty
in the USA (2017). Regarding mental health in the USA,
Philip Alston stated, inter alia:
Poverty, unemployment, social exclusion and loss of
cultural identity also have significant mental health ram-
ifications and often lead to a higher prevalence of sub-
stance abuse, domestic violence and alarmingly high
suicide rates in indigenous communities, particularly
among young people. Suicide is the second leading
cause of death among American Indians and Alaska
Natives aged between 10 and 34 (pp. 1617).
The point of these implementation measures, ultimately, is
a creative dialogue with member states, relevant U.N. bodies,
and civil society, where positive aspects and select concerns
are discussed openly, and hopefully, in a spirit of humility and
dignified compromise, as the social activist, Mahatma Gandhi
advocated should we desire a socially just world (Duha 2018).
On the Principles for the Protection of Persons
with Mental Illness and the Improvement of Mental
Health Care (PPMI)
With this understanding of the PPMI seen within the context
of the Human Rights Triptych, it is important now to elucidate
select themes of that document, which can serve as guiding
principles, for the potential defender of human rights. Seeing
whistleblowing thus as a human rights activity should also
strengthen and give further credibility to the act of
whistleblowing.
Select principles of the PPMI then, which the potential
whistleblower, ought to be aware, include, but are not limited
to, the following principles: (1) diagnoses should not be made
on the basis of nonconformity with moral, social, cultural,
political, or religious beliefs prevailing in the personscom-
munity; (2) patients should be cared for as far as possible in
the community which s/he lives; (3) treatment ought to be
suited to the patients cultural background; (4) medication
should never be administered for the convenience of others
or for punishment; (5) patients shall never be invited or in-
duced to waive the right to informed consent; (6) treatment
shall be based on an individually prescribed plan, discussed
with the patient, reviewed regularly, and revised as necessary;
(7) disclosure of treatment shall be in language understood by
patients; (8) right to full respect in the facility; (9) practices,
such as sterilization and forced and exploited labor, are
prohibited; (10) patients have the right to procedural safe-
guards; (11) criminal offenders shall receive the best available
mental health care; and (12) standards must be in accordance
with internationally accepted standards, such as the Principles
of Medical Ethics, discussed below. To view the PPMI in its
entirety, go to http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/46/
a46r119.htm
On the Principles of Medical Ethics Relevant
to the Role of Health Personnel, Particularly
Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners
and Detainees Against Torture, and Other Cruel,
Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
(PME)
Here are select themes from the PME, which also ought to be
considered as human rights violations worthy of defending.
Select human rights principles then include, but are not
limited to the following: (1) protections for onesmentaland
J. Hum. Rights Soc. Work
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physical health for those detained or not detained to be given
equal status; (2) complicity in cruel, inhumane, or degrading
punishment should not be active or passive; (3) the purpose of
relationship with health personnel must be solely to evaluate,
protect, or improve mental or physical health; (4) the interro-
gation and certification or prisoners or detainees must not
adversely affect their mental or physical health; (5) detainment
shall present no detriment to the mental or physical health of
the prisoner; and (6) public emergency or any ground what-
soever shall not justify violation of these principles. To see the
document in its entirety, go to https://www.ohchr.org/EN/
ProfessionalInterest/Pages/MedicalEthics.aspx
On the Declaration on the Right and Responsibility
of Individuals, Groups, and Organs of Society
to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized
Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (DHRD)
Should the human rights defender then wish to draw attention
to violations of principles in the above document, s/he would
obviously need protection. The DHRD has articulated rather
well such protections. It is extremely important to protect de-
fenders because they can suffer mental anguish, if not physical
abuse, because those in power to whom the actions are
intended often ostracize, if not shame them, for their actions.
Indeed, throughout history the world has seen many suffer for
their alleged insolence,when all they were doing was
speaking truth to power. The classic story is that of Socrates
being forced to drink hemlock, which led to his death, only
because he challenged the priests and judges, obviously
viewed as an act of disobedience, to describe holiness and
justice respectively. Also, because there are no protections,
people may tend to exaggerate, as did the Pastor Samuel
Parris, during the time of the Salem Witch Trials. He
suspected the victims of the alleged witches were faking, but
provided testimony anyway, apparently, for fear of reproba-
tion from the community almost literally hell-benton a
search and destroy mission of witches (Bednarski 1970).
Should there have been protections, outcomes would have
been much different; Socratess life prolonged and lives saved
from witch hunts. In modern times, Edward Snowden, who
blew the whistle on the US governments breaching of priva-
cy, thus defending this very important human right, was forced
to seek haven in Russia for fear of retribution in the USA
(Edward Snowden, Whistleblower 2014;Snowden2019).
Similarly, Wikileaks has faced reprisal for its leaking of extra-
judicial killings in war time. Indeed, Chelsea Manning, who
had handed over reportedly secret documents to them, had
been ordered to go to jail for her unwillingness to testify
against Wikileaks (Fortin 2019).
As in the previous two documents, here are select themes
of the DHRD, a document which should be better known in
the helping and health professions, as Mr. Frost the Special
Rapporteur had urged, on the 20th anniversary of that docu-
ment. It should thus provide a good and solid framework to
protect those who have the courage to speak out when notic-
ing human rights violations.
Select principles of the DHRD are as follows: (1) each
State has the prime responsibility to protect and promote hu-
man rights and to create all conditions necessary in social,
economic, political and other fields and legal guarantees to
ensure that all persons have such rights; (2) all individuals
(alone or in community with others etc.) have the right to
peaceful assembly, to join and communicate with governmen-
tal and non-governmental organizations; (3) all individuals
have the right to publish, impart and disseminate to others
information about fundamental human rights and to draw at-
tention to those matters; (4) all individuals can submit to gov-
ernmental agencies criticism and proposals for improving
their functioning and to draw attention to aspects that may
hinder or impede the protection of human rights; (5) all indi-
viduals have the right to an effective remedy, such as prompt
review in a public hearing before a competent authority and to
receive redress and any compensation found forthcoming; (6)
all individuals shall have unhindered access to international
bodies; (7) the State shall conduct a prompt and impartial
investigation if there is reasonable ground to believe a viola-
tion has occurred; (8) all professionals must comply with rel-
evant national and international standards of occupational and
professional ethics so as not to violate human dignity and
rights; (9) the State shall protect the human rights defender
against any violence, threats, retaliation, de facto or de jure
adverse discrimination, pressure or any other arbitrary action
as a consequence of his or her legitimate action; (10) the State
shall provide and full and equal access to international docu-
ments, such as periodic reports; (11) lawyers, law enforce-
ment, the armed forces and public officials shall have appro-
priate elements of human rights teaching in their training; and
(12) calling for international cooperation to combat mass fra-
grant and systemic violations resulting from apartheid, racial
discrimination, colonialism or foreign domination. To view
the document in its entirely go to: https://www.ohchr.org/
Documents/Issues/Defenders/Declaration/declaration.pdf
Briefly then, the human rights defender to promote mental
health/well-being has a number of principles, often felt intui-
tively, but which the PPMI and the PME elucidate, that can
serve as standards to draw attention to human rights viola-
tions, which actually are abuses as cited in the initial defini-
tion. Thus, by way of example, if an Indigenous person, an
Inupiat, has a presenting problem of being excessively with-
drawn and the treatment team urges assertiveness training,
such a prescribed plan could be described as a kind of colo-
nialism, mirroring a rather Eurocentric society, and antithetical
to community ethics, such as the Inupiat value to avoid con-
flictas one of essential core ethical principles as adopted by
the Inupiat Illitqusiat movement (NANA.org 2019,p.1).Such
J. Hum. Rights Soc. Work
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a treatment plan would thus be antithetical to the fact that
treatment ought to be suited to the patients cultural back-
ground, as asserted in point three in the PPMI as stated above,
as well as, antithetical to point twelve of the DHRD above
calling in brief for cooperation to combat violations resulting
from foreign domination or colonialism. Also, the Medical
Whistleblower Advocacy Network, citing in part mass shoot-
ings, has called attention to the relationship between some
psychotropics (Zoloft, Prozac and Paxil) and suicide and ho-
micide (2019). Needless to say, but the pharmaceutical indus-
try is one of the most profitable industries since World War II,
strongly suggesting the need to call attention to the abuses of a
system that places a priority on narrow definitions of profit,
rather than the fulfillment of fundamental rights, such as the
right to life (Gil 1992,2013). Calling attention to these mat-
ters, among others, would mean that the state and the helping
and health professions would need to protect rights defenders
in ways that would not lead to violence, threats, retaliation, or
any other arbitrary action as a consequence of action, as enun-
ciated in the DHRD and mentioned in point nine above.
Implications for Advanced Generalist Practice
Social Work/Public Health
Roughly, the Advanced Generalist Practice Social Work/Public
Health approach to eradicating social malaise and promoting men-
tal health/well-being calls for multi-pronged interventions. In brief,
this approach advocates interventions from the meta-macro to the
meta-micro levels. Keeping in mind then the metaphor of the
burning ship upstream, the question might be what caused the fire
in the first place. Was it global warming or climate disruption? The
meta-macro is also called a global intervention in that it recognizes
that the entire world is interrelated and echoes the words of Dr.
Martin Luther King: Injustice anywhere is a threat to injustice
everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutual-
ityWhatever affects one directly, affects all indirectlyand
human rights education (PDHRE.org 2018), (King 1963,p.1).
Thus, in regard to promoting mental health/well-being,
helping and health professionals must be cognizant of global
issues that may have led to social and individual malaises and
intervene accordingly. An argument could be made therefore,
that neoliberalism and populism has taken over the world,
movements that are laudatory of free market capitalism, which
necessitates a certain number of unemployed, thus violating
principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as
well as the U.N. Charter which calls, inter alia,on states to
provide for higher standards of living, full employment, and
conditions of economic and social progress and
development.
Furthermore, such far-right government leaders, indicative
of this populism, such as Trump in the USA, Bolsonaro of
Brazil, Duterte of the Philippines, and Modi of India ought to
be called out for abuses of human rights, such as (respectively)
the taking away of children from their parents at the US/
Mexican border; the wanton development in the Amazon
rainforest; the extrajudicial killings in the drug wars in the
Philippines; and the urging of India to become a Hindu state.
All those actions violate fundamental human rights principles,
such as special protections of the family, rights to self-
determination and a clean environment, the right to life, and
the right to worship alone and in community with others.
Another case in point is that of violence and suicide, the
ultimate manifestation of mental illness which can be seen as a
function of hopelessness and failure to work can lead to despair
and extreme poverty. In that regard then the helping and health
professional would need to work toward implementing the U.N.
Charter and the UDHR, which would have ramifications to com-
bat neoliberalism and populism as indicated by the elected far-
right leaders discussed above. The relationship between unem-
ployment, underemployment, lack of collective bargaining, and
violence as a case in point has long been established (Gil 1973,
1992). Indeed, the USA has experienced a rather long recession
recently with declines in human development and work as de-
scribed by the US delegation to the drafting committee of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights which they stated ought
to be socially useful, contributing to the development of the
personality and increasing purchasing power (Wronka 1998).
Indeed then, it may be no coincidence that Adults are increas-
ingly dying deaths of despairwhich the Center for Disease
Control defines as those from drugs, alcohol, or suicidethats
almost 2.5 times the number in 2000(citedinRyan-Mosley
2019, p. 57).While not immediately apparent perhaps, the human
rights defender would need ultimately to blow the whistle and
call their profession to task for failure to have such a global
vision. Indeed, only five percent of professional social work
programs tend to have a global vision in them (Campanini 2019).
The macro level of intervention, a whole population ap-
proach, might attempt to prevent mental illness by teaching
children ways to cope with stress constructively, rather than
resorting to drugs, if not despair. Professionals thus ought to
play a major role in developing, if not teaching, such curricu-
lum. An advanced generalist practitioner ought to be fully
aware of the importance of such an intervention. Failure to
provide for such an approach would be fodder for the human
rights defender. The mezzo level calls for at-risk interventions,
given that the aforementioned approaches may not have been
successful. Generally, for instance, it is disruptive children that
get referred for help, even perhaps given medication., not so
much to help but rather for the convenience of others in vio-
lation of the PPMI. Here, too, the professional must be on the
lookout for such violations and take constructive action as
necessary.
The micro level calls for clinical interventions for individ-
uals whose symptomology if fully blown and require counsel-
ing to deal with problems in their everyday lives, which
J. Hum. Rights Soc. Work
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appear to them as unsurmountable. Various clinical interven-
tions are available ranging from play therapy, cognitive be-
havioral therapy, and/or insight-oriented psychotherapy. In
this regard the potential whistleblower ought to heed some
of the principles of the PPMI, making sure that such clinical
interventions, for example, are appropriate to a personscul-
tural background. The meta-micro speaks in essence to the
healing powers of the everyday life and the importance of
non-professional treatment modalities, such as alcoholics,
emotions, and depressions anonymous. The principle of
treatment in the least restrictive environmentin the PPMI
speaks in large measure to this level of intervention so that
patients can have reasonable access to individuals, such as
family members and friends, who can have a positive influ-
ence on them. Here, again, failure to abide by such a principle
is grist for the professional to defend the patients human
rights.
In conclusion, seen within the context of the Human Rights
Triptych, human rights documents, such as the U.N.
Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness
(PPMI) and the Document on Human Rights Defenders
(DHRD) can serve as effective guidelines for the
whistleblower and governments and other entities to protect
them. Ultimately s/he is defending human rights, and in order
to promote mental health and well-being, a major focus of this
article, s/he ought to engage in multi-pronged interventions
directly consistent with Advanced Generalist Practice Social
Work/Public Health.
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This book examines the implications of the creation of a human rights culture for proactive and reactive interventions to eradicate social and individual malaises and promote well-being. It also consists of an Instructor's Manual, which includes PowerPoints, lecture discussions, social action activities, and examination questions available at: https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/human-rights-and-social-justice/book245381 Examples include, but are not limited to drug abuse, mental illness, AIDS, and obesity. and a model for policy assessment and direct non-violent social action for the defender of human rights/social justice.
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My Dear Fellow Clergymen: While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities "unwise and untimely." Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms. I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the view which argues against "outsiders coming in." I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty five affiliated organizations across the South, and one of them is the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights. Frequently we share staff, educational and financial resources with our affiliates. Several months ago the affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct action program if such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we lived up to our promise. So I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because I have organizational ties here. But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here. Just as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and carried their "thus saith the Lord" far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, and just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town. Like Paul, I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for aid.
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This paper develops a definition and conceptual model of violence against children on the basis of a series of nationwide epidemiologic studies, public opinion, and press surveys. Culturally sanctioned use of physical force in child rearing, poverty and discrimination, deviance in bio-psycho-social functioning, and chance events are identified as causal dimensions of physical child abuse. The scope of the phenomenon and selected findings from the surveys are discussed and social policies aimed at primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention are suggested. Attention is drawn to massive societal abuse of children, which is a related but much more serious social problem.
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