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The performance of marine spatial planning in coordinating offshore wind energy with other sea-uses: The case of the Dutch North Sea

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Abstract

Paper is available for free until 7 May via https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1alc9,714McrPV Governments are searching for institutional designs that enable coordination of sea-uses in a more systematic and integrated manner. Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is presented as such an approach for improved coordination. However, existing literature is increasingly doubting the ability of MSP to accomplish this, particularly regarding offshore wind farms (OWF). Therefore, this paper evaluates how six key principles of MSP perform in coordinating OWF vis-á-vis other spatial claims in the Dutch North Sea. Where existing literature focuses on the conformance of material outcomes to stated objectives, this paper evaluates performance; i.e. how the six principles are understood in successive manifestations of MSP and subsequently used in decision-making regarding OWF. Based on the conditions of knowledge, legitimacy and feasibility, four modes of performance are identified. Knowledge of the principles of MSP can be found throughout successive manifestations of MSP. However, the understanding of these principles in the Dutch case is narrowed in order to create a robust system that ensures a quick and cost-effective roll-out of offshore wind energy to meet (inter)national renewable energy targets. The focus lies on furthering the feasibility of OWF development, resulting in a dominant mode of performance that is termed ‘legitimacy misfit’; MSP is used as a tool to implement external sustainability discourses and renewable energy targets, rather than forming a systematic and integrated marine governance approach that balances various interests at sea. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop a more critical approach to the operationalization of the principles of MSP that is sensitive to possible interdependencies and conflicts.

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... This paper provides such clarification by combining the dimensions of integration with the normative principles that are attributed to MSP. These normative principles distinguish MSP from previous ad hoc and sectoral approaches (Ehler, 2014(Ehler, , 2018Spijkerboer et al., 2020) and show what MSP should be: ...
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Driven by outside economic forces and the effects of climate change, the Arctic, its ecosystems, and its people are all faced with substantial change ranging from the loss of ice-dependent species, more intense human uses of the Arctic, and the loss of natural services provided by Arctic ecosystems. In addition to business opportunities, these changes represent new risks to the Arctic’s unique natural environment and to the people who now live and work in the Arctic. Once new human activities begin in the Arctic Ocean, it will be difficult for policymakers and planners to put limits on them. This paper explores a new approach to the integrated management of human activities—marine spatial planning (MSP). MSP seeks to reduce conflicts among human activities and balance the conservation of ecologically important areas with the sustainable development of marine resources in the Arctic. With the exception of Norway, most Arctic governments have been slow to advance marine spatial planning. A way to advance MSP in the Arctic would be to explicitly recognize the importance of moving beyond sole reliance on the initiatives of national governments and towards a pan-Arctic approach to guide the future of the region. Networks and partnerships of non-governmental actors, including indigenous peoples, environmental NGOs, academia, and private industry, all of whom have substantial influence over governmental policies and actions, could be used to initiate MSP across the Arctic.
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This paper provides an overview of the emerging policy landscape for marine spatial planning in the European Union, which consists of four main categories of policy drivers: environmental legislation, legislation on marine renewable energy, fisheries regulations and the Integrated Maritime Policy. The weak links between these categories of policy drivers, underpinned by a lack of clarity regarding the vision for sustainability, pose major challenges for the emergence of ecosystem-based and integrated marine spatial planning in Europe. In addition, there is still uncertainty arising from on-going reform of the Common Fisheries Policy, and discussions on the need for a new marine spatial planning directive. This paper concludes with the view that better integration of environmental concerns into the Common Fisheries Policy is needed to strengthen the link between environmental legislation and fisheries regulations, and that the existing policy landscape, particularly the Marine Strategic Framework Directive, already provides a legal framework for ecosystem-based marine spatial planning. Such a framework is consistent with the recognition that ecosystem conservation underpins other pillars of sustainable development and provides the foundation for cross-sectoral marine planning and management.
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Marine spatial planning is taking on greater international significance as a response to increased perceived threats to the marine environment and the need for more systematic maritime governance. It also expands the horizons of spatial planning and leads to calls for interdisciplinary research to support its development. This special issue brings together papers focusing on the need for a more active engagement of natural and social science perspectives in the formation of spatial strategies concerned with the future well-being of the seas and oceans.
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Maritime spatial planning (MSP) is increasingly being introduced as a tool to improve decision-making for those maritime areas where competing human activities occur and to manage the effects on the marine environment. According to the European Commission's Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning: Achieving Common Principles in the EU of November 2008, for MSP to be effective, it should be established by setting up a legally binding framework. Recently, several European Union (EU) Member States have developed systems to establish a firm national legal basis to engage in MSP in all maritime waters within their national jurisdiction. However, their starting points are different; whereas, the Netherlands and Germany extended their existing territorial spatial planning framework seaward, the UK developed an entire new planning system specific for its maritime waters. This article aims to explore how the EU Member States mentioned above have embedded their maritime spatial planning activities in their national legal system and to what extent they are bound by global and EU-legislation when engaging in MSP. Special attention is paid to issues of cross-sectoral coordination and cross-border consultation with neighbouring States.
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This article is about strategic spatial planning in the Netherlands. Strategic spatial planning concerns major spatial development issues. Such issues may arise on any planning scale, but it is more common for them to be addressed at the regional and even more so on national level. More in particular, this article asks how can strategic spatial plans be evaluated. At face value, evaluation in planning seems simple enough. Lest it should be considered a failure, planning must 'deliver the goods'. This means that the outcome of planned action must conform to what the plan says. For planning to achieve this, it must make the various agents that are normally shaping development according to priorities of their own, fall into line. So in order for strategic spatial plans to be effective, conventional wisdom has it that they must 'have teeth'. The government agency responsible for making the plan must be able to rein other actors in. 'Other actors' may refer to other government agencies, whether on the same level of government (horizontal coordination) or on other levels (vertical coordination). The need for control also applies to private actors.
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The European Commission has developed a set of common principles for marine spatial planning in the European Union. A critical examination of these principles in practice is undertaken through an evaluation of the Clyde Marine Spatial Planning Pilot Project. The principles are found to be lacking in specificity and somewhat inconsistent with the ecosystem based approach, which they advocate. Lessons for new marine spatial planning initiatives, relating particularly to stakeholder participation, governance, data requirements, objective setting, and skills and knowledge needs, are derived from the Clyde Pilot.
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Adaptive maritime spatial planning (MSP) uses monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of spatial and temporal management measures to promote understanding and improve planning and decision-making. An adaptive approach to MSP involves exploring alternative ways to meet management objectives, predicting the outcomes of alternative management measures, implementing one or more of these alternative management measures, monitoring to learn about the effects of management measures, and then using the results to update knowledge and adjust management actions. A monitoring and evaluation plan should be designed to be both cost effective and comprehensive. The process of setting and assessing performance metrics requires that the ecological and socio-economic objectives of the spatial management plan must be clearly stated up front for management actions to reflect those objectives accurately. To evaluate the effectiveness of a MSP plan, a range of ecological, socio-economic and institutional indicators need to be developed and monitored. KeywordsMaritime (marine) spatial planning–Adaptive management–Monitoring–Indicators–Evaluation–Management effectiveness
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A blind faith in the ability of MPAs to counteract loss of biodiversity is fraught with risk, especially when MPAs are poorly planned and when the consequences of establishing MPAs are not adequately thought out. MPA shortcomings are categorized as one of five main types: (1) MPAs that by virtue of their small size or poor design are ecologically insufficient; (2) inappropriately planned or managed MPAs; (3) MPAs that fail due to the degradation of the unprotected surrounding ecosystems; (4) MPAs that do more harm than good due to displacement and unintended consequences of management; and (5) MPAs that create a dangerous illusion of protection when in fact no protection is occurring. A strategic alternative, which fully utilizes the strengths of the MPA tool while avoiding the pitfalls, can overcome these shortcomings: integrating marine protected area planning in broader marine spatial planning and ocean zoning efforts.
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"Place-based management of marine ecosystems offers a constructive means for dealing with the uncertainties associated with complex, heterogenous, and dynamic systems." (p. 23) "Public and private actors are rising to the challenge of identifying places suitable for the application of the tools of place-based management of marine ecosystems." (p. 24) "Comprehensive ocean zoning is a tool that may be used to control the distribution of human activities in space and time." (p. 27) "The growing pressure on marine ecosystems is not simply a matter of allocating harvestable resources among competing users. (p.28) "Overcoming obstacles will require a combination of broad-based political support and entrepreneurial leadership." (p.31)
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Public policy is often implemented through formal laws. In contrast to the typically optimistic ex-ante analyses of the impact of a set of laws, in retrospect it may be hard to determine what the laws concretely produced. Particularly complicated to measure are the unintended and indirect effects on actors or values that were not the prime focus of the law. Despite the literature on these matters in other fields of research, among planners the theory of law implementation receives relatively little attention. This attitude may stem from the means-ends rationality that has been common to planning for so many years. This paper makes a plea for focusing on the interaction between people and laws so as to understand the outcomes. We do this by drawing insights from sociological perspectives on laws.
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<?tlsb=-.02w>There are a number of different criteria for measuring the success of plans in planning. In the planning literature there is a debate about the criterion of conformance (that is, whether spatial development is according to plan) as opposed to performance (that is, whether the plan has shown the way to better decisionmaking), which is, in fact, different from performance measurement. In this paper both criteria are applied to measure the success of Dutch national concentration policies in the “Fourth Memorandum on Spatial Planning—Plus”. The author shows that the urban containment policies conform well to the plan but perform badly in terms of improving current decisionmaking on the stagnation of housing production in the Netherlands. Moreover, the present stagnation of housing production is planned stagnation. With this result, the author shows that conformance and performance are independent criteria for measuring planning success, and that plans (as set out in the “Fourth Memorandum on Spatial Planning—Plus”) with high conformance may still perform badly on the performance criterion.
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This paper sheds a light on how local conditions affect renewable energy innovation. As empirical case, we study an energy transition policy regulation in the Netherlands: the zip code-rose regulation (PCR) intended for community energy initiatives. Firstly, we analyse the capacity of the PCR to facilitate the accommodation of renewable energy projects by community energy initiatives. Secondly, we analyse how emerging area-based energy practices are feeding back into the energy policy system. Based on empirical evidence from a desk study and interviews with community energy initiatives and key governance actors we find that the policy does provide a modest incentive for initiatives to develop renewable energy projects under local conditions. Nevertheless, the policy falls short of allowing initiatives to openly seek for locally desired solutions and hence, to increase opportunities at a local level to develop projects based on local conditions. However, current difficulties with the policy are being considered at a national level urging for adaptation of Dutch energy policies.
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Ocean governance frameworks are aimed at achieving sustainable use of the marine environment and its finite resources. They are increasingly being developed and implemented worldwide. Although the importance of evaluating the success of integrated ocean management initiatives is widely recognized, so is its complexity, and there is still limited knowledge or empirical experience on how to actually carry out such an evaluation. This research aims to develop a framework to evaluate the performance of marine spatial planning (MSP) (focusing on the tangible outcomes of such initiatives). Portugal's maritime area totals c. 3,800,000 km². As one of the world's largest maritime nations, and with its ocean governance framework finalised in 2015, Portugal emerges as a relevant case study for the development of a mechanism to evaluate performance of its MSP system. A step-by-step participatory approach was designed to develop a set of indicators that could constitute the core of an evaluation mechanism of the performance of the Portuguese MSP system. The resulting fifteen indicators cover all aspects of an IPOO framework (inputs, process, outputs, outcomes) relevant in an MSP context (data and information base, transparency, aspects related to conflict, and to economic activities such as levels of investment and jobs), while including contextual indicators related to the state of the marine environment. These indicators thus simultaneously allow an assessment of the economic, social, and environmental effects of MSP, including some integrative high-level indicators such as well-being. This research demonstrates the interest and usefulness of using a participatory approach to the development of a comprehensive performance evaluation mechanism of Portuguese MSP. It exemplifies a shift towards a new, participatory, approach to the monitoring and evaluation stages of the MSP cycle, which may constitute a useful tool in the emerging field of MSP evaluation in Europe and beyond.
Article
Research about plans and resulting guidance for practice tend to focus on making one plan and implementing it. Plans are made and used, however, by many autonomous agents, a variety of organizations pursuing their interests while recognizing interdependence with the activities of other agents. Expanding the focus beyond one plan by one organization to many plans by many organizations raises three questions. With what agents should I make plans? How should I use plans to communicate strategically among agents? How should I express the content of such plans? We consider these questions by interpreting plans as signals, information shared among organizations. We contrast this perspective on plans with other interpretations of planning and elaborate responses to the three questions using examples from practice. By considering these questions explicitly, planners can take advantage of the signaling effects to increase the potential effectiveness of making and using plans.
Article
Worldwide the renewable energy sector is expanding at sea to address increasing demands. Recently the race for space in heavily used areas such as the North Sea triggered the proposal of co-locating other activities such as aquaculture or fisheries with passive gears in offshore wind farms (OWFs). Our interdisciplinary approach combined a quantification of spatial overlap of activities by using Vessel Monitoring System and logbook data with a stakeholder consultation to conclude and verify on the actual feasibility of co-location. In the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea up to 90% of Danish and 40% of German annual gillnet fleet landings of plaice overlapped with areas where OWFs are developed. Our results indicated further that the international gillnet fishery could lose up to 50% in landings within the North Sea German EEZ when OWF areas are closed entirely for fisheries. No spatial overlap was found for UK potters targeting brown crab in the German EEZ. We further identified a number of key issues and obstacles that to date hinder an actual implementation of co-location as a measure in the marine spatial planning process: defining the legal base; implementation of safety regulations; delineation of minimum requirements for fishing vessels such as capacities, quotas, technical equipment; implementation of a licensing process; and scoping for financial subsidies to set up business. The stakeholder consultation verified the scientific findings and highlighted that all those points need to be addressed in a planning process. In the German EEZ we have shown that the socio-economic importance of spatial overlap varies within planning boundaries. Therefore we recommend an interdisciplinary bottom-up approach when scoping for suitable areas of co-location. Hence, an informed marine spatial planning process requires comprehensive and spatial explicit socio-economic viability studies factoring in also ecological effects of OWFs on target species.
Article
The question whether coexistence of marine renewable energy (MRE) projects and marine protected areas (MPAs) is a common spatial policy in Europe and how a number of factors can affect it, has been addressed by empirical research undertaken in eleven European marine areas. Policy drivers and objectives that are assumed to affect coexistence, such as the fulfillment of conservation objectives and the prioritization of other competing marine uses, were scored by experts and predictions were crosschecked with state practice. While in most areas MRE-MPA coexistence is not prohibited by law, practice indicates resistance towards it. Furthermore expert judgment demonstrated that a number of additional factors, such as the lack of suitable space for MRE projects and the uncertainty about the extent of damage by MRE to the MPA, might influence the intentions of the two major parties involved (i.e. the MRE developer and the MPA authority) to pursue or avoid coexistence. Based on these findings, the interactions of these two players are further interpreted, their policy implications are discussed, while the need towards efficient, fair and acceptable MRE-MPA coexistence is highlighted.
Article
Many countries have begun marine spatial planning (MSP) efforts in the past decade and much academic and professional literature reviews and analyzes these processes. Relevant research that can contribute greatly to new efforts at MSP compares efforts, both recent and historical, with ideals set for spatial planning processes. This research addresses the extent to which paradigms from the planning practice and the policy field can be relevant for the MSP context. It does so by analyzing the interim products of an MSP process addressing the Mediterranean Sea area in the waters adjacent to the State of Israel. Results emphasize the potential contribution of public policy analysis and planning to critique outcomes of the MSP process with the aim of improving outcomes and devising best practices. This type of analysis can inform MSP as it becomes an accepted practice as a mainstream tool in the field of environmental planning. The complexity and challenge of spatial planning when policy foundations are minimal is highlighted in the results.
Article
New EU policy initiatives within the Maritime Strategy Framework Directive, the Integrated Maritime Policy, the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy, the offshore Energy policy and the Blue Growth Strategy, are in different manners aiming at implementing Ecosystem Based Management (EBM). EBM focuses on regional areas, as opposed to traditional sectoral driven policy approaches, aiming for integrated planning and coherent management. Understanding how regionalization processes work to enhance legitimate and responsible governance leading to improved sustainability persists one of the main challenges to Marine Governance. Marine Governance involves processes of interaction between state actors, market parties, supranational organizations and civil society in a multi-level and multi-layered institutional setting. We argue that processes of integration and cooperation are core drivers to regionalize previous European e state based institutions. Accordingly, the main aim of this article is to provide a framework to unravel the challenges of integration and cooperation in Marine Governance. Particularly through processes of regionalization, i.e. when redefining territorial spaces and recomposing political spaces at the regional sea level, this framework is used to assess how integration and cooperation perform in EU marine governance. Specifically, four modes of regionalization in Marine Governance have been identified depending on the level of cooperation and integration, referred to as: territorial synchrony, territorial anarchy, sectoral anarchy and sectoral synchrony. While some developments towards more territorial synchrony for EU Marine Governance is observed, more cooperative and integrated efforts will be needed to eventually become successful in moving from sectoral anarchy to the desired territorial synergy expressed in EU marine regulation.
Chapter
Increasingly changing patterns of human sea and sea floor use originate in political, economic and societal developments often motivated by the process of transition towards a green economy. Offshore wind farming has turned into a major agent of change with a set of expected cumulative ecological impacts. Coastal and shelf seas become contested, but at the same time politically recognised areas, with emerging conflicts rooted in different perceptions, values and attitudes of coastal people. Associated with our limited understanding of environmental regimes and ecosystem impacts of cumulative shelf sea modifications are fragmented frameworks, in policy and economic sectors often opposing the balancing approach of Marine/Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP). Mid and long-term management plans are further hampered by limitations faced in predicting long-term and regional climate change impact and future socio-economic and cultural developments. Planning under these circumstances is “planning under uncertainty”. Based on a brief analysis of offshore wind farming in the context of MSP the paper illustrates the role of science by highlighting the important complementary functions of disciplinary process oriented research versus interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches in assessing and modelling the expected cumulative effects of large scale offshore wind farming. In light of recent global discourse about future Earth system science, challenges and the emerging global science initiative “Future Earth” (supported by the UN, and major research and funding institutions) key research questions and the relevance of applying a co-design approach inviting all actors and researchers to the framing process are discussed. The ultimate goal is to foster ecosystem-based management. It is most evident that scientific information needs to be provided to inform one of the major and unprecedented transformations on continental shelves which is motivated by a socio-political decision to move towards global sustainability in response to climate change and economic development. Designing appropriate social environmental assessment, forecasting, observations and involving the institutional and legal dimensions are central in this context.
Article
Portman, M. E. 2011. Marine spatial planning: achieving and evaluating integration. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68: 2191–2200. Coastal states and nations are conducting marine spatial planning (MSP) at an ever-increasing pace. Some MSP efforts are aimed at planning areas at a subnational level, whereas others extend as far as 200 nautical miles from shore, within national exclusive economic zones. For planning of all types, but especially for planning in the marine realm, integration has become a sought-after norm now that traditional sectoral, single-issue management has not succeeded. Fisheries collapse, threats to marine biodiversity, and global climate change all support the case for greater integration in marine resource management and policy. The designation of boundaries can be related to the level of cross-sector and cross-jurisdictional integration achieved by MSP. The importance of scale and scope for MSP initiatives is examined, relating these aspects of plans and/or programmes to the levels of integration achieved, and a framework is suggested for evaluation. MSP initiatives in Portugal, the UK, and the USA serve as potential case studies for use of the framework.
Article
We call on policy scholars to take seriously the role of policies as governing instruments and to consider more fully the factors that shape their political impacts. We suggest that the lens provided by regime perspectives is a useful way for advancing the understanding of these considerations. As a descriptive undertaking, the regime lens can be used to construct a conceptual map that considers the constellation of ideas, institutional arrangements, and interests that are involved in addressing policy problems. As an analytic lens, regime perspectives can be used to understand how and with what effect policies set in place feedback processes that shape policy legitimacy, coherence, and durability. Together, these provide new insights into policy implementation and the interplay of policy and politics in governing. Regime perspectives provide avenues for asking and answering the “big questions” about the quality of governing arrangements and the sustainability of policies that were important considerations for the development of the field of policy studies in the 1960s, but have since waned as foci for policy scholarship.
Article
Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is emerging as key tool in the delivery of more effective sea use management and the integration ambitions of MSP are central to its rise to prominence. This paper reviews three key strands of thinking (integrated coastal and ocean management; integrated water resource management; and terrestrial spatial planning) that are informing the development of MSP and sets out a framework encompassing different dimensions of integration that those engaged in MSP might find it helpful to consider. The paper then explores how this framework can inform MSP development and related activity by using it to structure reflections on experience in the Irish Sea. Here the paper draws upon the outputs of a project that was funded by the UK's Economic and Social Research Council concerning Transnational Partnership Working in Support of Marine Spatial Planning in the Irish Sea. The analysis highlights the integration strengths and weaknesses associated with the emerging MSP structures in the Irish Sea and areas where further attention may be beneficial. The paper concludes by reflecting upon the value of the integration framework proposed, how it could be developed, and on key issues that those engaged in MSP in other contexts might need to address in rising to the integration ambitions of MSP.
Article
Multiple competing uses of continental-shelf environments have led to a proliferation of marine spatial planning initiatives, together with expert guidance on marine spatial planning. This study provides an empirical review of marine spatial plans, their attributes, and the extent to which the expert guidance is actually being followed. We performed a structured review of 16 existing marine spatial plans and created an idealized marine spatial plan from the steps included in recent expert papers. A cluster analysis of the yes/no answers to 28 questions was used to ordinate the 16 marine spatial plans and to compare them with the idealized plan. All the plans that have been implemented have a high-level government mandate and the authority to implement spatial planning vested in existing institutions. Almost all the plans used data with clear criteria for data inclusion. Stakeholders were included in almost all the plans; they did not participate in all stages of the planning process but their roles were generally clearly defined. Decision-support tools were applied inconsistently across plans and were seldom used dynamically over time. Most spatial planning processes did not select specific outcomes, such as preferred use scenarios. Success is defined inconsistently across plans; in half the cases there are no metrics of success with reference benchmarks. Although monitoring is included in the majority of plans, only in some cases do monitoring results feed back into management decisions. The process of marine spatial planning had advanced in that some of the more recent plans were developed more quickly and contain more desirable attributes than earlier plans. Even so, existing marine spatial plans are heterogeneous—there are essential ingredients, but no single recipe for success.
Article
Over the last 5–10 years, marine spatial planning (MSP) has emerged as a new management regime for national and international waters and has already attracted a substantial body of multi-disciplinary research on its goals and policy processes. This paper argues that this literature has generally lacked deeper reflexive engagement with the emerging system of governance for our seas that has meant that many of MSP's core concepts, assumptions and institutional arrangements have not been subject rigorous intellectual debate. In an attempt to initiate such an approach, this article explores the relationship between MSP and its land-based cousin, terrestrial spatial planning (TSP). While it is recognized that there are inherent limitations to a comparison of these two systems, it is argued that the tradition of social science debate over the purpose and processes of TSP can be used as a useful stimulus for a more rigorous reflection of such issues as they relate to MSP. The article therefore explores some of the parallels between MSP and TSP and then discusses some of the key intellectual traditions that have shaped TSP and the implications these may have for future marine planning practice. The article concludes with a number of potentially useful new avenues that may form the basis of a critical research agenda for MSP.
Article
From an interdisciplinary framework anchored theoretically in Critical Discourse Analysis and using analytical tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics, this article accounts for a crucial use of language in society: the process of legitimization. This article explains specific linguistic ways in which language represents an instrument of control (Hodge and Kress, 1993: 6) and manifests symbolic power (Bourdieu, 2001) in discourse and society. Taking into account previous studies on legitimization (i.e. Martín Rojo and Van Dijk, 1997; Van Dijk, 2005; Van Leeuwen, 1996, 2007, 2008; Van Leeuwen and Wodak, 1999), this particular work develops and proposes some key strategies of legitimization employed by social actors to justify courses of action. The strategies of legitimization can be used individually or in combination with others, and justify social practices through: (1) emotions (particularly fear), (2) a hypothetical future, (3) rationality, (4) voices of expertise and (5) altruism. This article explains how these strategies are linguistically constructed and shaped. This study explains the use of these discursive structures and strategies through examples of speeches given by leaders with differing ideologies, specifically George W. Bush and Barack Obama, in two different armed conflicts, Iraq (2007) and Afghanistan (2009), to underline their justifications of military presence in the notorious ‘War on Terror’.
Article
Multiple activities affect the marine environment in concert, yet current management primarily considers activities in isolation. A shift towards a more comprehensive management of these activities, as with recent emphasis on ecosystem-based approaches to management, requires a means for evaluating their interactive and cumulative impacts. Here we develop a framework for this evaluation, focusing on five core concepts: (1) activities have interactive and cumulative impacts, (2) management decisions require consideration of, and tradeoffs among, all ecosystem services, (3) not all stressors are equal or have impacts that increase linearly, (4) management must account for the different scales of activities and impacts, and (5) some externalities cannot be controlled locally but must be accounted for in marine spatial planning. Comprehensive ocean zoning provides a powerful tool with which these key concepts are collectively addressed.
Article
The notion of marine spatial planning (MSP) has recently emerged as a means of improving marine administration. By tracing its origins and investigating the key themes involved in the promotion of MSP, this article shows that it is best understood as an adoption of planning by marine and coastal interests rather than an offshore extension of existing planning practice. MSP is being constructed around the norms and assumptions of marine management, underlain by scientific rationalism. However, MSP also marks a shift towards spatial thinking for the marine environment, and deliberate attempts are being taken to incorporate established planning concepts into MSP. Stronger interaction between the two epistemic communities is called for in order to bring critical reflection to bear, with the aim of contributing to the development of this initiative that will significantly shape our use of the seas.
Article
Today, increasing use intensity and establishment of new sea uses such as offshore wind farming can be observed in coastal and marine waters. This development also increases the pressure on coastal and marine ecosystems. The exclusive economic zone of the German North Sea can serve as an example for this development, in particular illustrating the need to combine multiple uses and societal demands within a given sea area. In order to deal with the resulting conflicts and cumulative impacts, new planning tools and integrated approaches to planning and management are developing. While the sea becomes a contested but at the same time politically recognised area, also conflicts rooted in different perceptions, values and attitudes of coastal people can be observed. In order to deal with the current challenges in marine areas, marine spatial planning and similar tools for integrated planning need to be developed in the form of communication processes, which link diverse sets of information and span a dialogue between groups of society and across spatial scales including the transnational dimension.
Article
This paper aims to contribute to the current debate on Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) by exploring the issue of stakeholder engagement. MSP is an emergent policy field that is subject to an increasing body of research, yet the role, scope and nature of participatory engagement within the process remains a neglected topic. This paper briefly reviews the nature of the 'marine problem', to which MSP is seen to be the response and describes the emergence of MSP policy in the UK with specific emphasis on participatory aspects. Drawing on the experience of terrestrial planning it discusses the potential benefits of stakeholder engagement in MSP and highlights some of the key issues that need to be taken into account when shaping stakeholder input into the process. It then goes on to describe the findings from a series of interviews with key stakeholders in the Irish Sea Region, which suggest that we need to develop a more critical and deeper understanding of how various interests frame the 'marine problem', and how they see their role in shaping the form of the MSP process. This highlights the importance of encouraging stakeholder involvement in MSP, the need to develop a shared vision of a 'sea interest'. Priorities are then set for research to support this important policy agenda.
Article
Maritime Spatial Planning is a new form of spatial planning emerging at the intersection of expanding demands for commercial use of marine space and increasing concerns for marine ecosystems. Many coastal countries around Europe are presently engaged in this field -not only by their national activities but also cooperating across borders through transboundary dialogue, joint strategies and even considering joint planning. In the Baltic Sea region transboundary cooperation takes all these forms. Such activities, including the Plan Bothnia pilot planning of the Bothnian Sea between Sweden and Finland, bring into surface differences in planning procedures and approaches, views on the environment, compatibilities of geographical data and the general complexity of the international-national legal framework. Creativity and transparent, accountable procedures are needed to ensure that such initiatives are both useful and legitimate. KeywordsMarine–Management–Ecosystem–Sea–HELCOM–EU
Article
Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an essential tool for delivering an Ecosystem Approach and should add value to existing management measures for the marine environment. It should be based on a clear set of principles with a sustainable development purpose. Developing MSP can draw selectively on extensive experiences in terrestrial land use planning. A nested approach with appropriate planning activity at different spatial scales is recommended. Defining appropriate management units is important and particular effort will be required where these do not align with ecosystem boundaries. The timeframe for plans is tending to increase from around 10 to 20+ years, but review periods are required which enable a balance between stability and relevance. This article focuses on the key steps in the planning process of developing ecosystem-based MSP. The importance of setting specific objectives, including as a context for the full range of relevant spatial data, and determining priorities is emphasised. It is also suggested that stakeholder engagement, including the way it is undertaken, is critical to different stages of the process.
Article
Due to the interdependency that exists between the ecosystem resources and its users, successful implementation of ecosystem-based management depends on the identification and understanding of different stakeholders, their practices, expectations and interests. Today, many scientists and resource managers agree that the involvement of stakeholders is a key factor for a successful management regime in the marine environment. The way stakeholders are involved in the process must reflect, or at least address, the existing complexity of the specific context. A comprehensive method that allows doing this is by use of stakeholder analysis and mapping. This article will focus on the various types and stages of stakeholder participation in a marine spatial planning process, and will illustrate how to conduct a stakeholder analysis that allows the involvement of stakeholders in an adequate way that is sustainable over time.
Article
During the past 10 years, the evolution of marine spatial planning (MSP) and ocean zoning has become a crucial step in making ecosystem-based, sea use management a reality. The idea was initially stimulated by international and national interest in developing marine protected areas, e.g., the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. More recent attention has been placed on managing the multiple use of marine space, especially in areas where conflicts among users and the environment are already clear, e.g., in the North Sea. Even more recent concern has focused on the need to conserve nature, especially ecologically and biologically sensitive areas, in the context of multi-use planning of ocean space. Despite academic discussions and the fact that some countries already have started implementation, the scope of MSP has not been clearly defined. Terms such as integrated management, marine spatial management, and ocean zoning are all used inconsistently. This is one of the reasons why its importance is not more seriously reflected at the levels of policy and decision-making in most countries. This article attempts to deal with this problem. It describes why MSP is an essential step to achieve ecosystem-based sea use management, how it can be defined and what its core objectives are. The article concludes with an analysis of the use and achievements of MSP worldwide, with particular focus on new approaches in Europe.
Article
Increasing demand for ocean resources, both living and non-living, have already lead to loss of biodiversity, habitat depletion and irreversible damage to the marine environment. Furthermore, introduction of new kinds of sea uses, spatial extension of ongoing sea uses and the need to better protect and conserve the marine biological diversity will result in increasing conflicts among the various users, as well as between the users and the environment. Marine spatial planning as a process to allocate space for specific uses can help to avoid user conflicts, to improve the management of marine spatial claims, and to sustain an ecosystem-based management of ocean and seas. This article explores the rights and duties towards exploitation and protection of the marine environment under the jurisdiction of coastal states as reflected in two important global conventions, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Both Conventions provide the main legal framework for marine spatial planning that have to be taken into account in planning at the regional and national level.
Article
The development of offshore wind energy has started to take place surprisingly quickly, especially in North European waters. This has taken the wind energy industry out of the territory of planning systems that usually govern the siting of wind farms on land, and into the world of departmental, sectoral regulation of marine activities. Although this has favoured the expansion of offshore wind energy in some respects, evidence suggests that the practice and principles of spatial planning can make an important contribution to the proper consideration of proposals for offshore wind arrays. This is especially so when a strategic planning process is put in place for marine areas, in which offshore wind is treated as part of the overall configuration of marine interests, so that adjustments can be made in the interests of wind energy. The current process of marine planning in the Netherlands is described as an illustration of this.
Article
Evaluation and implementation studies have a well-established tradition For evaluation in general, this tradition seems to offer a clear-cut research design. This is not true for evaluation of strategic plans. First, most evaluation and implementation research deals with specific and well-defined operational policy and not with broad and sometimes vague indicative strategic planning. Second, the means - ends scheme underlying mainstream evaluation, in which conformance between a plan and final outcomes is the ultimate test of effectiveness, does not apply. In trying to establish conformance, we not only ask the wrong question but also use the wrong unit of analysis. Building on ideas from the planning and evaluation literature, we develop an alternative approach based on the notion that strategic plans serve the function of signposts for those involved in subsequent decisions. Our approach entails a test of the effectiveness of strategic plans which reflects their character; we suggest testing their performance. Empirical research on the role and purpose of strategic plans shows that 'performance' offers a promising way of understanding how strategic plans relate to intervention and of judging their usefulness.
Article
Spatial planning in the Netherlands had its heyday in the 1970s. That was the decade of rational systematic planning and a nationwide coverage of all aspects of land use by all sorts of strategic, tactical, and operational plans. It was also the decade when implementation issues reached the top of the political and academic agenda. The first generation of implementation and plan-evaluation studies led us to believe that, on the whole, 'performance' was poor. Since then, policymakers and academics have both worked on trying to solve this problem. The papers in this issue all deal with this question of performance. This introductory paper gives a broad outline of the questions.