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The Impacts of Online Clothes Short Video Display on Consumers’ Perceived Quality

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In the context of the rapid development of online shopping, enterprises and consumers realized the importance of an effective online short video display. However, academics rarely explored the content of a short video display and its impacts on consumers’ perceptions. This paper discusses the impacts of this display form on consumers’ perceived quality via questionnaires and scenario experiments based on the existing literature and theories. A short video of clothes was the main research object. We used an experimental design that included 2 (time: long, short) × 2 (display perspectives: overall, specific) × 2 (scenarios: outdoors, indoors) groups of experiments, for a total of eight groups of scenario experiments, to verify our hypotheses. The results reveal that the short video display makes consumers have a higher perceived quality compared with the long video display. Compared with a video that only includes an overall view of the product, a video that provides both an overall view and the details of the product makes consumers have a higher perceived quality. Consumers were found to have a higher perceived quality of products shot outdoors compared with products shot indoors.
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Information 2020, 11, 87; doi:10.3390/info11020087 www.mdpi.com/journal/information
Article
The Impacts of Online Clothes Short Video Display
on Consumers’ Perceived Quality
Rong Ma 1, Bingjia Shao 2,3, Jiaqi Chen 4 and Dan Dai 5,*
1 School of Economics and Management, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China;
2011019@ynau.edu.cn
2 School of Economics and Business Administration, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China;
shaobingjia@cqu.edu.cn
3 Chongqing Key Laboratory of Logistics at Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
4 School of Economics and Business Administration, Central China Normal University,
Wuhan 430079, China; Jiaqi@cqu.edu.cn
5 Institute of Quality Development Strategy, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
* Correspondence: dandai@whu.edu.cn; Tel.: +86-157-2326-1867
Received: 6 December 2019; Accepted: 30 January 2020; Published: 5 February 2020
Abstract: In the context of the rapid development of online shopping, enterprises and consumers
realized the importance of an effective online short video display. However, academics rarely
explored the content of a short video display and its impacts on consumers’ perceptions. This paper
discusses the impacts of this display form on consumers’ perceived quality via questionnaires and
scenario experiments based on the existing literature and theories. A short video of clothes was the
main research object. We used an experimental design that included 2 (time: long, short) × 2
(display perspectives: overall, specific) × 2 (scenarios: outdoors, indoors) groups of experiments, for
a total of eight groups of scenario experiments, to verify our hypotheses. The results reveal that the
short video display makes consumers have a higher perceived quality compared with the long
video display. Compared with a video that only includes an overall view of the product, a video
that provides both an overall view and the details of the product makes consumers have a higher
perceived quality. Consumers were found to have a higher perceived quality of products shot
outdoors compared with products shot indoors.
Keywords: online clothes retail; short video; perceived quality
1. Introduction
E-business is rapidly developing, as combining online businesses and offline businesses
promotes interaction between consumers and businesses and inspires innovation in retail businesses
around the world. However, the virtual nature of an E-business, to some extent, makes consumers
lack trust, which negatively affects the development of E-businesses [1]. Consumers face greater
risks when shopping online, because they cannot physically touch products, and they are unable to
perceive a product’s quality; that is, there is uncertainty in their perception of a product’s quality
[2,3]. Online retailers are attempting to elevate consumers’ perceptions of products’ quality through
optimizing displays of product information by using a variety of tools to comprehensively represent
productsappearance, materials, and related attributes [4,5]. The short video is a rapidly developing
form of content marketing. It not only provides a smooth and vivid visual experience of products [6],
but also expands the marketing space. Online retailers may utilize short videos to increase the order
conversion rate.
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To date, studies related to the display of product information primarily focused on the impacts
of interactivity and vividness on consumers [711]. Yoo and Kim believe that the images and text in
a product display, which stimulate perception, are the primary information sources with which
consumers make purchase decisions [12]. A static display makes consumers have a positive
perception of searched-for items; a dynamic display makes consumers have a positive perception of
experienced products [13]. Imagination plays a key role in the making of purchase decisions when
consumers are unable to physically touch products [14]. In the context of online shopping, when
information on a product is missing or ambiguous, consumers may be suspicious [15], which may
affect their perceptions and imagination [16], lessening their intention to purchase. According to
multi-sensory interaction and integration theory, E-business product displays, via hearing
sensations and visual sensations, stimulate consumers’ tactile sensory associations to promote
virtual tactile sensations [17,18]. Wirth et al. [19] point out that the more sensory information that
online retailers provide and the more that this information matches with consumers’ perceptions,
the easier it is for consumers to have a better experience of virtual shopping. Taking imagination as
an important subjective experience of online shoppers into consideration, the vividness and amount
of information included in a product display are important in elevating consumers’ perceptions of
the product’s quality.
Compared with a static display, a short video display that includes visual and auditory
sensory information and features multi-sensory interaction has advantages in stimulating
consumers’ imagination to enhance consumers’ perceptions of products’ quality [2022]. Oru et al.
[23] took incentive for information processing as a mediating variable from the perspective of
consumers’ imagination, and they explored the impacts of video displays’ presentation and features
on consumers’ information processing, attitude toward products, and purchase intentions. Flavián
et al. [24] found that a video display can influence consumers' perceptions of E-business products,
purchase channel preferences, and purchase intentions in two respects: ease of imagining products
and satisfying demand for tactile sensations. Guo et al. [25] developed a theoretical model for the
impacts of short video displays on consumers’ purchase intentions based on the “S–O–R”
(stimulusorganism–response) model. The authors found that the usefulness and
comprehensiveness of information positively influence consumers’ virtual tactile sense, enjoyment,
and trust.
To date, academics focused on exploring the characteristics of short videos and their impacts
on consumers’ purchase intentions as compared to static displays. Studies rarely paid attention to
the contents and specific characteristics of short video displays and their impacts on consumers’
purchase intentions and product evaluations. In fact, the short video displays of products that
online retailers offer can be mismatched with consumers’ expectations, which may have an
influence on consumers’ perceptions of the quality of products and purchase intentions. This paper
studies the information in short video displays from this perspective. It has practical value for
online retailers and consumers. Table 1 provides a literature review.
China’s online retail sales reached 9000 trillion yuan in 2018, an increase of 23.9% over the
previous year. Clothes occupied 70% of online retail sales, ranking first. As a kind of product that
consumers experience, clothes shared in the benefits of online shopping early on. A dynamic
display makes consumers provide better product reviews [13]. Thus, this study was designed to
explore the short video displays on the Taobao platform. The short video displays’ impacts on
consumers’ perceptions of quality were explored via questionnaires and eight groups of scenario
experiments. The study’s contributions to and innovations for E-business product displays are as
follows: (1) an investigation of a number of online retailers on the Taobao platform, and a summary
of the main features of short video product displays on this dominant online retail platform in
China; (2) a discussion of the short video displays’ impacts on consumers' perceptions of quality in
terms of different characteristics, including length, display angle, and usage scenarios; (3)
suggestions and proposed solutions for online clothes retailers based on asymmetries between the
characteristics of short video product displays that online retailers provide and those that
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consumers expect. Our results may help to create a better environment for online clothes shopping
and improve the efficiency and quality of online clothes shopping.
Table 1. Literature review.
Author
Year
Content
Online product
displays
Li et al. [8] 2002
Consumers’ presence and virtual experiences were
explored. It was found that three-dimensional (3D)
advertisements can enhance consumers’ presence and
improve consumersperceptions and purchase intentions.
Khakimdjanova
and Park [9] 2005
The authors suggest that a product display should be
analyzed in five respects, namely, display methods,
display techniques, supplementary displays, display
aesthetics, and structures and layouts of displays.
Jiang and
Benbasat [10] 2007
Based on the interactivity of the internet, businesses can
use a variety of forms to display their products. The
vividness and interactivity of a product display are the
main design features that affect the impact of an online
product display.
Kim and Lennon
[11] 2010
The authors found that image magnification technologies
have an impact on consumers’ enjoyment, which is
positively correlated with the perceived quantity of
information.
Jungmin and
Minjeong [12] 2014
The psychological perceptions that are caused by the
elements of a product display, such as pictures and text,
are the main sources of information with which
consumers make purchase decisions.
Wirth et al. [19] 2016
Consumers require different information and experience
environments for different products, and retailers should
adjust the design of their online product displays
accordingly.
The impacts of online
video product
displays on
consumers’
perceptions
Jiang and
Benbasat [20] 2007
The authors investigated the picture, video, and virtual
experience display methods, and they found that both
video displays and virtual product experiences had a
greater impact on consumers’ perceptions than pictures.
Li and Meshkova
[21] 2013
Product videos and virtual product experiences increased
the amount of information consumers received about the
tested products and their excitement about the shopping
experience.
Roggeveeen et al.
[22] 2015
Compared with a static display, videos can increase the
impact of displayed content and effectively enhance
consumers’ perceptions of productsvalue.
Oru et al. [23] 2016
The authors discussed the impacts of online product
displays’ presentation and characteristics on information
processing, consumers’ attitudes toward products, and
purchase intentions.
Flavián et al. [24] 2017
Video displays can influence consumersperceptions and
purchase intentions in two respects: ease of imagining
products and satisfying demand for tactile sensations.
Guo et al. [25] 2019
The usefulness and comprehensiveness of short videos
were found to have positive effects on consumersvirtual
sense of touch, sense of pleasure, and sense of trust.
Information 2020, 11, 87 4 of 17
2. Pre-Investigation
2.1. The Characteristics and Current Status of Short Video Clothes Displays
We found some characteristics of short video displays by sorting and summarizing 100 clothes
retailers’ short videos as shown in Figure 1. The shortest video was 10 s in length, and the longest
video was 60 s in length. Furthermore, 12 retailers did not adopt living models; instead, products
were displayed in flat and T-stage ways. Ninety-eight retailers’ videos contained background music;
however, some retailers used the same music for multiple products, and mismatches between the
style of music and the clothing style were found to exist. Fifty-four retailers highlighted their brand
in the video. Seventy-seven retailers displayed overall product information. Generally, videos that
did not contain a model covered more of the details of products. Analyzed in terms of video length,
30 s was found to be the threshold value; videos longer than this were considered to be long videos,
and videos shorter than this were considered to be short videos. Eighty-eight percent of shops
displayed short videos. The majority of shops used living models and fashionable background
music, and they highlighted the brand at the start or the end of a video. The majority of shops
displayed overall product information, then covered the product both overall and in detail.
Figure 1. The main characteristics of the short video displays.
2.2. Consumers’ Preferences for the Characteristics of Short Video Clothes Displays
Based on our summary of the characteristics of short video displays, questionnaires were used
to pre-investigate consumers’ attitudes and preferences for short video clothes displays, so as to
provide a basis for scenario experiments. An online questionnaire system was used to distribute
and collect questionnaires. A total of 266 questionnaires were collected, of which 19 were invalid.
Males accounted for 45.4% of the 207 valid questionnaires, and females accounted for 54.6% of the
207 valid questionnaires. The total average age was 23.4. A total of 73.9% of the respondents had
more than three years of online shopping experience.
The statistical results of the questionnaires reveal that, compared with displays without a
model, 70.0% of respondents were more likely to watch a video display with a living model, 67.1%
of respondents preferred short video displays, 66.7% of respondents were more likely to watch
videos with background music, 64.3% of respondents preferred overall product displays shot
outdoors, and 51.2% of respondents prefer brand displays. Details are shown in Figure 2.
88
12
88
12
98
2
54 46
77
11 12
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0-30s
30-60s
living model
non-model
with music
non-music
with brand
non-brand
overall
details
overall and
details
length model music brand angle
Information 2020, 11, 87 5 of 17
Figure 2. The ratios of preferences for the characteristics of short video clothes displays.
From the results of the questionnaires, we can see that the suggestions of respondents focused
on the duration and angles of short video displays. Regarding duration, some of the consumers
believed that video displays should not only be short in duration, but should also efficiently display
information; however, some consumers believed that duration is irrelevant to video displays, which
should have an abundance of content and be creative. Regarding angles, some consumers stated
that they needed more details and a more comprehensive display.
Our pre-investigation only obtained consumers’ preferences for the characteristics of short
video displays. We could not use it to determine what kinds of short videos could improve
consumers’ perceptions of quality. Thus, the result represents only an analysis of consumers’
preferences. Further experiments are required to identify the impacts of different video display
characteristics on consumers’ perceptions of quality.
3. Hypotheses
In e-commerce, the vividness of information about a clothing product is enhanced through
online short video clothing displays. A short video display is more vivid and emotionally attractive
than traditional product display forms [26], such as text descriptions and static picture displays,
because a short video display of a product describes the product more specifically and more
realistically. The elements of a short video display of a product can be divided into technology,
content, aesthetics, and structural layout [27]. The vividness of the information about a product in a
short video display is mainly determined by technology and content. From a technical perspective,
the vividness of information is determined by the number of senses that are stimulated, the quality
of the information, and resolution of the video display [17,28,29]. Short video presentations can
stimulate more senses (e.g., visual and auditory rather than visual only). From a content perspective,
rich and dynamic images are more likely to attract a consumer’s attention and stimulate a
consumer’s imagination. Many scholars regard video displays as a highly vivid medium that can
affect consumers’ perceptions of products [7,10,30,31]. At present, there is little research on the
question of how the elements of short video displays are arranged and how different characteristics
of short video displays affect consumers’ perceptions of products’ quality.
The results of the pre-investigation show that consumers’ suggestions focused on duration and
angle of presentation. Furthermore, consumers mentioned the “indoor” and “outdoor” display
forms in the pre-investigation. On this basis, we propose hypotheses in three respects, namely,
duration, angle of presentation, and usage scenario.
70.0% 67.1% 66.7% 64.3%
51.2%
0.0%
10.0%
20.0%
30.0%
40.0%
50.0%
60.0%
70.0%
80.0%
living model short-time with music outdoor
overall
with brand
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3.1. The Length of Videos and Perceptions of Quality
In the internet age, catching consumers’ attention under an information overload is difficult.
The short video is a method for disseminating content on the internet. With the popularization of
mobile terminals and acceleration of the development of networks, short-form and direct content
that is provided quickly is in vogue. The short video, as a carrier of fragmented information, not
only provides consumers with vivid information, but can also save consumers time when obtaining
information. Erik indicates that 20% of users leave within ~10 s of starting to watch a video, 33% of
users leave within ~30 s, and 45% leave within in ~1 m [32]. Compared to lengthy videos, shorter
videos are more noticeable to viewers [33].
However, the short video is a medium that carries a large amount of data and often needs to be
loaded. Long videos require consumers to wait for more time due to buffering, loading, and
browsing. Some delay and even freezing may happen during this process. Waiting will make
consumers feel anxious and, as the waiting time increases, their anxiety will increase. Negative
emotions can lead to negative consequences, such as increased stress, decreased efficiency, and
decreased trust [34]. Delays and freezing may directly influence consumers’ short-term attention
and perceptions [35,36]. Thus, we propose the following hypothesis:
H1. Compared with long videos, consumers have better perceptions of the quality of products in short videos.
3.2. Angle of Presentation and Perceptions of Quality
The display angle of clothing in a short video can be divided into overall display and detailed
feature display [37]. Overall display refers to the overall shape of the clothing, and it is intended to
give consumers an overall impression of the clothing. Detailed feature display refers to the display
of the details of clothing, including fabrics, patterns, and features. Based on overall priority theory
[38,39], consumersperception of products is processed from the overall level to the level of details.
When browsing products online, consumers first require information about a product overall, and
their perception of the product overall influences their perception of its details [40].
Consumers do not desire product displays that only present details. This study focuses on the
impacts of different angles of product displays that contain both overall information and details of
products. The display order was overall information followed by details. Video displays that cover
both overall information and details better match with the sequence of consumers’ perceptions, and
they also better satisfy consumers’ demands regarding perceptions of online products [11]. Through
eye-tracking experiments, Yunyi et al. found that, with respect to the main forms of clothing
display, consumers prefer clothing displays with different angles [41]. Thus, we propose the
following hypothesis:
H2. Compared with video displays that only contain overall information, consumers have a better perception
of the quality of products in video displays that cover both overall information and details.
3.3. Display Scenarios of Short Videos and Perceptions of Quality
In short videos of clothing, different display scenarios will provide consumers with different
perceptions. Outdoor scenes will make consumers feel vibrant, free, and dynamic, studio scenes
will make people feel professional, rigorous, and monotonous, and indoor scenes will make people
feel warm, relaxed, and comfortable [42]. Yunyi et al. found that an outdoor backgroundcan
provide consumers with more aesthetic visual effects than a studio background” [41]. Zhao points
out that consumers have a close relationship with displays of indoor living environments, which
produce a strong lived-in atmosphere, and which provide consumers with a lived-in experience
and feeling. Compared with indoor scenarios, buildings and street views not only provide
consumers with the same lived-in feel as indoor scenarios, but also a more dynamic feel, and the
characters are presented more vividly. Thus, street view scenarios are more attractive to consumers
[43]. Studies show that vivid information has a positive influence on consumers’ attitude and
purchase intentions. Because consumers’ product reviews are partially determined by the imagined
Information 2020, 11, 87 7 of 17
use of products in different scenarios, a dynamic representation emphasizes the relationship
between products and the environment and interactions and links among consumers [13]. Thus, we
propose the following hypothesis:
H3. Compared with indoor scenario displays, consumers have a better perception of the quality of products in
outdoor scenario displays.
4. Experiment Design
4.1. Objectives of and Products Used in the Experiments
The 43rd Chinese Statistical Report on Internet Development shows that, as of December 2018,
most (67.8% of all) internet users were aged from 10 to 39 years, of which users aged from 20 to 29
years accounted for 26.8%. The experiments were designed to mainly include female students in
university but also some females born after 1980.
Females born after 1980 and 1990, and males born after 1990 are the dominant consumer
groups in the online clothes market, which is the biggest online market. Taking the match between
online shopper group and product catalog in the online market into consideration, male consumers
focus on digital products, and females form the dominant group for clothes. Thus, a one-piece
summer dress for females was selected as an experimental product with consideration of the video
shot effect.
4.2. Experimental Groups and Experimental Materials
The videos that were used in the experiments were grouped into short videos (14 s) and long
videos (44 s). Angles of presentation were classified as overall displays and overall and details
displays. Display scenarios were grouped into indoor scenarios and outdoor scenarios. As shown in
Table 2, there were eight (2 × 2 × 2) groups of experiments in total.
Table 2. Experimental design and groups.
Operating Variables
Length of Short Videos
Short
Long
Indoor
scenarios
Overall display
Experiment group1
Experiment group 2
Overall and details displays
Experiment group 3
Experiment group 4
Outdoor
scenarios
Overall display
Experiment group 5
Experiment group 6
Overall and details displays
Experiment group 7
Experiment group 8
As shown in Figures 3 and 4, the experimental materials comprised online images, short
videos, and information about the selected one-piece summer dress. We sent eight experimental
questionnaire links designed on the questionnaire platform to different participants. The
participants were informed that they were going to purchase a dress, so they would go to a
domestic shopping platform for selection. Then, the picture information of the dress was displayed,
as shown in Figure 3. After that, the participants were told that, in addition to the pictures, there
would be a short video display about this dress; some screenshots of the video are shown in Figure
4. Participants watched the short video and completed a questionnaire based on their true feelings.
To ensure that other variables remained consistent during the experiment, the content of the eight
questionnaires was the same except for the short videos.
Information 2020, 11, 87 8 of 17
Figure 3. Some of the information about the product from the Taobao platform.
Figure 4. Images from the short video display of the product.
4.3. Questionnaire Design and Pre-Experiments
Questionnaires were designed to include three parts. The first part collected general
information about respondents and their online clothes shopping experiences. The second part
contained experimental scenarios, including basic information about the clothes and short videos.
The third part contained a measurement table for related variables. The specifications of the
questionnaires are shown in Table 3. The existing literature contains little empirical research on the
content and characteristics of short videos. Therefore, we referred to a large number of studies on
the display of information online, and combined the framework and purpose of this study to design
questions through which the respondents’ judgements on the characteristics of the short videos
could be tested. Then, as shown in Table 3, a measurement scale was designed by reference to
studies on perceptions of quality.
A pre-survey was carried out to verify the validity of the questionnaires. Questionnaires for
each of the eight group experiments were sent to respondents with a lot of online shopping
experience and who had some knowledge about the display of information about clothes online. In
total, 48 questionnaires were collected, with six valid questionnaires for each of the experimental
groups. The questionnaires were then revised based on the results of the pre-survey.
Information 2020, 11, 87 9 of 17
Table 3. The measurement scale.
Factors
Questions
References
Judgements on
the
characteristics
of the short
videos
The short video is shorter in duration compared to a
general short video of clothes.
Fuxin et al. (2012) [44],
Hongxia et al. (2014) [4]
The short video display’s angle of presentation is
more comprehensive compared with a general short
video display of clothes.
This short video was shot at an appropriate scene.
Perception of
quality
This one-piece summer dress is reliable.
Jarvenpaa and Todd
(1997) [45], Baker (1994)
[46], Dodds and Grewal
(1991) [47]
This one-piece summer dress is excellently tailored.
This one-piece summer dress is of good quality.
This one-piece summer dress is durable.
5. Results
5.1. Descriptive Statistics
A total of 335 females were involved in the experiments. The question of “Did you complete
this questionnaire seriously?” was included in the questionnaire to help validate the collected
questionnaires. A total 249 questionnaires were found to be valid, for a validation rate of 74.33%.
SPSS 22.0 was used to process the data. Table 4 shows the initial descriptive statistics for the eight
short video groups.
Table 4. Descriptive statistics for the eight short video groups.
Grouping N
Mean
Value
Standard
Deviation
Standard
Error Max Min
Experiment group 1 (indoors, overall, short)
30
3.98
1.04
0.19
6.00
2.00
Experiment group 2 (indoors, overall, long)
30
3.43
1.25
0.23
5.00
1.00
Experiment group 3 (indoors, overall and details, short)
33
4.45
1.06
0.18
7.00
2.25
Experiment group 4 (indoors, overall and details, long)
31
3.99
0.86
0.15
5.75
2.50
Experiment group 5 (outdoors, overall, short)
31
4.43
1.03
0.18
6.50
3.00
Experiment group 6 (outdoors, overall, long)
32
3.99
0.89
0.16
5.25
1.75
Experiment group 7 (outdoors, overall and details, short)
30
4.88
0.94
0.17
6.50
3.25
Experiment group 8 (outdoors, overall and details, long)
32
4.45
0.79
0.14
6.00
3.00
5.2. Analysis of Reliability and Validity
The Cronbach’s α value was used to measure the reliability of the questionnaires. Table 5 shows
the SPSS-determined reliability of the perceived-quality-related questions. The Cronbach’s α of
perceived quality was 0.924, which is greater than 0.9, indicating that the questionnaires had good
reliability. The results of the validity analyses are shown in Tables 6 and 7. The KMO value of
perceived quality was 0.843, which lies between 0.8 and 0.9. The factor loading of the four questions
was greater than 0.8. This explains 81.25% of the population variance, which indicates that the
experimental data have considerable validity.
Table 5. Analysis of the reliability of perceived quality.
Variables
Questions
Deleted α Value
Cronbach's α
Perceived
quality
Q1: This one-piece summer dress is reliable.
0.919
0.924
Q2: This one-piece summer dress is excellently tailored.
0.892
Q3: This one-piece summer dress is of good quantity.
0.878
Q4: This one-piece summer dress is durable.
0.913
Information 2020, 11, 87 10 of 17
Table 6. KMO and Bartlett’s sphericity test.
Variables
KMO Measurement
Bartlett’s Sphericity Test
Perceived quality 0.843
Approximate chi-square value
791.85
Df
6
Sig.
0
Table 7. The factor loading and the interpretation of total variance.
Questions
Factor Loading
The Interpretation of Total Variance
Perceived quality
Q1
0.943
81.51%
Q2
0.92
Q3
0.88
Q4
0.866
5.3. Verification of Hypotheses
5.3.1. Verification of the Hypothesis on Impacts of the Length of Short Video Displays on
Perceptions of Quality
According to the statistical test of significance, an F-test was firstly performed for combinations
of different lengths and another two factors to determine whether there were significant differences
in variance among groups of videos with different lengths. The results show that the p-value of each
group was greater than 0.05 at the 95% confidence level; thus, this hypothesis cannot be denied. The
variance in the long-duration video group and the short-duration video group can be treated as the
same. A double-sample equal variance hypothesis t-test was used to further analyze whether there
were significant differences in the average value of perceived quality between the short-duration
video groups and the long-duration video groups. The results of the double-sample equal variance
analysis are shown in Table 8. All single-tailed p-values of the four groups under the categories of
angle and scenario were less than 0.05, which indicates that, when other conditions were held
constant, the duration of short videos has a significant impact on consumers’ perceptions of quality.
After integrating the t-values and comparing the average values of the descriptive statistics, the
perceived quality of the short-duration video group was found to be significantly better than that of
the long-duration video group. Thus, H1 is valid.
Table 8. The t-tests for the impacts of video displays with different lengths on consumers’
perceptions of quality.
Duration t-Value
p (T t)
Single-Tailed
t Single-Tailed
Critical
Overall and details, outdoors
Long, 44 s
Short, 14 s
–1.989
0.026
1.671
Overall, outdoors
Long, 44 s
Short, 14 s
–1.799
0.038
1.670
Overall and details, indoors
Long, 44 s
Short, 14 s
–1.876
0.033
1.670
Overall, indoors
Long, 44 s
Short, 14 s
–1.849
0.035
1.672
Note: significance level α = 0.05.
5.3.2. Verification of the Hypothesis on Impacts of the Angle of Presentation of Short Video Displays
on Perceptions of Quality
We used the same verification method for H2 as we used for H1, i.e., an F-test followed by a
t-test. The results of the F-test show that the p-values of the three groups were greater than 0.05 (at
the 95% confidence level), indicating that the populations represented by the three groups have
homoscedasticity. The results of the double-sample equal variance hypothesis t-test show that the
Information 2020, 11, 87 11 of 17
p-value of one of the groups was 0.0024, i.e., less than 0.05, which indicates that the populations
represented by this group have heteroscedasticity. As shown in Table 9, the results of the
double-sample different variance hypothesis t-test show that p-values of the four groups were less
than 0.05, indicating that there was a significant difference between the two different display angles.
After integrating the average values, we concluded that H2 is valid.
Table 9. The t-tests for the impact of different display angles on consumers’ perceptions of quality.
Display Angle t-Value
p (T t)
Single-Tailed
t Single-Tailed
Critical
Long, outdoors
Overall and details
Overall
2.160
0.017
1.670
Short, outdoors
Overall and details
Overall
1.801
0.038
1.671
Long, indoors
Overall and details
Overall
2.024
0.024
1.675
Short, indoors
Overall and details
Overall
1.746
0.043
1.670
Note: significance level α = 0.05.
5.3.3. Verification of the Hypothesis on Impacts of Short Video Display scenarios on Perceptions
of Quality
We used the same verification method for H3 as we used for H1 and H2. The results of the
F-test show that the p-values of the three groups were greater than 0.05 (at the 95% confidence level),
indicating that the populations represented by these three groups have homoscedasticity. The
results of the double-sample equal variance hypothesis t-test show that the p-value of one of the
groups was 0.0024, i.e., less than 0.05, which indicates that the populations represented by this group
have heteroscedasticity. Table 10 shows the results of the double-sample different variance
hypothesis t-test. The p-values of the three groups were smaller than 0.05, and the p-value of one of
the groups was greater than 0.05. These results indicate that there were significant differences
between the indoor scenario and the outdoor scenario. After integrating the average values, we
concluded that H3 is valid.
After data processing and analysis, all proposed hypotheses were found to be valid.
Table 10. The t-tests for different scenariosimpacts on consumersperceptions of quality.
Display
Angle
t-Value
p (T t)
Single-Tailed
t Single-Tailed
Critical
Long, overall and details
Outdoors
Indoors
2.180
0.017
1.670
Short, overall and details
Outdoors
Indoors
1.718
0.045
1.670
Long, overall
Outdoors
Indoors
2.017
0.024
1.675
Short, overall
Outdoors
Indoors
1.673
0.050
1.671
Note: significance level α = 0.05.
6. Conclusions
6.1. Research Conclusions
This study explored the impacts of short video displays on consumers’ perceptions of quality in
an online shopping context. Consumers preferences were obtained via a survey based on a
summary of the characteristics of short video clothes displays. Eight groups of experiments were
designed according to video length, angle of presentation, and usage scenario. The impacts of
Information 2020, 11, 87 12 of 17
different video displays on consumers’ perceptions of quality were discussed. Our results show that,
compared with long-duration video displays, short-duration video displays can make consumers
have better perceptions of quality; furthermore, compared with videos that only contain overall
information about a product, video displays that contain both overall information and details of a
product can make consumers have better perceptions of quality.
6.2. Theoretical Contributions
The theoretical contributions of this research are threefold. Firstly, in terms of modern
marketing theory, with the development of marketing theory and marketing practice, an
interaction-oriented theory centered on customer conceptions was gradually introduced [48,49]. The
rapid development of information technology increased the number of opportunities that businesses
have to interact with consumers [50], as well as increased consumer demand for product
information. Based on modern marketing theories, we explored consumerssubjective perceptions
of clothing in short video displays with different characteristics. Previous studies discussed the
impact of short video displays on consumers’ evaluations in terms of the vividness of the
presentation, the ease of imagining products, etc. However, in this study, we specifically explored
the impact of different characteristics and attributes of short video displays on consumers’
perceptions and evaluations by selecting characteristics of short videos and designing short videos
to optimize the marketing strategy for and arrangement of content in short clothing videos based on
consumers’ evaluations and feedback. Secondly, in terms of cognitive psychology, we used and
developed research on the theory of overall priority [38,39]. Research on the overall priority of
perceptions is a hot topic in the field of cognitive psychology. Most scholars discuss the effect of
overall priority through static pictures [5155]. This study applied overall priority theory to dynamic
images in short videos. Through experiments, it was found that consumers prefer short videos with
an overall view that also display details, and there remains an overall priority effect.
Finally, in terms of research on the classification of characteristics of online clothing displays,
the five-dimensional classification standard proposed by Khakimdjanova and Papk
comprehensively summarizes the characteristics of online clothing displays [9]. Based on the
collation and investigation of the content of short video displays from 100 clothing retailers on the
Taobao platform, we applied the five-dimensional classification standard to the characteristics of
short video displays of clothing, expanding the scope of application of the five-dimensional
classification standard.
6.3. Management Implications
Currently, more and more online clothes retailers are adopting short videos to display
information about their products. The short video is an efficient scenario expression tool. If it is used
as a carrier of high-quality content, it can not only provide better pre-purchase experiences [6,22,23],
but also increase the conversion rate [25]. However, if the content and structure of short videos are
not properly designed, and if they do not satisfy consumers demands, the value of short video
displays will not be realized. For network marketing managers (or e-commerce operators), the
question of how to better arrange and design the characteristics of short videos so as to make full use
of the ability of short videos to vividly display a product is particularly important [10,31]. According
to the results of this research, videos that cover both overall information and details of products, that
are short in duration, and that are based on outdoor scenarios can make consumers have a better
perception of products’ quality. Therefore, three management implications can be drawn. Firstly,
businesses should try to reduce the length of videos in order to meet the demand for provision of
useful product information in a short time. Secondly, businesses should follow the rule of displaying
overall information first, then presenting the details of products, as moving from the overall
perspective to the perspective of details can make consumers have a better understanding of
products. Thirdly, outdoor scenario displays are closer to real life, and this form of presentation is
closer to real product usage scenarios. Hence, businesses should try to use outdoor scenario
displays. However, in practice, a decision on whether to use an outdoor scenario display or an
Information 2020, 11, 87 13 of 17
indoor scenario display should take into consideration weather, cost, etc. Therefore, businesses that
cannot use outdoor scenario displays should try to utilize props and filming tricks to help make the
usage scenario closer to real life and produce an “immersive” atmosphere for consumers [18].
6.4. Limitations and Prospects
This study had some limitations. Firstly, we used a limited number of experimental products
and samples. As we selected a one-piece summer dress as the experimental product, all respondents
were correspondingly female, and the sample size was small. The product type catalogs and
applicable groups did not have universality; thus, the scope of applicability of our study’s results
was limited. Secondly, some unreasonable factors may have been included as characteristics of short
videos as summarized by the authors. Thirdly, there were some control variables in and operating
limitations to our experiments. Duration, angle of presentation, and usage scenarios of videos were
the control variables. However, the design and filming of the short videos were not done
professionally. Thus, we were unable to ensure that consumers’ perceptions of quality would not be
affected by other factors, such as the clothing style and video background preferences of consumers.
Future research could design short videos and perform experiments with other contents and
elements of short videos. In this study, three characteristics of short videos were selected to design
the short video groups. However, short videos contain more than three elements. The characteristic
elements of short videos include technology, content, aesthetics, structure, and layout [27]. Future
studies could discuss the characteristics and elements of different short videos based on the design
ideas and experimental methods of this study.
Short videos can affect consumers' perceptions through characteristics of the information they
present. For example, the comprehensiveness, usefulness, and ease of use of information in short
videos will affect consumers virtual sense of touch, pleasure, trust, and willingness to buy [25].
Therefore, the design of short videos could be based on aspects and factors that do not have an
impact on perceived quality, such as the impact of a short video’s design on consumers’ intention to
purchase.
Short videos are time-consuming to load and browse [32]. Although they may provide
consumers with more specific information, consumers may also stop waiting to learn about a
product by browsing through pictures and reviews. Therefore, one future research direction is to
start with the negative impacts of short videos, in order to provide businesses with more ideas to
help them design better short videos.
In addition, we selected a woman's summer dress in the clothing category as the experimental
object. Future research could strengthen our scientific and general manipulation of the selection of
experimental objects, as well as apply this research to other fields, such as food, cosmetics, and other
products that consumers experience.
Author Contributions: Conceptualization, B.S. and D.D.; methodology, R.M.; software, J.C.; validation, R.M.,
D.D., and B.S.; formal analysis, D.D.; investigation, J.C.; data curation, D.D.; writingoriginal draft
preparation, D.D. and B.S.; writingreview and editing, B.S. and D.D.; funding acquisition, R.M. and B.S. All
authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
Funding: This research was funded by the Chinese National Funding of Social Sciences (No. 14AGL023) and
the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2019 CDJSK 02 PT 19).
Acknowledgments: We thank all commenters for their valuable and constructive comments.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Information 2020, 11, 87 14 of 17
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