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Monk fruit (Siraitia grosvenorii) - health aspects and food applications


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Monk fruit (Siraitia grosvenorii) commonly called as Luo Han Guo is a perennial herb and generally cultivated in Guangxi province of China. Traditionally the fruit was used in folk medicine for the treatment of several common diseases like cough, cold, sore throat, constipation and dire thirst. Studies over past decades advanced the knowledge of bio-chemical and pharmacological properties of monk fruit. Till now, several compounds have been identified and isolated from monk fruit, mainly triterpenoids, flavonoids, essential oils, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and polysaccharides. A triterpene glycoside consists of a group of mogrosides which are mainly considered to be responsible for higher biological effects of monk fruit. The mogroside extract of monk fruit gives >300 more sweetness as compared to 5% sucrose solution without giving extra calories during consumption. Biochemical properties as well as health benefits of monk fruit including scope for its utilization in food and beverage industries for the development of low calories products for diabetics and health conscious consumers are discussed in this article.
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Monk fruit is indigenous to China and Indonesia and is
one among seven species belonging to genus Siraitia.
Among seven, Siraitia grosvenorii species is principally
cultivated for more than 200 years in Guangxi province of
China which accounts more than 90% of the global
production (Liu et al., 2016a). The fruit of Siraitia
grosvenorii is commonly known worldwide as monk fruit
and regionally as Luo Han Guo. It is a perennial herb and
belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It contains diverse
bioactive compounds which are considered to be good for
health. Traditionally, the fruit is used as a natural
sweetener of foods and also as a household remedy for
nourishing the lungs, treating sunstroke, dire thirst,
constipation, sore throat, cough and cold (Shen et al.,
2014; Yan et al., 2010). Monk fruit contains essential oil,
saccharides, proteins, vitamins and flavons. It is also rich
in several triterpene glycosides, commonly known as
mogroside (Fig. 1) having high biological effects and
sweet taste (Li et al., 2014). A group of mogroside
principally contains mogroside IV, V and VI, siamenoside
I and 11-oxo-mogroside V, considered to be mainly
responsible for strong sweetening property of monk fruit.
The mogroside extract from ripe monk fruit could be an
ideal replacement of sugar for diabetic and obese patients
due to its high level of sweetness (>300 times) and low
calorific value than sucrose (Fang et al., 2017). The
relative sweetness of individual triterpene glycosides, i.e.
mogroside IV, V, siamenodie I and 11-oxo-mogroside V
were found 392, 425, 563 and 84 times higher than sucrose
(Suzuki et al., 2007). In 1987, China’s Ministry of Health
enlisted monk fruit as an edible species and medicine. The
countries like Australia, Japan, United States and New
Zealand also approved the products of monk fruit as a
dietary supplement. Japan approved mogroside V as a
natural sweetening agent. Whereas, in 2010, the extract of
monk fruit was approved in USA as generally recognized
as safe (GRAS) for non-nutritive sweetening and flavor
enhancing purpose (Tu et al., 2017). The quality
parameters of monk fruit extract containing different level
of mogroside percentage are described as GRAS (Table
1). In recent years, pharmacological studies have shown
several health protective properties of monk fruit such as
liver protection, anti-oxidative, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-
asthmatic, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory action (Li et
al., 2014). Now-a-days, several health protective food
products are also developed by the researchers from monk
fruit such as jam (Shi et al., 2009), chocolate (Heine,
2017), sweet juice (Suzuki et al., 2007; Murray, 2018) etc.
Monk fruit is also introduced as a non-nutritive table top
sweetener by a leading manufacturer. Moreover, the
manufacturers like Coke and Kashi introduced several
products containing monk fruit extract as such (Tu et al.,
The increasing demand of non-nutritive sweeteners from
natural sources increased the popularity of monk fruit in
international market including nutraceutical, food and
beverage industries (Pawar et al., 2013). But, the
cultivation of monk fruit is restricted to only limited area
of China and Indonesia, therefore, availability of monk
fruit is insufficient and only small amount in the form of
dried fruits and extract are supplied to other countries.
Low production rate and high market demand leads to
higher trade price for monk fruits and its products
(Konoshima and Takasaki, 2002). Several studies
reported that monk fruit is one of the best natural
sweetener substitutes for sucrose, but owing to
unaffordable price, it is restricted to only pharmacological
Monk fruit (Siraitia grosvenorii) - health aspects and food applications
Fruits and Vegetables Technology Division, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddharthanagar, Mysore – 570011
ABSTRACT: Monk fruit (Siraitia grosvenorii) commonly called as Luo Han Guo is a perennial herb and generally cultivated in
Guangxi province of China. Traditionally the fruit was used in folk medicine for the treatment of several common diseases like cough,
cold, sore throat, constipation and dire thirst. Studies over past decades advanced the knowledge of bio-chemical and
pharmacological properties of monk fruit. Till now, several compounds have been identified and isolated from monk fruit, mainly
triterpenoids, flavonoids, essential oils, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and polysaccharides. A triterpene glycoside consists of a
group of mogrosides which are mainly considered to be responsible for higher biological effects of monk fruit. The mogroside extract
of monk fruit gives >300 more sweetness as compared to 5% sucrose solution without giving extra calories during consumption.
Biochemical properties as well as health benefits of monk fruit including scope for its utilization in food and beverage industries for
the development of low calories products for diabetics and health conscious consumers are discussed in this article.
Key words: Luo Han Guo, monk fruit, mogroside, natural sweetener, non-nutritive sweetener
[Vol. 17(3), September-December, 2019] Pantnagar Journal of Research 191
uses. However, there is a great scope for utilization of
monk fruit extract as a sugar alternative in low calories
health protective food for diabetics and obese patient
worldwide. In this article biochemical properties of monk
fruit, its role in preventing several diseases and
application in development of sugar free low calories
foods including studies on development of non-nutritive
natural sweeteners are summarized.
Biochemical Properties of Monk Fruit
Several compounds of different classes, such as
polysaccharides, amino acids, essential oils, flavonoids,
triterpenoids and nucleosides etc. have been identified
and extracted from various parts of monk fruit. The
composition of monk fruit is presented in Table 2;
whereas, the composition of amino acid hydrolysate and
mineral content of monk fruit extract are presented in
Table 3. Glycosides, a group of triterpenoids, are mainly
considered as one of the major biologically active
compound of monk fruit. Development of cucurbitane
glycosides in monk fruit starts at a specific period of time
after pollination. Generally, monk fruit is harvested after
ripening and the development of various mogrosides in
monk fruit starts at different period of time after
pollination and during maturation (Table 4). Till now, up
to thirty cucurbitane glycosides have been identified in
monk fruit (Li et al., 2014). However, only few
compounds, like mogroside III, IV, V and siamenode I,
were studied for their functional properties (Jin and Lee,
2012). The molecular formula and sweetness properties
of widely studied major and minor cucurbitane glycosides
are presented in Table 5.
Role of Monk Fruit on Prevention of Diseases
Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic property
Monk fruit extract and mogrosides not only work as a
natural sweetener but also exhibit anti-diabetic activity by
enhancing the rate of blood glucose uptake and have
potential benefits for diabetic patients. Several in-vitro
and in-vivo studies were conducted over last decade to
determine the effectiveness of monk fruit extract and
mogrosides on blood glucose level and diabetes.
Mogroside V and some other minor elements of monk
fruit extract can significantly suppress increase in maltose
induced blood glucose level by the inhibition of intestinal
maltase (Suzuki et al., 2005). Oxidative stress is also
found as one of the major causes responsible for
pathogenesis of diabetes. The extract of monk fruit has
high antioxidative properties which can potentially
suppress the oxidative stress mediated diabeties (Song et
al., 2007). Qi et al. (2008) observed that supplementation
of mogrosides extract of monk fruit significantly reduced
the level of oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and
hyperlipidemia in diabetic mice. They also found strong
free radical scavenging activities of mogroside V which is
the major component of mogroside in in-vitro study. The
result showed that administration of monk fruit extract
could be helpful in preventing hyperglycemia and diabetic
complications in human. Zhou et al. (2009) also found
monk fruit extract and mogroside V as a potential natural
sweetener with a low glycemic index. They observed a
significant activity of monk fruit extract and purified
mogroside V for stimulation of insulin secretion in
pancreatic beta cells. Afterwards, Chen et al. (F)
suggested that the product of acid hydrolysis of monk fruit
mogrosides, i.e. triterpenoids, might be potential AMPK
activators in humans. Monk fruit extract can also be used
for sweetening of tea as a natural sugar substitute and is
comparable with sugar sweetened tea. Monk fruit extract
sweetened tea has positive effects on reducing blood
glucose level and metabolism of streptozotocin-induced
diabetic mice (Lee et al., 2016). The level of glucose
tolerance and rate of blood glucose increase can be
decreased by the administration of monk fruit extract
sweetened tea. Monk fruit extract sweetened tea was also
found effective in overcoming problems like weight loss,
li ve r fu nc ti on and lipid metabolism c aused by
streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Li et al. (2017)
purified eighteen mogrosides from the monk fruit extract
and evaluated for their anti-diabetic activity in human
HepG2 cells in-vitro. Their study showed that all
mogrosides isolates of monk fruit extract significantly
increased the glucose uptake in HepG2 cells, but the
mechanism underlying still remains unclear.
Anti-obese property
Obesity is one of the widespread diseases but it causes are
still unclear. According to the report of International
Obesity Task Force (IOTF), obesity is a major life style
related disease observed worldwide. Consumption of high
caloric foods in excess stimulates abnormal excessive
growth of adipose tissue and leads to obesity. Till date,
several therapeutic medicines are developed to suppress
the appetite, inhibit pancreatic lipase or inhibit α-
glucosaccharides etc. to control obesity. However, long
term consumption of these medicines causes adverse
effect on health such as gastrointestinal disorder. Several
studies reported wide pharmacological effects of
Mogrosides. San et al. (2012) studied anti-obesity
property of total mogrosides extracted from monk fruit as
well as, mogrosides IV and V by analyzing there effect on
pancreatic lipase in-vitro. They found significant
inhibitory effect of total mogrosides, mogrosides IV and V
on pancreatic lipase activity. The increase in body weight
as well as triglyceride and total cholesterol level in mice
was suppressed during in-vivo study by the oral
administration of mogrosides. They also observed that
triglyceride content of mice plasma was reduced within 1
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[Vol. 17(3), September-December, 2019] Pantnagar Journal of Research 193
to 3 hr after oral administration of total mogrosides with
lipid emulsion pre-mix.
Anti-fatigue property
Fatigue could be best defined as difficulty in initiating or
sustaining voluntary activities. It is a common symptom in
both sickness and health and can be subcategorized into
physical and mental fatigue. Physical fatigue mainly
arises due to excessive or intense exercise which leads to
not only accumulation of lactic acid in muscles but also
changes energy metabolism. Sensation of muscle fatigue
partially contributes to mental fatigue where lassitude,
sleepiness and reduced motivation are the common
symptoms that can be often observed after intense
exercise. Moreover, patients suffering from cancer
disease also experience fatigue and weakness along with
high levels of pain. Liu et al. (2013) studied monk fruit
extract for its anti-fatigue effect in-vivo model. Their
study includes oral administration of mice with variable
doses of monk fruit extract. They reported that
administration of monk fruit extract increased the
glycogen level of liver and muscle without increasing the
level of serum urea nitrogen and blood lactic acid during
forced swimming test of experimental mice. They also
observed that monk fruit extract significantly improved
physical fatigue of experimental mice but the effect was
Anti-cancer property
Natural products have an important role in cancer
prevention. Now-a-days, several chemicals used
clinically for cancer therapy are derived from plant
sources. Konoshima and Takasaki isolated non-nutritive
natural sweeteners from plant source such as stevioside
from Stevia rebaudiana leaves and mogroside V from
monk fruit and studied for their chemo-preventive
properties in-vitro and in-vivo model (Konoshima and
Takasaki, 2002). They used 2 different combinations of
che micals, i.e . pe rox ynitr ite and TPA (12-O-
tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), DMBA (7, 12-
dimethylbenz anthracene) and TPA to induce two-stage
skin carcinogenesis in-vivo. Their study showed that oral
administration of mogroside V significantly worked
against chemically induced carcinogenesis and had more
potent activity against tumor than glycyrrhizin, a well
known antitumor-promoter in chemical carcinogenesis.
They also observed delay in formation of mice bore
papilloma on TPA promoted two stage mouse skin
carcinogenesis by the treatment of mogroside V. Liu et al.
(2016a) studied anti-pancreatic cancer properties of a
natural food sweetener, mogroside V, extracted from
monk fruit. They found that mogroside V shows a potent
anti-tumor activity against pancreatic cancer by targeting
multiple biological targets such as promoting apoptosis
and cell cycle arrest of pancreatic cancer cells in both in-
vivo and in-vitro models. They demonstrated that
administration of mogroside V might be useful as a
potential drug that can suppress the growth and survival of
pancreatic tumor cells through reducing vascular density
and inhibiting angiogenesis. In another study, Liu et al.
(2016b) also reported that proliferation of colorectal
cancer HT29 and throat cancer Hep-2 cells in culture and
Table 1: US FDA GRAS specification for monk fruit extracts containing different mogroside V concentration
Parameter GRAS Specification Test Method
Assay: Mogroside V >25% to >30% >50% to >95% CP2010
Color Brown Yellow White GB/T 5495-2008
Odor Mild fruity characteristic Mild fruity characteristic GB/T 5495-2008
Taste Sweet Sweet GB/T 5495-2008
Sieve Analysis NLT 95% pass 80 mesh NLT 95% pass 80 mesh CP2010
Method of Extraction Water Water -
Moisture content <5.0% <5.0% USP31-921
Ash <5.0% <5.0% USP31-281
Mercury (Hg) <0.1 ppm <0.1 ppm USP39<2232>
Arsenic (As) <0.5 ppm <0.5 ppm USP39<2232>
Cadmium (Cd) <0.05 ppm <0.05 ppm USP39<2232>
Lead (Pb) <0.5 ppm <0.5 ppm USP39<2232>
Residual Ethanol <500 ppm <500 ppm USP 37
Total Plate Count <1000 cfu/g <1000 cfu/g AOAC 990.12
Salmonella Negative Negative AOAC 2004.03
Yeast & Mold <100 cfug <100 cfug ISO21527-1:2008
E. coli Negative Negative AOAC 991.14
GB/T = Recommended Chinese National Standard; cfu = Colony Forming Units; CP = Chinese Pharmacopia; AOAC =
Association of Official Analytical Chemists; USP = United States Pharmacopeia (Source: GRAS, 2017).
in xenografted mice can be inhibited by mogroside IVe in
a dose dependent manner. T hey obse rv ed that
biologically-active phytochemical of monk fruit, i.e.
mogroside IVe, worked as a potential supplement for the
treatment of patients suffering from colorectal and throat
Monk Fruit in Food Processing
Sweet foods are highly relished by the consumers and
popular worldwide. Sugar is the natural sweetener widely
used for sweetening of food products. In food and
beverage industries manufacturers generally use sugar in
the form of sucrose, fructose and glucose to increase the
sweetness of their products. Several studies revealed
harmful effects of sugar consumption in humans. Aside
from causing hyperglycemia and diabetes, excess intake
of nutritive sweeteners may also results low immune
response, metabolic disorders, dental problems, cancer,
etc. (Woodyer et al., 2018). Now-a-days, consumers are
aware of the harmful effect of refined sugar, which
decreases their tendency to consume high sugar
containing foods and beverages. Therefore, innovative
and customized uses of non-nutritive natural sweeteners
are encouraged for focused use and optimal benefits. The
use of natural sweetener in functional foods has several
benefits like providing required sweetness without giving
extra calories, prevent radical increase in blood glucose
level and does not have side-effects during long term
consumption. There are several known non-nutritive
sweeteners used in food processing to reduce adverse
effect of traditionally refined sugar. However, monk fruit
extract is found to be one of the most suitable low calorie
natural sugar substitutes. It is particularly effective during
treatment of diseases which require low or moderate sugar
intake such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension and heart
[Vol. 17(3), September-December, 2019]Pantnagar Journal of Research
Table 2: Composition of fresh monk fruit
Composition Content Reference
Fat 0.8%
Protein 7.1-7.8%
Polysaccharides 2.88-5.65%
Total sugar 25.17% - 38.31%
Reducing sugar 16.11-32.4%
Glucose 0.8% (Xia, 2006; Li and Xiao, 2008)
Fructose 1.5%
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) 338 mg/100 g
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) 123 mg/100 g
Ascrobic acid (Vitamin C) 339-461 mg/100 g
Total flavones 5-10 mg/100 g
Total glycosides 1.19 mg/100 g
Table 3: The amino acid hydrolysate and mineral composition of fresh monk fruit extract
Amino acid hydrolysate Minerals Reference
Amino Acids Content g/100g (db) Element Content (ppm) Element Content (ppm)
Aspartic acid 0.90 Mn 22.70 V 00.20
Threonine 0.25 Fe 29.20 Co 00.10
Serine 0.35 Ni 01.80 Se 00.20
Glutamic acid 0.55 Zn 12.80 Sn 00.20
Glycine 0.36 Mg 550.00 As 00.10
Alamine 0.53 Ca 667.50 I 01.00 (Moore, 1999;
Cystine 0.24 Pb 00.07 Si 645.00 Xia 2006)
Valine 0.47 Cu 00.50 F 00.90
Methionine 0.20 K 12290.80 Mo 00.40
Isolucine 0.40 Na 16.50 - -
Leucine 0.50 Cd 00.02 - -
Tyrosine 0.28 Sr 01.70 - -
Phenylalanine 0.32 Ba 03.30 - -
Lysine 0.31 Cr 00.50 - -
Histine 0.18 Al 07.70 - -
Arginine 1.28 Be 0.01 - -
Proline 0.27 Ti 00.30 - -
disease (Li et al., 2014). Over last decades, several studies
confirmed pharmacological properties of monk fruit
extract and its effectiveness against chronic diseases.
Currently, researchers are also willing to establish monk
fruit as a natural substitute of sugar in developing
functional foods which have multiple health benefits
against life style related problems (Konoshima and
Takasaki, 2002;Chen et al., 2011; Heine, 2017).
The effect of processing on functional properties of monk
fruit extract is also one of the major concerns while
developing functional foods. Vacuum drying of monk
fruit extract retains higher amount of major glycosides
when compared with traditional drying methods (Zhou
and Zhu, 2014). However, till date, only few products
such as a non-nutritive sugar, syrup, jam, chocolate food
product and skim chocolate milk etc. have been developed
using monk fruit as a non-nutritive natural sweetener. Shi
et al. (2009) patented a process for developing syrup and
jam from monk fruit, where peel and pulp of fruit was
extracted in continuous boiling water. They developed
syrup and jam comprising natural flavor of whole monk
fruit extracts with sugar-free, low calorie and low
glycemic index properties. They found that developed
syrup could be a better replacement of refined sugar in all
sorts of situations like baking and cooking formulations,
sweetening of tea or coffee or can be used as breakfast
syrup. They also claimed that syrup and jam have a
therapeutic function against diabetics as well as beneficial
to people who worry about their health due to high calorie
and sugar intake.
Dark chocolate contains high percentage of cocoa but the
consumption of chocolates by diabetics still remains
problematic. Many individuals especially those who are
suffering from diabetics avoid consuming cocoa based
chocolates due to its high sugar, fat and starch content.
Despite added benefits of cocoa most of the chocolates
available in the market are still rich in sugar and fat
including dark chocolate. A few chocolates developed
re cently with sugar substitute cont ain complex
c ar b o h yd r at e s s u c h a s s ta r c h , m al t i t ol ,
[Vol. 17(3), September-December, 2019] Pantnagar Journal of Research 195
Table 4: Emergence of glycosides, sweetening properties and harvesting period of Monk fruit
S. No. Sweetening components Period after pollination Reference
1 Mogroside II E 5 days
2 Mogroside III 30 days, highest content after 55 days
3 Flavonol glycosides 40-50 days
4 Mogroside V 50 days (Li et al., 2014)
5 Mogroside IV A and Mogroside IV E 55 days and reach to highest after 70 days
6 Development of main sweet component 85 days
7 Harvesting Period 90 days
Table 5: Some known cucubitane glycoside compounds isolated from monk fruit
Major cucurbitane glycosides
S. No. Sweet glycosides Chemical formula Sweetness property in comparison to 5 % sucrose solution
1 Mogroside IV C54H92O24*H2O 392 time more sweetness
2 Mogroside V C60H102O29*2H2O 425 time more sweetness
3 Mogroside VI C66H112O34 Less Sweeter than Mogroside V
Minor cucurbitane glycosides
4 Siamenoside I C54H92O24*7/2H2O 563 time more sweetness
5 11 – OXO – mogroside V C60H100O29*7/2H2O Organoleptically sweet
6 Mogroside II E C42H82O19 Taste less
7 Mogroside III C48H82O19 Taste less
8 Mogroside III E C48H82O19 Taste less
9 Mogroside A C42H92O14*3H2O -
10 Neomogroside C66H112O34*5H2O -
11 Mogroester C44H92O4 -
12 Grosmomoside I C54H92O24 -
(Source: Xia, 2006 )
Fig. 1: Mogroside structure
isomaltooligosaccharides, crytritol etc. to provide texture,
sweetness, mouth-feel and stability to the developed
product. These added complex carbohydrates are
undesirable due to their impact in digestion and insulin
secretion during the time. Heine developed a chocolate
food product free from added sugar using monk fruit blend
preferably monk fruit fiber and fruit extract that have
smooth flavor profile of chocolate (Heine, 2017). The
developed chocolate food was low in fat and complex
carbohydrates which could be beneficial to those who are
insulin resistant or suffering from diabetes or have
sensitivity towards sugar, gluten and indigestion.
Several studies were conducted in recent years to optimize
the extraction efficiency of sweetening compounds and
development of various sweetening compositions
containing monk fruit. Zhang and Li (2017) developed a
commercial process for extraction and purification of
mogroside V from monk fruit. The extraction efficiency of
the process can be increased up to 90% for commercial
operation but higher extraction could increase the overall
cost of production. They found that the taste profile of
extracted mogroside V extract is similar to refined sugar
and can be blended with variety of foods and beverages to
reduce negative properties and customize sweetening
Turner studied the effect of va rious s we etener
compositions including natural sweeteners (Turner,
2017). They compared natural sugar composition
containing stevia or monk fruit and their combination with
various compositions of conventional as well as non-
conventional sugars such as saccharine, dextrose,
ribaudios id e, suc ra lose e tc . Natu ra l swee te ner
composition has shown similar properties as in
conventional sugar during various quality tests like sugar
similarity test, yellow cake bake test, caramelization test,
chocolate bar test and tea test, whereas, non-conventional
sweetener failed the test. However, natural sweeteners
were also found to have positive effect on glycemic test
and repression test beyond the property of conventional
Recent studies show that development of non-caloric
natural sugar containing mogrosides extract of monk fruit
exhibit an off-taste and less desirable sensory profile.
Studies show that presence of some mogrosides is
responsible for development of off-flavor and/or
undesirable sensory profile of natural sweeteners.
Although, Quinlan and Zhou (2017) developed a non-
caloric sweetener composition with improved taste and
reduced aftertaste using naturally obtained glycosides.
Th e developed sweetener composi ti on co ntains
mogroside extract of monk fruit and sweet steviol
glycosides of Stevia rebaudiana i.e. rebaudiosides A and
B. Th ey claime d th at the developed sweetener
compositions are useful for non-caloric replacement of
sugar in almost all foods and beverages. They also
reported that the addition of rebaudioside B to a threshold
level helps to reduce the perceived bitterness and taste
profile and, therefore, improved the acceptability of
developed sweetener composition. Woodyer et al. (2018)
developed a natural sweetener composition using allulose
and a single mogroside extract of monk fruit with
improved taste and sensory profile. Allulose, a
monosaccharide, is a known rare sugar available naturally
in very small amount. It provides only around 70% of the
sweetness and around 5% calories compared to sucrose.
They found that the small amount of developed
composition is required to achieve similar properties as
sucrose with a significant reduction in calories. The
developed composition can be used for satisfying the wide
aspects of food and beverage industries including pharma
products, sports products, cosmetics and also can be used
as a table top sweetener.
Future Prospects of Monk Fruit
Literature reports suggest a wide scope for utilization of
monk fruit in food and beverage industries including
nutralceutical and pharmaceutical industries but very few
studies are available on functional foods containing monk
fruit extract or powder for targeted benefits (Heine, 2017;
Liu et al., 2016; Shi et al., 2009). Effect of thermal
processing of monk fruit still remains unclear, however, a
few studies reported that the monk fruit extract can be
used to develop low caloric sweetened bakery products
where processing temperature generally remains above
150°C (Zhou and Zhu, 2014). Therefore, studies on effect
of high temperature processing on known benefits of non-
nutritive natural sweeteners including monk fruit need to
be carried out. Till date, most of the sweetened products
available in the market contain high caloric natural
sweetening agents and could be replaced partially or
completely using non-nutritive natural sweeteners. Use of
monk fruit extract as a natural sweetening agent in foods
and beverages can reduce the threat associated with
today’s life style and could also be beneficial to those who
are suffering from diabetics and other diseases where low
or controlled caloric intake is required. Studies on effect
of non-nutritive natural sweeteners including mogrosides
and monk fruit extract on humans during long term
consumption could be a novel area of research in
upcoming years.
Monk fruit is an excellent source of triterpinoids, a group
of mogrosides responsible for higher sweetness and
pharmacological properties of fruit. Mogroside extract of
monk fruit gives higher (>300 times) sweetness as
compared to sucrose with low or no caloric value. Several
foods sweetened with mogrosides or monk fruit extract
have shown significant reduction in glycemic index and
[Vol. 17(3), September-December, 2019]Pantnagar Journal of Research
diabeties . T he non -n utritive na tural sw eetener
compositions developed using monk fruit have also
shown similar taste and other sensory attributes as
sucrose. As such, monk fruit as sweetener shows a wide
scope for its use as a table top sweetener as well as in
diff eren t f ood , con fe ctio na ry, b ever a ge and
pharmaceutical industries.
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... The ingredient of interest is monk fruit sweetener. It is a natural non-nutritive sweetener with low GI (Pandey and Chauhan, 2020). ...
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Melon Manis Terengganu (MMT) is comprised of 28 - 30% peel which is a by-product of food processing. The peel is a source of dietary fibre which has a potential role in glycaemic response. The present work thus aimed to develop formulated MMT peel powder, and examine its organoleptic properties, in vitro hypoglycaemic effect, and starch digestibility. The MMT peel powder was formulated as Formulations 0, 1, 2, and 3 with different sweetener ratios (0, 40, 50, and 60%), and subjected to sensory evaluations. Tukey’s post-hoc test was used to evaluate significant differences between mean values following one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Meanwhile, the Friedman test followed by Wilcoxon signed ranks test were performed for sensory evaluation analysis. Results demonstrated that the most acceptable formulation for consumption assessed using sensory evaluation was Formulation 3; its total, digestible, and resistant starch content were the lowest among all the formulations. The same went to the hydrolysis index and estimated glycaemic index. However, Formulation 3 was the least effective in reducing glycaemic response due to the weakest in vitro hypoglycaemic activity. On the other hand, the mentioned attributes previously were observed in Formulation 0 in an opposite manner. In summary, these findings suggested that formulated MMT peel powder had the potential to be used in blood glucose control.
... grosvenorii is considered to be an ideal sugar substitute (Yan et al., 2008). Given the increasing demand for non-nutritive sweeteners from natural sources, S. grosvenorii sweeteners have been widely used in the food and beverage industries for the development of low-calorie products (Pandey & Chauhan, 2019). In 2020,S. ...
Siraitia grosvenorii, an economically important plant species with high medicinal value, is endemic to subtropical China. To determine the population structure and origin of cultivated S. grosvenorii, we examined the variation in three chloroplast DNA regions (trnR-atpA, trnH-psbA, trnL-trnF) and two nuclear gene orthologs (CHS and EDL2) of S. grosvenorii in 130 individuals, selected from 13 wild populations across its natural distribution range, and 21 cultivated accessions using a phylogeographic approach. The results showed non-overlapping distribution of chlorotypes, three distinct chloroplast genetic groups restricted to different mountain ranges, and comparable nuclear diversity among the distinct geographical groups, suggesting the existence of at least three separate refugia. The current phylogeographic patterns of S. grosvenorii probably resulted from long-term survival in multiple refugia and limited expansion. Our results also demonstrated that wild populations in northeastern Guangxi share the same gene pool as cultivated S. grosvenorii accessions, suggesting that the current cultivars originated from wild populations distributed in northeastern Guangxi. The results of this study provide insight into improving the efficiency of S. grosvenorii breeding using a genetic approach, and outline measures for the conservation of its genetic resources.
... Monk Fruit503Monk fruit (Siraitia grosvenorii), also known as Luo Han Guo, is a perennial plant that is 504 extensively grown in China's Guangxi province(Pandey & Chauhan, 2019). Monk fruit possesses 505 ...
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Refined sugar is a processed product containing 99% sucrose, which is obtained from sugarcane (70%) or sugar beet (30%). In modern societies, sugar continues to play a significant role in the diet, recognised not only for its flavour and special sweetening properties but also for its role in food preservation. On the other hand, a high consumption of refined sugar is associated with non-communicable diseases and many health issues such as a high risk of dental caries, overweight and neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Alternatives like unrefined sugars have generated a lot of interest as a healthy substitute due to their nutraceutical properties. This paper is aimed to review the beneficial effects of sugar derived from natural sources and highlight health problems that could be caused by refined processed sugar. Refined sugar is frequently used in variety of items including processed foods, soft drinks or ice creams although it is considered unhealthy due to its high salt and sugar content as well as added fats and artificial coloring. Natural sugars are preferred because they have a high nutritional value and a high concentration of healthy compounds, which offset the negative effects of refined sugar. Therefore, removing refined sugar or at least reducing its consumption should be promoted as a healthier option in food choices.
... Temporary immersion system culture using single-node micro-cuttings, as described by Yan et al. (2010), seems presently to be the most promising method for obtaining plantlets suitable for field production. Today, S. grosvenorii is cultured mainly in China and perhaps increasingly in India [9,13]. Mogrosides, however, actually cannot legally be used as sweeteners in Europe or the United States [1], despite being used in China for hundreds of years. ...
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Some sweet tasting plant secondary metabolites are non-caloric or low nutritive compounds that have traditional use in food formulations. This mini-review focuses on conventional and advanced cultivation regimes of plants that accumulate sweet tasting or sweet taste modulating secondary metabolites of potential economic importance, in particular mogrosides (Siraitia grosvenorii), phyllodulcin (Hydrangea macrophylla), glycyrrhizin (Glycyrrhiza glabra), steviol glycosides (Stevia grosvenorii), and rubusoside (Rubus suavissimus). Consequential obstacles during the cultivation of Hydrangea macrophylla cultivars outside their natural habitat in a protected cultivation environment are addressed. Culturing at non-habitat locations facilitates short transportation routes of plant material for processing, which can be a key to an economically and environmentally compatible usage. The biosynthetic pathways, as far as known, are shortly mentioned. The proved or hypothetical degradation pathways of the compounds to minimalize environmental contamination are another focal point.
... Some people notice an unpleasant aftertaste at its high concentrations. In recent years, pharmacological studies reveal the monk fruit has several health-protective properties such as liver protection, anti-oxidative, antiinflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, and anticancer effects (Pandey and Chauhan, 2020). Monk fruit is becoming more popular in the natural health sector, but it is more expensive than other sweeteners, especially it costs more than twice that of stevia. ...
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This study aimed to develop healthy agar jellies with low-sugar content, linking to a decreased risk for heart attack, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Two natural non-nutritive sweeteners, stevia and monk fruit were studied at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% sugar replacement based on the equivalent sucrose sweetness. The physical properties assessed on the total soluble solids, firmness, color, and syneresis. Still, the sensory attributes on color, taste, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability was evaluated by a 9-point hedonic scale. The more sugar replacement lowered the total soluble solids but increased the gel firmness (p<0.05) and the lightness (L*). The syneresis declined in reduced-sugar jellies with stevia and monk fruit against the whole sugar jellies. The stevia and monk fruit replacement affected agar jellies' taste and flavor attributes (p<0.05). Jellies with 50% and 75% sugar replacement, either stevia or monk fruit, were preferred over 25% and 100% replacement. The jelly with 50% stevia was the optimal formulation.
In the era of global health consciousness, the demand for non-saccharides or zero-calorie natural sweeteners has consequently increased day by day. Siraitia grosvenorii, luohan guo, or monk fruit is well known for its zero caloric natural sweetener cucurbitane triterpene glycosides compounds. The mogroside V (300 times sweeter than sucrose) is the major specialized metabolite and comprises more than 30% of the total sweetener compounds in its fruit pulp. Moreover, S. grosvenorii is also approved as a medicine food homology (MFH) plant because of its both nutritional and medicinal properties. In recent years, cutting-edge progress in plant biology, biotechnology, transcriptomics, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceutics has allowed unprecedented insights into biosynthesis and regulation mechanisms of health-promoting compounds of S. grosvenorii. This review includes comprehensive information about the biosynthetic pathway, plant cell/tissue culture, molecular mechanism, phytochemistry, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical properties of specialized metabolites of S. grosvenorii. Also, biotechnological interventions to produce alternative specialized metabolites and development strategies for the future of S. grosvenorii have also been discussed.
The excessive dietary consumption of sugars is currently one of the key factors that have been associated with the development of the global obesity pandemic. To avoid high sugar intake, alternative sweeteners are of increasing interest and play an important role in food and beverage industry. Among sweeteners, natural sugar substitutes, which possess low/no calorie or intense sweetness, and various biological activities, provide ideal alternatives to caloric sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup. Therefore, this review focuses on several representative natural sweeteners: low-calorie carbohydrates (e.g., erythritol, l -arabinose, d -allulose, and d -tagatose) and high-potency sweet-tasting compounds (e.g., steviol glycosides, mogrosides, glycyrrhizin, and thaumatin). A comprehensive review of sugar substitutes is presented, including their characteristics and practical applications as well as a discussion on their effect on the obesity issue and emerging technologies that offer an alternative biosynthesis pathway to the traditional extraction method.
The sugar industry is facing new global challenges from climate change, societal pressures and old foes of market price volatility that encourage the industry to diversify revenue through the creation of new value-added products. Industry diversification can be divided into a three-pronged strategy encompassing (1) crop diversification with new cash crops and farm management practices that reduce pesticide and fertilizer needs, (2) utilize microbial cell factories to produce value-added compounds, for example, squalene or rebaudioside from sugar and/or lignocelluosic sugars by fermentation and (3) conversion of sugarcane biomass and other by-products of the milling process into new products that either utilize the bagasse as a whole, i.e., biochar or fractionate bagasse into cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Lignin is of particular interest as it has the greatest diversity of valuable applications ranging from adhesives, foams, textiles and other industrial applications. The sugar industry is at a crossroads where it can redevelop itself to be resilient against future challenges through the diversification of its product offerings beyond the traditional products or continue with business as usual.
Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine and metabolic disease with high prevalence worldwide. Moreover, sugar intake has increased in the last decades leading to a higher risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, new compounds have been prospected for the food industry to produce very low-calorie and intense sweeteners from natural sources. Besides, medicinal plants with anti-diabetic activities have become popular as an alternative to drug treatments. This study aimed to perform a systematic review of plants that combine these two properties: sweeteners and anti-diabetic activity. Four plant species were identified following these features, one widely known as a sweetener (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) and three less common high-potency sweeteners (Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinsk, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., and Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) C. Jeffrey ex A. M. Lu and Zhi Y. Zhang). First, the bioactive compounds and the pathways involved in their biosynthesis are summarized. Afterwards, we describe the anti-diabetic action and other medicinal effects of these species. Moreover, we reviewed the principal in vitro propagation studies and biotechnological strategies reported so far on these species. Finally, the most promising biotechnological approaches and future perspectives for the industrial exploitation of these species are discussed.
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Siraitia grosvenorii is a dioecious cucurbitaceae plant that is native to southern China and prevalent in Guangxi Province. Natural pollination of this species is difficult, and artificial pollination is therefore the main approach for its cultivation. The fruit set of the plants largely depends on the biosynthesis and crosstalk of phytohormones. Here, we show that parthenocarpic fruit can be induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU, an active cytokinin) and gibberellin (GA3) in S. grosvenorii. In addition to pollination, similar changes were detected in the external quality and sweet mogrosides of parthenocarpic fruits. Furthermore, the transcriptome of S. grosvenorii fruits was assessed by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the fruits set were compared with those in untreated ovaries. Excluding 2794 common DEGs, large numbers of genes expressed specifically in parthenocarpic (2281) or pollinated (6191) fruits were found. In conclusion, CPPU and GA3-induced parthenocarpic fruits offer novel insights for the large-scale cultivation of S. grosvenorii. This study yielded a number of candidate genes that can be applied in further studies to improve fruit quality and yield.
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Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world's most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers.
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Mogroside V is a triterpenoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medical plant Siraitia grosvenorii. Mogroside V has a high degree of sweetness and a low calorific content. Herein, we found that mogroside V possesses tumor growth inhibitory activity in in vitro and in vivo models of pancreatic cancer by promoting apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1 cells), which may in part be mediated through regulating the STAT3 signaling pathway. These results were confirmed in vivo in a mouse xenograft model of pancreatic cancer. In xenograft tumors, Ki-67 and PCNA, the most commonly used markers of tumor cell proliferation, were downregulated after intravenous administration of mogroside V. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays showed that mogroside V treatment promoted apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells in the xenograft tumors. Furthermore, we found that mogroside V treatment significantly reduced the expression of CD31-labeled blood vessels and of the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor in the xenografts, indicating that mogroside V might limit the growth of pancreatic tumors by inhibiting angiogenesis and reducing vascular density. These results therefore demonstrate that the natural, sweet-tasting compound mogroside V can inhibit proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells via targeting multiple biological targets.
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To search for possible cancer-chemopreventive agents from natural resources, sev- eral natural sweeteners were screened by the in vitro assay indicated by the inhibitory effects of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) induction. Of active compounds that showed the remarkable inhibitory effects on the EBV-EA induction, stevioside, from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, and mogroside V, from the fruits of Momordica grosvenori, exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis in vivo induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The inhibitory effect of stevioside is stronger than that of glycyrrhizin, which had been known as an antitumor-promoter in chemical carcinogenesis. Furthermore, stevioside also inhibited mouse skin carcinogenesis initiated by peroxynitrite. These results suggest that stevioside and mogroside V might be valuable as chemopreventive agents for chemical carcinogenesis.
Siraitia grosvenorii is an economic and medicinal plant, its fruit is considered to be good to health for its diverse bioactive ingredients. However, the clarification of chemical composition and their changes after saccharification procedure are not well performed. In present study, a metabolomics method based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for metabolic profiling acquisition of Siraitia grosvenorii extract. Furthermore, information dependent analysis (IDA) combined with self-constructed LC-MS/MS identification system for metabolites were employed to identify primary and secondary metabolites in Siraitia grosvenorii. A total of 126 metabolites were identified or tentatively identified. The obvious differences of metabolic profiling between green fruit and saccharified yellow fruit were observed, and metabolites showed their own distribution characteristics in peel, flesh and seed. The majority of the nutrients and effective components were more distributed in flesh and peel, and saccharification was conducive to accumulation of sweet glycosides. This study not only expanded metabolite composition information of Siraitia grosvenorii, but also specified distribution characteristics of identified metabolites.
The mogrosides in the fruit of Siraitia grosvenori can serve as a sugar substitute for diabetics due to their sweetness, low calorie and positive effects on blood glucose level control. The present study was to purify the mogrosides from the fruit of S. grosvenori and evaluate their enhancement of glucose uptake rate in HepG2 cells in vitro. As a result, eighteen mogrosides were isolated, including six new ones and a known but new naturally occurring compound. The chemical structures of the new compounds were identified by 1D, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques, together with chemical methods. Compared to the positive control (metformin), all the obtained mogrosides showed equivalent or more potent effects on the glucose uptake in HepG2 cells in vitro. These results suggested the mogrosides in the fruit of S. grosvenori were worthy of further research to confirm their potential benefits for obese and diabetic patients.
Siraitia grosvenorii is a perennial herb endemic to Guangxi province of China. Its fruit, commonly known as Luo hanguo, and has been used for hundreds of years as a natural sweetener and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of pharyngitis, pharyngeal pain, as well as an anti-tussive remedy in China. Based on ninety-three literary sources, this review summarized the advances in chemistry, biological effects, and toxicity research of S. grosvenorii during the past 30 years. Several different classes of compounds have been isolated or detected from various parts of S. grosvenorii, mainly triterpenoids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, amino acids, and essential oils. Various types of extracts or individual compounds derived from this species exhibited a wide array of biological effects e.g. anti-tussive, phlegm-relieving, anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, liver-protecting, glucose-lowering, and anti-microbial. The existing research has shown that extracts and individual compounds from S. grosvenorii are basically non-toxic. Finally, some suggestions for further research on specific chemical and pharmacological properties of S. grosvenorii are proposed in this review.
Siraitia grosvenorii, an herbaceous perennial vine, is native to Southern China and Northern Thailand. This species is well known for its fruit, which is commonly called “luo han guo” or “luo han kuo” in Chinese; “la han qua” in Vietnamese; or arhat, Buddha, or monk fruit in English. Phytochemical research has shown that the fruit of this species is rich in triterpene glycosides that are very sweet, low in calories, and may be used as a substitute for sugar. In addition, many compounds have been isolated from the vines and leaves of S. grosvenorii, including β-amyrin, aloe emodin, aloe-emodin acetate, 5α,8α-epidioxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-6,22-dien-3β-ol, p-hydroxyl benzyl acid, n-hexadecaoic acid, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, β-sitosterol, and daucosterol. Moreover, a new flavandiol, siraitiflavandiol, has been obtained from ripe S. grosvenorii fruit, while 2 kaempferol glycosides have been isolated from the unripe fruit. Pharmacological results have also shown that S. grosvenorii extracts and purified mogrosides exhibit antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antiallergic effects. Overall, S. grosvenorii could potentially serve as an important source of pharmaceutical and sweetener compounds for a wide range of food products.
In addition to their widely recognized use as dietary supplement ingredients, plant-derived compounds are increasingly used as natural sweeteners. The search for nonnutritive sweeteners has been stimulated over the last 20-30 years by concern over demonstrated or suspected relationships between consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrups and a variety of health-related conditions. In the USA, there is increased use of plant extracts known to contain highly sweet terpenoids. Purified extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) containing the diterpene glycosides stevioside and rebaudioside A are popular as sweeteners and are also used as dietary supplements, and soft drinks and nutritional and energy shakes incorporating extracts of Siraitia grosvenorii (Swingle) fruits containing sweet triterpene glycosides such as mogroside V are also on the market. Here, we review recent studies on these two important sources of noncaloric natural sweeteners, including analytical methods used to identify and quantify specific constituents and structural features relating to their sweetness. We also review the generally recognized as safe status of specific components and their status with respect to review by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.