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An analysis of Passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) cell and module

3/5/2020 An analysis of Passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) cell and module - IEEE Conference Publication 1/2
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Conferences > 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic S...
M. Shadab Siddiqui ; B. K. Pant ; A. K. Saxena ; Shivangi ; Sandeep Chandril
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An analysis of Passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) cell
and module
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Document Sections
I. Introduction
II. Experimental
results and
III. Conclusions
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Abstract: In the present work large area 156.75 mm by 156.75 mm crystalline silicon
passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) solar cells are examined at the cell level
and at the... View more
Published in: 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)
In the present work large area 156.75 mm by 156.75 mm crystalline silicon passivated
emitter and rear contact (PERC) solar cells are examined at the cell level and at the
module level as well. 21% efficient mono crystalline PERC cells are cross sectioned and
observed under microscope for local back surface field (LBSF) formation and laser
contact opened regions. Quantum efficiency testing was done to see the photo current
generated for different wavelengths. Finally the moduling of 72 cells were done and the
IV measurements of PERC module before sun soaking and after sun soaking was done
to see the effect of light induced degradation (LID) in PERC modules.
Date of Conference: 16-21 June 2019
Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 06 February
ISBN Information:
Print on Demand(PoD) ISSN: 0160-8371
INSPEC Accession Number: 19321830
DOI: 10.1109/PVSC40753.2019.8980478
Publisher: IEEE
Conference Location: Chicago, IL, USA,
I. Introduction
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Photovoltaics (PV) industry is growing at a very rapid pace. Crystalline
silicon solar cell (mono crystalline and multi crystalline combined) is the
workhorse of photovoltaics industry. In the year 2018 approximately 100
GW PV was shipped out of which more than 90% share was of
crystalline silicon technology [1]–[6]. Within the silicon solar cell
technology as of 2018 more than 60% was Al-BSF technology, which is
being replaced by PERC cell very quickly. Passivated emitter and rear
contact (PERC) solar cell was invented by Dr. Martin green in the year
1983 [7], however the PERC technology has come to utilization at
commercial scale very recently within last 5 year.
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... Understandably, engineers are trying to increase the efficiency of these modules without modifying their base material [12]. As the maximum theoretical efficiency for silicon cells is defined, researchers and manufacturers are currently working to reduce the thermal variation impact on the cells by increasing the heat transfer of the module [12] and developing new structures for silicon modules with the implementation of Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell (PERC) [6,13,18,25]. Monofacial PERC has a silicon base, however, it has back-surface passivation, allowing the reflected solar irradiance to also be harvested by the module. This manufacturing technique provides an increase in efficiency of 5% over a non-PERC cell [1]. ...
A photovoltaic system consists of several components that are interconnected into a grid network or standalone system. The overall efficiency of a photovoltaic system is the result of component selection, accurate implementation, and stable operation. Therefore, if these factors are not in harmony during the design and execution of the system, optimal efficiency will not be achieved. This paper summarizes the technological trend of photovoltaic cells which lead to the development of multijunction photovoltaic cells based on III-V elements. Additionally, the challenges within the implementation of multijunction cells based on III-V elements into terrestrial applications will also be discussed, followed by a potential solution to counter the efficiency loss of these cells caused by the atmospheric gases filtering the solar irradiance across the optical band length of absorption. The implementation of Adaptive-Perturbation-Frequency (APF) in a Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm, instead of a linear step size variation, combined with several hardware optimizations on the Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), maybe an ideal approach to reduce the impacts of having a multijunction photovoltaic cell based on elements III-V operating at terrestrial conditions.
... Besides the basic Al-BSF c-Si solar cell (Kafle et al., 2015) various other modified structures to obtain higher power output are now entering the industrial production. Some of these are Passivated Emitter and Rear Contact (PERC) (Blakers et al., 1989;Huanga et al., 2017;Lv et al., 2020;Green, 2015;Muller et al., 2017;Kruse et al., 2018;Chen et al., 2018;Blakers, 2019;Siddiqui, 2014), Bi-facial PERC (Dullweber et al., 2015;Wöhrle et al., 2017;Dullweber et al., 2018), Passivated Emitter with Rear Locally Diffused (PERL) (Zhao et al., 1996;Zhao et al., 1999;Benick et al., 2014), Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contacts (TOPCon) (Feldmann et al., 2014;Tao et al., 2016;Steinhauser et al., 2018;Feldmann et al., 2018;Zhang et al., 2018;Mitra et al., 2019;Chen et al., 2019), etc. With a similar front Ag grid layout for all these structures power loss due to front grid should be the same. ...
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Solar cell performance is highly dependent upon the front contact grid design for minimizing the power losses due to shading (optical loss) and for proper collection of the photo-generated charge carriers (electrical loss). In this paper, theoretical calculations (optimization) have been carried out for the total power losses (viz. optical and electrical) due to different front grid multi-busbar patterns similar to the ones currently used in industrial production. Busbar width and finger spacing, the two important design parameters of solar cell with standard busbar structure, are optimized for multi busbar systems. Role of interlinks between the fingers to reduce the power loss has also been studied. The effect of each optimized grid design on the component in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) due to Silver (Ag) requirement has been estimated for a 10 MW power system with a 25 years lifespan. The study of EM field distribution due to incident photon flux shows that increasing the number of busbars can generate carriers within the shaded areas under the busbars.
... Due to many improvements, their efficiency reached 17% and 18% in 2019, respectively, and they controlled the PV modules markets, the detail about the PV solar module technology status in the market is shown in the Fig.6. In the literature [5,[88][89][90][91], A PERC cell (passivated emitter and rear contact) uses advanced silicon cell architecture having an additional layer known as a dielectric passivation layer on the back part of the traditional (Crystalline silicon) solar cells. And that is used to get higher energy conversion efficiency and enhancing light absorption at longer wavelengths. ...
Full-text available
PV solar energy is the upcoming king of the energy source in the world, which is the fastest growing, most available, sustainable, clean, and environmentally friendly renewable energy. The essential characteristic of PV solar energy is generating the maximum power at mid-day. At the same time, the energy demand is high during the daytime. Due to this, PV solar energy replaces the conventional energy demand at peak periods. The sun is the source of PV solar energy, and it changed into electricity directly by using solar cells, which are made from semiconductor materials called silicon. Therefore, PV solar energy plays a crucial role in providing usable energy, and as well as reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, the solar energy generation systems not achieved the desired efficiency yet, because of many unsolved problems like weather conditions, losses, materials made by and so on. The aims of this paper is to review the current literature on the improvement of the PV solar energy generation system's overall performance. First, to figure out the existing challenges, like environmental factors and natural phenomena that affect the PV solar modules efficiency. Then it presents the techniques that are used to enhance the PV solar modules overall performance. Finally, to propose the best ways and techniques to improve the PV modules efficiency and suggest to further studies.
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The research presented in this thesis addresses several insights into a deeper understanding of local contact formation during sintering of screen printed aluminum pastes with p-type silicon substrates. The physical observations showed that the contact resistivity of thin aluminum fingers depends on the dielectric opening areas where the Al-Si alloy is formed. Contrary to our expectations, the shallowest dielectric barrier opening resulted in the lowest contact resistivity of 8 mOhmcm2. On solar cell level a reduction of the contact area for screen printed Al fingers led to a reduction of the series resistance losses. At the same time, narrow Al-Si alloy formations minimized the impact of the openings on the optical properties of the rear side, increasing the dielectric passivated area below the contacts, and reducing the short circuit current and open circuit voltage losses. The study presented in this thesis contributed to the understanding of diffusion of silicon through dielectric openings into the aluminum thick layer. For the first time, the spread limit of silicon in a screen printed aluminum layer was determined, and it was found that its value on each side of the dielectric opening does not depend on the contact area size but rather on the firing temperature. The spread limit of silicon in the screen printed thick aluminum layer is thus predicted to 75, 225, and 375 µm for temperatures of 750, 850, and 950 °C, respectively. Additionally, the formation of voids instead of an Al-Si eutectic layer was explained by the Kirkendall effect (diffusivity of Si is higher than diffusivity of Al in Al-Si alloys), and also depends on the contact spacing, aluminum paste amount, temperature and cooling rate, factors that limit the diffusion of silicon during the sintering in this type of alloys. It was also shown that gravity may strongly affect the local Al-Si eutectic morphology. The presence of voids was partially avoided by changing the gravity field orientation parallel to the normal solidification direction of the solid/liquid phase (i.e. by sintering the solar cells front side down). Several suggestions to minimize the presence of voids in the alloy were presented which should lead to a better formation of the local back surface field (extremely important for the solar cell performance). The results presented may be applied to the sintering of screen-printed pastes on solar cells in order to reduce series resistance losses due to a better local back surface field formation. Thus, the understanding and avoiding of the well known problem of voids was thoroughly analyzed. Furthermore, simple low cost industrial processes with optimized rear local contacts for the fabrication of PERC solar cells for industrial application were presented, leading to high efficiency gains. By the end of the thesis, an all PECVD-based rear surface passivation was used as an alternative to thermal oxidation, saving processing costs and minimizing the thermal budget for the multicrystalline substrate. The use of industrial accessible equipment and processing, such as screen printing for metallization and PECVD deposition for antireflection coatings, showed the high potential of those concepts to be incorporated into existing industrial cell lines. The results presented in the field of contact formation are supported by the high efficiency results that were achieved. This thesis presents advancement in applying the rear passivated solar cell concept in industrial production.
IEA International Energy Agency, Report IEA PVPS T133:2018
  • Snapshot Of
  • Photovoltaic Markets
From conception to mass production, Martin A.Green