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Factors That Enhance Delivery in the Hospital in Zaria Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria

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International Journal of Dental and Medical Science Research
www.ijdmsrjournal.com
Volume 1, Issue1, (Nov-Dec 2019), PP. 26-28
26
Factors That Enhance Delivery in the Hospital in Zaria
Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Yakubu Lawali1, Zulkiflu A Musa1Auwalu Shuaibu2 Binta Mayana Usman
1Department of Nursing Sciences, Usmanu DanFodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria
2School of Nursing Gusau
3ADNS Federal Medical Centre Gusau, Zamfara State
Received 18 January 2020; Accepted 06 February 2020
Abstract: Hospital delivery has been shown to reduce maternal mortality worldwide. However, the rate at
which women deliver in the facility is not encouraging in Zaria. The objective of the study was to assess the
factors that encourage women to deliver in the health facility. 399 women were sampled and Multi stage
sampling technique was employed. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. The factors that enhance
delivery in the hospital as described by respondents were: Provision of Equipment, Free services, Adequate
qualified personnel, Health Education, Provision of transport, Positive attitude of midwives, Incentives,
Adequate care, and Women empowerment. It is therefore recommended that, free maternity services should be
provided in zaria metropolis. Similarly, women should be treated as partners and with dignity.
Key words: delivery, factors, enhance, mortality, women
I. INTRODUCTION
Each year more than 500,000 women, 99% of them in developing countries die from pregnancy and
childbirth related complications and additional 15-20 million women suffer debilitating consequences of
pregnancy (United State Agency for International Development, 2011).
In global context, while Nigeria accounts for 2% of world population, it account for 10% of maternal
death (MacArthur foundation , 2006). The death rate among women during childbirth in kaduna state is
becoming alarming. Health statistics indicated that five women die every day while 1,944 die annually (Yunusa,
2012). In Nigeria, the use of health facilities during child delivery by pregnant women remain a public health
problem and this may be influenced by a lot of factors including demographic socio-economic, cultural,
obstetric and health system factors (Khalid, 2006).
Nigerian women deliver outside health facilities and without medically skilled attendants present
(Mutihir, Ujah, & Gleas, 2008). Knowledge about factors affecting the use of institutional birth is important to
eliminate barriers and attracts women to modern care skilled birth attendance. This was the first focused during
the safe motherhood meeting in Sri-lanka in 1997 (Moore, 2010). It has been also at the centre of international
effort to improve maternal and child health during past decades. However, women`s in Nigeria as reported by
researches utilize hospital for delivery only without alternatives. This may be the reasons why some of them
come to the facility with certain complications or exhausted by delay. Therefore this result aimed to evaluate
those factors that promote delivery in the hospital.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Research Design
The study is a non experimental descriptive research aimed at assessing the hindrance to hospital delivery
among women of childbearing age in zaria metropolis.
Target Population
The target population of the study are women of childbearing age (15-49yrs)in zaria metropolis
basically with total population of 698348(zaria-406990 +sabon gari-291358)(2006 census). Women of
childbearing age formed 22% of population in zaria metropolis. Therefore, the target population of the study is
22/100 ×698,348=153,637 2.3
Sampling Techniques
Multi-stage sampling technique was used for the study where two local governments in zaria
metropolis were selected i.e zaria and sabon gari local governments. Out of which eight districts were selected,
Factors That Enhance Delivery in the Hospital in Zaria Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria
27
four from each local government. In zaria LGA the districts are Tudun wada, Zaria city, Tukur-Tukur and
Gyallesu. In sabon gari LGA, Basawa, Samaru, Sabon gari and jama’ah districts. 2.4 Sample Size
In order to obtain sample size fomular n=N/1+N(e)2 was used slovins7 n=Sample size N=Target population
e=Margin of error (0.05) n=153,637/1+153,637(0.05)2 153,637/385 n=399
Instrument for Data Collection
Questionnaire was used for collecting data which contain well and structured questions focusing on
socio-demographic data, and hindrance to hospital delivery. Method of Data Analysis Data collected from the
respondents were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and presented in frequency distribution tables, percentages,
and charts.
III. RESULT
Socio-demographic Data
Table 1. Distribution of Respondents Based on Socio-demographic Data
AGE
PREQUENCY
PERCENTAGES(%)
15-19
20-29
30-39
40-49
TOTAL
36
163
128
72
399
9
41
32
18
100
RELIGION
ISLAM
CHRISTIAN
TOTAL
323
76
399
81
19
100
ETHNICITY
HAUSA
YARUBA
IGBO
TOTAL
263
88
48
399
66
22
12
100
MARITAL STATUS
MARRIED
SINGLE
TOTAL
243
156
399
61
39
100
QUALIFICATION
PRIMARY
SECONDARY
TERTIARY
NON
TOTAL
132
148
80
40
399
33
37
20
10
100
Mean age=31
Above table shows that, majority of the respondents (41%) are between the ages of 20-29. It also indicate that,
majority of the respondents (81%) were Muslim, 66% of them were hausa by tribe. 61% of respondents were
married and majority (37%) have secondary school certificate
Table 2 FACTORS THAT ENHANCE DELIVERY IN THE HOSPITAL
FACTORS
FREQUENCY
PERCETAGE
Provision of Equipment
Free services
Adequate qualified personnel
Health Education
Provision of transport
Positive attitude of midwives
Incentives
Adequate care
Women empowerment
TOTAL
51
80
52
28
24
92
20
24
28
399
13
20
13
7
6
23
5
6
7
100
Factors That Enhance Delivery in the Hospital in Zaria Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria
28
The table above shows that, majority of the respondents (23%) indicates that, positive attitudes of
midwives is the major factor enhancing delivery in the hospital, followed by provision of free services with 20%
while only 5% indicates incentive as the factor
IV. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Several factors that enhance delivery in the hospital were stated by the women of zaria metropolis.
Positive attitude of midwives-Majority of the respondents (23%) stated that, positive attitudes of midwives
towards patients and their relatives could enhance delivery in the hospital. This finding is similar to study
conducted in lebowa, (2009).
Free services- the study identified free service provision as the enhancer of hospital delivery. This in line with
the study conducted by Sa`ad (2010) which indicated increase in facility delivery after introduction of free
maternity services.
Provision of equipments/Adequate qualified personnel-13% of the respondents said that provision of
adequate personnel and equipments will improve in the women`s delivery in the hospital
Women empowerment- 7% of the respondents said that, women empowerment could enhance delivery in the
hospital. This may be due to the fact that most women are jobless and have no any source of income to cater
with bill of hospital delivery services, but if they are empowered they may be able to cater with that.
Health Education- 7% of the respondents said that, if adequate health education concerning delivery in the
hospital is done, women will understand it`s importance and utilize it.
Provision of transport-6% of the respondents said that, provision of transport for women especially during
labour could enhance delivery in the hospital.
Adequate care-6% of the respondents said that, provision of adequate care during labour could enhance
delivery in the hospital
Incentives-5% of the respondents said that, incentives provided to them make them to deliver in the hospital e.g
mosquito net, baby cloth etc. The above findings were in agreement with that of Saad in a study conducted in
kano (2010).
V. CONCLUSION
According to literature review barriers to hospital delivery were identified include cost of care, poor
quality of care, negative attitude of staff. These were also verified by the finding of this study as the factor
militating against hospital delivery in zaria metropolis.
VI. RECOMMENDATIONS
1. There is need for establishment of free maternity services in zaria metropolis.
2. The free delivery/maternity services should be regularly evaluated from both services provide/women
(recipients) perspective and improve as well.
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Perception of facility delivery among adult women of okara
  • T Adaju
Adaju,T.(2001)Perception of facility delivery among adult women of okara, Kenya p.4.Content Displa.cfm &ContentID=6658 on sept,
Fundamentals of Research Methodology for Health Care Professionals
  • F Jewkes
jewkes, F.. (2006). Fundamentals of Research Methodology for Health Care Professionals.2nd Edition, Juta and Company Ltd, Cape Town, p.119
Infant health utilization,predicted by pattern of prenatal care. Pediatrics
  • Khalid
Khalid,A (2006). Infant health utilization,predicted by pattern of prenatal care. Pediatrics,. P.50-54
Women`s perception on facility delivery
  • J Kinuthia
  • P Kibera
Kinuthia,J. and Kibera,P (2012). Women`s perception on facility delivery,Retrieved from pag,aid2010.org/abstract.aspx/AID=13572 on October 2012
An analysis of transport in the Zululand health district
  • K Mathew
Mathew, K. (2007). An analysis of transport in the Zululand health district.. Conference report. Retrieved from www.rudasa.org.za/conference/conf.php/conf6/jass.php on 2012
Hidden Suffering: disabilities from pregnancy and childbirth in less developed countries
  • L Moore
Moore,L. (2010). Hidden Suffering: disabilities from pregnancy and childbirth in less developed countries.Population Reference Bureau,.1-6. Retrieved from: http://www.prb.org/Template.cfm?Section=PRB& template=/ContentManagement/
Revisiting the behavioural model and access to medical care: does it matter?
  • F Mutihir
  • N Ujah
  • Gleask
  • J Asian
Mutihir,F.Ujah,N.,GleasK. Asian,J. (2008). Revisiting the behavioural model and access to medical care: does it matter? Journal of Health and Social Behavior,. 36(1): 1-10.
Women`s perception on underutilization of intrapartum care in Okakara
  • A Ngula
Ngula,A. (2005). Women`s perception on underutilization of intrapartum care in Okakara.
Fundamentals of Research Methodology for Health Care Professionals
  • H Slovin
Slovin,H. Fundamentals of Research Methodology for Health Care Professionals.2nd Edition, Juta and Company Ltd, Cape Town, 2006. p.119
Making pregnancy safer,Department of Reproductive Health
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Yunusa,G (2012). Making pregnancy safer,Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO, Geneva..