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Digital nudges and dark patterns: The angels and the archfiends of digital communication


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Nudging is simply guiding people behaviors by the use of user-interface and design elements in digital environments. Today, many decisions are made in online environments. Gaining insights about digital nudging can greatly help communicators, policy makers, and designers lead users to make the most desirable choice for them and/or for the wealth of the society as well. Digital nudges can be used in many digital environments like e-mail, SMS, push notifications, mobile apps, social media, gamification, e-commerce, e-government, location services, corporate digital information systems, and many other digital interfaces that include any kind of decision-making processes. This study is a descriptive study and more of a qualitative nature and aims to identify the digital nudging concept, dark patterns, and usage of digital nudges in real-life applications. It also proposes a brief digital nudging process schema to be used for designing behav-ioral digital interventions.
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Digital nudges and dark patterns:
The angels and the archfiends of
digital communication
Sebnem O
Department of Public Relations and Publicity, Faculty of
Communication, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Tu
Nudging is simply guiding people behaviors by the use of user-interface and
design elements in digital environments. Today, many decisions are made in
online environments. Gaining insights about digital nudging can greatly help
communicators, policy makers, and designers lead users to make the most de-
sirable choice for them and/or for the wealth of the society as well. Digital nudges
can be used in many digital environments like e-mail, SMS, push notifications,
mobile apps, social media, gamification, e-commerce, e-government, location
services, corporate digital information systems, and many other digital interfaces
that include any kind of decision-making processes. This study is a descriptive
study and more of a qualitative nature and aims to identify the digital nudging
concept, dark patterns, and usage of digital nudges in real-life applications. It also
proposes a brief digital nudging process schema to be used for designing behav-
ioral digital interventions.
1The Collapse of Homo
De toutes les de
´finitions de l’homme, la plus
mauvaise me paraı
ˆt celle qui en fait un animal
(Of all the ways of defining man, the worst is
the one which makes him out to be a rational
– Le Petit Pierre [Little Peter] (1918), ch.
Human beings have long been enunciated as ‘ra-
tional decision-makers’ throughout history.
However, mostly in the recent years, many studies
have definitely shown that this so-called rational
animal (which is named as ‘homo economicus’ in
the classical management theory) is not so rational
at all. ‘Man is prone to error’ and many times
human beings tend to deviate from rational deci-
sion-making, systematically.
It can be said that the idea that human decision-
making may not be so optimal at all was first put
forward by Adam Smith, who is now considered as
the founder of behavioral economics by many.
Many years ago, Smith explained some very well-
known ideas of today, like loss aversion, overconfi-
dence, altruism, self-control, fairness, and so on. He
claimed, ‘Pain, I have already had occasion to ob-
serve, is, in almost all cases, a more pungent sensa-
tion than the opposite and correspondent pleasure’
(Smith, 1759, s. 121). Smith’s idea on pain was
Sebnem O
Department of Public
Relations and Publicity,
Faculty of Communication,
Sivas Cumhuriyet
University, 58140, Merkez,
Sivas, Tu
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going to be put forward by Daniel Kahneman and
Amos Tversky in 1979 as ‘loss aversion’. Kahneman
and Tversky (1979) claimed that decisions are not
always optimal by putting forward ‘prospect theory’
which states human beings’ risk-taking willingness
is highly context-dependent. People dislike losses
more than they like gains (loss frame – gain
frame); losses are much more painful than the
same amount of gain. In 2002, Daniel Kahneman
was awarded by Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences
for having integrated insights from psychological
research into economic science, especially concern-
ing human judgment and decision-making under
uncertainty (The Royal Swedish Academy of
Sciences, 2002). Similarly Smith’s idea on self-con-
trol; ‘The pleasure which is to enjoy ten years
hence, interest us so little in comparison with that
which we may enjoy to-day’ (Smith, 1759, s. 272)
was later going to be put forward by Richard H.
Thaler. Based on these ideas, in 2017, Richard H.
Thaler has been awarded by Nobel Prize in
Economic Sciences for his contributions to behav-
ioral economics by exploring the consequences of
limited rationality, social preferences, and lack of
self-control; he has shown how these human traits
systematically affect individual decisions as well as
market outcomes (The Royal Swedish Academy of
Sciences, 2017).
Two centuries after Adam Smith, in 1950,
Herbert Simon suggested the concept of ‘bounded
rationality’ (Simon, 1982) and stated that human
beings are not perfect information processors at
all. In spite of the fact that his ideas were dismissed
by many of his peers at that time, Simon later was
awarded by Nobel prize in 1978 (The Royal Swedish
Academy of Sciences, 1978). And in 1976, the
economist Gary S. Becker outlined some of his
ideas about economic approach to human behavior,
including social interactions, law and politics, crime
and punishment, marriage and family, competition,
democracy, and so on (Becker, 1976). He described
human being as creatures trying to maximize their
utilities within reasonable bounds. Human beings
can be egoist, altruist, masochist, compassionate,
or vindictive.
Today behavioral sciences is an ever-evolving
area in which many scientists and scholars like
Daniel Kahneman, Richard H. Thaler, Dan Ariely,
Gerd Gigizenger, Colin Camerer, George
Loewenstein, and so on, have been studying.
2Human Decision-Making and
Human beings have complex decision-making sys-
tems. Behavioral Insights help us understand how
Table 1 Summary of nudge principles
Nudge principles Description Example
iNcentive Making incentives more salient to increase
their effectiveness
Telephones that are programmed to display the running
costs of phone calls
Mapping information that is difficult to
evaluate to familiar evaluation schemes
Mapping megapixels to maximum printable size when
advertising a digital camera instead of pointing to
Defaults Preselecting options by setting default
Automatic renewal of subscriptions
Giving feedback Providing users with feedback when they are
doing well and when they are making
Electronic road signs with smiling or sad faces depending
on the driver’s speed
Expecting error Expecting users to make errors and being as
forgiving as possible
Requiring people at an ATM to retrieve the card before they
receive their money in order to help them avoid forgetting
the card
Structure complex
Listing all the attributes of all the alternatives
and letting people make tradeoffs when
Online product configuration systems that make choices
simpler by guiding users through the purchase process
Source: Weinmann et al. (2016) based on Thaler et al. (2010).
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different aspects of human decision-making pro-
cesses lead people to achieve their desired results.
In the 1970’s, Daniel Kahneman and Amos
Tversky published a series of papers focusing on
human judgment. In their paper ‘Judgement
under uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases’ (Tversky
and Kahneman, 1974), they argued that human
beings rely on heuristics to ease their decision-
making process. Generally, these heuristics facilitate
the judgment, but in some cases, they may lead to
systematic errors. Their research is based mainly on
three types of heuristics, representativeness, avail-
ability, and anchoring.
Table 2 The process of digital nudging
The process of digital nudging
Define the goal Increasing donations
Increasing sales volume
Giving information
Reducing power consumption,
Define the channel e-mail, SMS, push notifications,
mobile apps,
social media, gamification,
e-commerce, e-government, etc.
Understand the
of the user
(and expect error)
Barriers, friction, heuristics,
biases, habits
the nudge
Default rules
Use of social norms
Increase in ease and convenience
Warnings, graphic or otherwise
Precommitment strategies
Eliciting implementation
Informing people of the
nature and
consequences of their own
past choices
Implement the
selected nudge(s)
Content and context
UX/UI design
Test the intervention Test the nudge(s) (A/B testing,
split testing, etc.)
Measure the results Measure and report the results
Table 3 Types of dark patterns, cataloged by Harry
Types of dark
Bait and switch You set out to do one thing, but a differ-
ent, undesirable thing happens instead.
Confirmshaming Confirmshaming is the act of guilting the
user into opting into something. The
option to decline is worded in such a
way as to shame the user into compliance.
Disguised ads Adverts that are disguised as other kinds of
content or navigation, in order to get you
to click on them.
Forced continuity When your free trial with a service comes
to an end and your credit card silently
starts getting charged without any warn-
ing. In some cases, this is made even
worse by making it difficult to cancel the
Friend spam The product asks for your email or social
media permissions under the pretense it
will be used for a desirable outcome (e.g.,
finding friends), but then spams all your
contacts in a message that claims to be
from you.
Hidden costs You get to the last step of the checkout
process, only to discover some unexpected
charges have appeared, e.g., delivery
charges, tax, etc.
Misdirection The design purposefully focuses your at-
tention on one thing in order to distract
your attention from another.
Price comparison
The retailer makes it hard for you to com-
pare the price of an item with another
item, so you cannot make an informed
Privacy Zuckering You are tricked into publicly sharing more
information about yourself than you really
intended to. Named after Facebook CEO
Mark Zuckerberg.
Roach motel The design makes it very easy for you to
get into a certain situation but then makes
it hard for you to get out of it (e.g., a
Sneak into basket You attempt to purchase something, but
somewhere in the purchasing journey the
site sneaks an additional item into your
basket, often through the use of an opt-
out radio button or checkbox on a prior
Trick questions You respond to a question, which, when
glanced upon quickly appears to ask one
thing, but if read carefully, asks another
thing entirely.
Source: Harry Brignull,
pattern (accessed 14 September 2018), tarih yok.
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Established on former behavioral economists’
ideas on human decision-making, especially on
heuristics and biases, Thaler and Sunstein came for-
ward with the idea of ‘nudge’ with the argument
that knowing human beings’ heuristics, biases, and
habits may help them increase their well-being. In
their book, Nudge: Improving Decisions about
Health, Wealth, and Happiness, Thaler and
Sunstein explain nudging as:
‘A nudge, as we will use the term, is any aspect
of the choice architecture that alters people’s
behavior in a predictable way without forbid-
ding any options or significantly changing
their economic incentives. To count as a
mere nudge, the intervention must be easy
and cheap to avoid. Nudges are not mandates.
Putting fruit at eye level counts as a nudge.
Banning junk food does not’ (Thaler and
Sunstein, 2009, s. 6).
Nudging is mainly a behavioral economics con-
cept that defines how subtle changes in the
environment affect the outcomes of a decision-
making process. Some criticize nudging arguing
that it resembles marketing since it uses insights to
influence human behavior. However, it differs in
that the main intention of nudging is to increase
the people’s long-run welfare, as judged by
As they mentioned in their book Nudge, know-
ing how people think helps us make/let them choose
what is best for them, and the society (Thaler and
Sunstein, 2009). The key point of nudging, as also
stated by Thaler and Sunstein, is ‘knowing how
people think’, which has long been searched by
scholars and scientist.
Policy makers and organizations always try to
guide people and alter their behavior towards the
desired options. Governments try to increase retire-
ment savings, decrease energy consumption, in-
crease organ donations, etc., NGO’s try to increase
the donations, charity events and funding, etc., and
companies try to increase their revenues, reduce
their wastes, increase loyalty, etc. In all these
Fig. 1 Screenshot of DriveOff, a digital nudging app that shuts off texting privileges for drivers when in motion
(Shamah, 2015)
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activities, together with some basic tools like reward,
punishment, and incentives, nudging is also a very
valuable and lucrative tool. In many cases, nudging
can also be named as ‘choice architecture’. As
Thaler, Sunstein, and Balz state:
‘Decision makers do not make choices in a
vacuum. They make them in an environment
where many features, noticed and unnoticed,
can influence their decisions. The person who
creates that environment is, in our termin-
ology, a choice architect. The goal of Nudge
is to show how choice architecture can be
used to help nudge people to make better
choices (as judged by themselves) without for-
cing certain outcomes upon anyone, a phil-
osophy we call libertarian paternalism. The
tools highlighted are: defaults, expecting
error, understanding mappings, giving feed-
back, structuring complex choices, and creat-
ing incentives’ (Thaler et al., 2010).
3Digital Nudging
When nudging is extended to the digital environ-
ments, it can be defined as ‘digital nudging’. Digital
nudging can briefly be described as ‘the use of user-
interface design elements to guide people’s behavior
in digital choice environments’ (Weinmann et al.,
2016). Seeing this definition a little lacking, Meske
and Potthoff propound their position and argument
on digital nudging as follows:
Fig. 2 Screenshot of Canary, an app that keeps an eye on all activities done by teens in a car, warns users against doing
them, and uploads information to parents about them (Shamah, 2015)
Digital nudges and dark patterns
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...this definition does not reflect the import-
ance of a free decision without coercion or a
fundamental change of options and the subtle
mode of action. Further, nudges are not ne-
cessarily limited to the design of user-inter-
faces only, since the form and content of
information or messages can also represent a
nudge. Hence, we define digital nudging as a
subtle form of using design, information and
interaction elements to guide user behavior in
digital environments, without restricting the
individual’s freedom of choice’ (Meske and
Potthoff, 2017).
Based on Thaler et al., (2010) study, Weinmann,
Schneider, and vom Brocke summarize the ‘choice
architecture tools’ by presenting digital nudging ex-
amples (Table 1).
Digital nudges utilize many online technologies
and channels like e-mail, SMS, push notifications,
mobile apps, social media, gamification, e-com-
merce, e-government, location services, etc. One
of the most important advantages of digital
nudges is it’s being relatively inexpensive, and its
ability to spread quickly. They also facilitate data
production and increases measurability. Some digi-
tal nudging examples are given in Figs 1–7.
Shlomo Benartzi explains the advantages and
usage of digital nudging as:
‘The advantages of digital nudging are
two-fold. First, the digital space allows us to
conduct research much faster, as we test out
multiple designs to see which one works best.
Instead of waiting years to see if an
Fig. 3 Freeletics users are motivated by showing benefits
of paid subscription in here and now (The Power of Now)
(Google Play)
Fig. 4 Freeletics users are offered a ‘gift’ of knowledge
(Reciprocity) (Google Play)
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intervention is effective, we can often get re-
sults in days or weeks. Second, the digital
world offers unprecedented scale: by fixing a
single website or app, we can potentially help
millions of people make better financial
In recent years, my colleagues and I have done
more research to explore the enormous poten-
tial and cost-effectiveness of digital nudging.
From the use of Big Data to improve retire-
ment outcomes to small tweaks to the screens
of a leading robo-saving app, we’ve shown that
improving the design of the online world can
have a big impact on our financial well-being’
(Benartzi, 2017).
Fig. 5 Peak App used visuals to draw attention to the
content and features rather than cost (Salience) (Google
Fig. 6 Peak App used visuals to draw attention to the
App’s Popularity rather than cost, creating FOMO
ing (Social Proof) (Google Play)
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3.1 Digital nudging process
The most important points in digital nudging are
understanding human thinking and starting the
process by taking where the end-user starts into ac-
count. To give an example; in a study steered by
Google Play and The Behavioural Architects
(Google Play) to convey the value of paid app sub-
scriptions (of Peak and Freeletics Apps); first the
barriers to paid app subscriptions are defined as:
(1) ‘User relationships with apps are often fleet-
ing: People are downloading, deleting,
moving between, and reinstalling apps all
the time. This can create a reluctance to
invest and make a long-term commitment.
(2) Users are anchored to free sources: Already
accessing what users perceive to be similar
content for free creates a reluctance to pay.
For example, the research found that Peak
users were often using a range of free
games and free versions of other brain-train-
ing apps (e.g., Luminosity and Elevate), and
Freeletics users might seek out free content
from other sources (e.g., fitness videos on
(3) Free versions can be ‘good enough’: The
Peak free users in this study already
received four randomized games a day.
The unlimited access to 41 Pro games
offered with a paid subscription, therefore,
didn’t always feel like a compelling enough
benefit for signing up; in fact, some users
felt they simply wouldn’t have the time to
play more than four games in a day
(4) Users don’t always understand the benefit of
subscription: Crucially, users are not always
clear on what the subscription actually offers
and why they should bother signing up and
paying. For example, some users that we
spoke to were not completely sure what the
Freeletics subscription offering (the ‘Freeletics
Coach’) really was, so struggled to imagine
what benefits upgrading would give them’.
(Google Play).
In the digital nudging process, the behavioral in-
sights concepts used in the project are as flows:
‘The power of now: Bring longer-term goals and
intentions into the present
Reciprocity: Human beings are conditioned to
respond in kind, meaning that we respond to
positive actions with similar positive actions
Salience: When something is prominent relative
to its surroundings. Salience plays to our subcon-
scious mind by automatically focusing our atten-
tion on certain messages
Fig. 7 Peak App used a ‘Decoy Option’ to anchor the
price (Anchoring) (Google Play)
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Authority bias: Our tendency to alter our opin-
ions or behaviors to fit those we consider to be
an authority on a given subject
Social norms: Common tendency for humans to
adopt the opinions and follow the behaviors of
the majority
Anchoring: Common human tendency to rely
too heavily on the first piece of information
offered (the ‘‘anchor’’) when making decisions’.
(Google Play)
A summary how a digital nudging process
should be designed was given in Table 2 (as pro-
posed by the author).
4Dark Patterns
Dark patterns can simply be described as a user
interface or user experience that is crafted to trick
its users into doing things that are not in their best
interests. They generally direct the user towards the
processes or results which the users do not intent.
They are rather being manipulative than being per-
suasive since they serve sinister purposes.
Dark patterns can be observed in many forms.
The mostly used dark patterns created by Harry
Brignull, who has a PhD in Cognitive Science, are
listed in Table 3.
In spite of the fact that in many countries there
are severe consumer and data protection legisla-
tions, dark patterns can very frequently be found
in many interfaces. In the digital world, data are,
probably, the most valuable thing. Besides cash
transfers or e-trade, which are one of the digital
services’ main sources of income, most of the digital
services chase the data to use and/or to sell targeted
Apart from consumer and data protection legis-
lations, which are definitely and unfortunately not
enough to protect the users from dark patterns,
there are other kinds of efforts, too. To give an ex-
ample, Google Chrome 71 notify users of unclear
subscription pages (Schechter, 2018). The reason
why Google is doing so is to inform users about
whether the billing information is visible and obvi-
ous, the customer can see the costs before they
accept the terms, and the fee structure is easily
understandable or not.
The fact that human beings have many heuristics,
biases, and habits, is also known by the digital ser-
vice providers and used by them deliberately to
deceit the users. Dark patterns are ethically prob-
lematic since they misdirect the end-users into
making choices that are not in their best interest.
Fig. 8 MedID in the iPhone Health App; Donate Life
Texas organ donation digital intervention to increase
organ donation rates
Digital nudges and dark patterns
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Thus, while planning a UX/UI design, using dark
patterns must strictly be avoided.
4.1 Digitally nudged by government
In all over the world, the number of nudge units has
been increasing constantly. Currently, there are
more than 200 nudge units in the world. Nudging
is very popular among the governments since it gen-
erally offers lucrative and relatively cheap solutions,
and is a good alternative to reward (subsidies,
grants, loans, etc.) and punishment (taxes, penalties,
prohibitions, etc.). As Benartzi et al. mention that ‘A
warning is a nudge; so is a reminder (for example,
that a bill is coming due). Automatic enrollment in
retirement plans, or in green energy, also count as
nudges, so long as people are allowed opt out’
(Benartzi et al., 2017a). In many countries, it is
seen that many different types of nudges have
been used to increase the effectiveness of public
According to a recent study of Benartzi et al.
(2017b) in multiple areas, nudges have a bigger
impact, per dollar spent than more traditional
tools like punishment and rewards.
Some examples of digital nudging executed by
governmental institutions are shown in Figs 8–11.
5. Conclusion
Like in everyday life, in digital environments, people
make automated and fast decisions. The environ-
ment where decisions are made, and particularly
heuristics, biases, and habits have high influence in
decision-making process. While nudging has been
widely studied and discussed in the literature, it is
inevitable to work through digital nudging in detail.
So, in this study, the background, the concepts,
some cases, and examples from around the world
have been investigated and useful schemas are
Today, more than ever, human beings have
access to digital tools and millions of people make
transactions in digital environments. In this context,
Fig. 9 Nudge Turkey, Ministry of Trade, ‘Easy Support’ Intervention to facilitate export incentives, March 2018.
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digital nudges can be a very useful, effective, and
lucrative tool to encourage people to make the
right decision for them and/or for the society.
As for dark patterns, they can be described as
malicious UI designs that lead users to perform
unintended actions. Both nudges and dark patterns
aim to lead users into certain actions but there is a
very distinctive property which separates nudges
from dark patterns that nudges are generally de-
signed to make people better off, as judged by them-
selves (Sunstein, 2018), while dark patterns trick
users. In this regard, in digital environments dark
patterns can be a major threat.
In conclusion, first, while designing nudges one
should refrain from using ‘dark patterns’ since it is
not nudging but manipulating. Second, while design-
ing a nudge, the procedure proposed in this article
can be followed. And third, before implementing the
real-life application, pre-testing is strongly proposed
in order to increase the effectiveness of the nudge
application and to abstain from dark patterns.
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Fig. 10 Online vehicle license renewing intervention by Ontario Government and the Behavioural Economics in Action
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Fig. 11 Intervention for increasing the effectiveness of
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Nations Development Program, April 2014.
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... 2020), as well as more prosocial outcomes such as green awareness (Loock et al., 2013) and enterprise report recommenders . However, the literature also suggests that digital nudges have not been used for pro-personal or pro-social behavior and, instead, have been used to intentionally manipulate users (Campione, 2020;Hansen, 2016;Özdemir, 2019). ...
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This dissertation explores how knowledge of digital nudges impacts consumer decisions, and how consumer preferences based on that knowledge impacts design decisions. Paper 1 presents a systematic narrative literature review on the evolution of digital nudge literature. This investigation uncovers several themes and provides a basis for a revised definition of digital nudges and a taxonomy wheel of digital nudges. Paper 2 (co-authored with Jeffrey Livingston, Jonathan Ericson, and Patrick McHugh) investigates how knowledge about digital nudges impacts consumer preferences to have them within the digital experiences they use. This paper highlights how knowledge of digital nudges impact consumer online shopping preferences. Consumers (N = 331) were given two options for a homepage, product page, and checkout page within an e-commerce experience. Using an experiment with consumers as subjects, we discover that consumers consider themselves more knowledgeable about digital nudges after the experiment rather than before. Additionally, findings indicate that consumers are more inclined to avoid web pages incorporating dark patterns into their design. Paper 3 (co-authored with Jeffrey Livingston, Jonathan Ericson, and Patrick McHugh) complements the consumer paper. It investigates how much designers know about digital nudges and whether designers would be less apt to use digital nudges and dark patterns in their designs if they knew more about those digital nudges and if they knew which ones consumers would prefer to avoid. In this study, we examine whether and how designers might be influenced to avoid using digital nudges that might be considered manipulative or that consumers find objectionable. Designers (N = 353) were given two options for a homepage, product page, and checkout page within an e-commerce experience. We found that designers originally considered themselves to be more knowledgeable about digital nudges before the study than after it. Additionally, our findings indicate that designers are more inclined to avoid using digital nudges if they know that the consumer does not prefer them within a page experience.
... Although consumers are usually the promotion target, the government acts as a "promotion agent" in government supervision to implement a nudge strategy for enterprises or consumers (Tikotsky et al., 2020). Ozdemir (2020) proposed a simple digital-driven process model to design digital behavioral interventions. He pointed out that nudges can guide people's behavior in the digital environment by using the user interface and design elements. ...
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Although South Korea's e-government development is in a leading position worldwide, its government portal websites are not very popular with the public. Koreans are reluctant to use government portal websites continuously. One possible reason is that culture influences citizens' continuous use behavior. For the first time, this paper introduces the national culture model and nudge theory into the research of the citizens' continuous use of government portal websites. Based on the national cultural model, this study established a model of influencing factors on the citizens' continuous use of government portal websites. Through hierarchical regression analysis, this paper finds that the citizens' continuous use of South Korean government portal websites is influenced by three cultural dimensions: power distance, femininity, and long-term orientation. In view of these results, this paper discusses these Korean cultures that influence citizens' continuous use behavior of government portal websites. Furthermore, combined with the nudge theory, this paper puts forward some countermeasures for the Korean government to improve the citizens' continuous use of government portal websites.
No longer limited to the factory hall, automation and digitization increasingly change, complement, and replace the human workplace also in the sphere of knowledge work. Technology offers the possibility of creating economically rational, autonomously acting software—the machina economica. This complements human beings who are far from being a rational homo economicus and whose behavior is biased and prone to errors. This includes behaviors that lack responsibility and sustainability. Insights from behavioral economics suggest that in the modern workplace, humans who team up with a variety of digital assistants can improve their decision-making to achieve more corporate social responsibility. Equipped with artificial intelligence (AI), machina economica can nudge human behavior to arrive at more desirable outcomes. Following the idea of augmented human-centered management (AHCM), this chapter outlines underlying mechanisms, opportunities, and threats of AI-based digital nudging.
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The Geometridae is one of the most populous families in terms of the number of species in the order Lepidoptera. It is known to have more than 23,000 species worldwide. Geometridae species cause damage to forest trees, but it has been reported that they also cause damage to cultivated plants in studies. This research was carried out in Turkey's Central Black Sea Region (Amasya, Çorum, Ordu, Samsun, Sinop, Tokat, and Yozgat) in 2017 and 2018 years. Adult specimens of Geometridae were collected using an insect net and a light trap in the study region. Obtained specimens were prepared according to standard museum methods for butterflies and prepared genitalia structures. As a result of the study, five subfamilies (Ennominae, Geometrinae, Larentiinae, Orthostixinae, Sterrhinae), 36 genera, and 48 species were determined. Also in this paper, the examined materials and adult photographs of the species are given. This study provides new information about the zoogeographic distribution of Geometridae species identified in the research area.
Social media users may wish to delete their accounts, but it is unclear if this process is easy to complete or if users understand what happens to their account data after deletion. Furthermore, since platforms profit from users' data and activity, they have incentives to maintain active users, possibly affecting what account deletion options are offered. To investigate these issues, we conducted a two-part study. In Study Part 1, we created and deleted accounts on the top 20 social media platforms in the United States and performed an analysis of 490 deletion-related screens across these platforms. In Study Part 2, informed by our interface analysis, we surveyed 200 social media users to understand how users perceive and experience social media account deletion. From these studies, we have four main findings. First, account deletion options vary considerably across platforms and the language used to describe these options is not always clear. Most platforms offer account deletion on desktop browsers but not all allow account deletion from mobile apps or browsers. Second, we found evidence of several dark patterns present in the account deletion interfaces and platform policies. Third, most participants had tried to delete at least one social media account, yet over one-third of deletion attempts were never completed. Fourth, users mostly agreed that they did not want platforms to have access to deleted account data. Based on these results, we recommend that platforms improve the terminology used in account deletion interfaces so the outcomes of account deletion are more clear to users. Additionally, we recommend that platforms allow users to delete their social media accounts from any device they use to access the platform. Finally, future work is needed to assess how users are affected by account deletion related dark patterns.
Mobile apps market is a growing market and the main technological enabler of apps are push notifications (PN). Today, users are currently receiving a daily average of 63 PN. After an introduction that highlights the relevance of PN, this chapter covers the background of its topic –pop-up messages that emerge on the smartphone screen- and its characterization: (1) proactive communication with the user; (2) explicitly authorized through an opt-in request; (3) wide range of content, private and social, sent by social networks, commercial companies, or news publishers from apps or web site; (4) targeted according to the users’ interests, previous behaviors, or time of day; (6) always prompting the user to click on the PN that will land on the sender’s app / web site. There is a steep competition for the user's attention to click through the PN message. Thus the chapter moves through to discuss the factors that influence the choice of whether to open or ignore a PN: (1) Timing in the delivery, disruption, and systems for managing PN in a non-disruptive way. (2) Top-down factors in PN usage, such as user profile, user reaction times, and user interest in the content (3) Bottom-up factors, such as message textual and visual features as an antecedent of click-through rate. Before concluding, the chapter suggests future directions for researchers and practitioners: how to increase opt-in rates, user experience of PN, reasons to opt-out … The chapter ends with a conclusion and a list of references.
The development of new approaches to digital art is based on improving a variety of technologies. The main goal of this paper is to identify the gamification of digital art through the promotion of speculative design and interactive experiences. To achieve this goal, theoretical and practical methods were used in the research. A survey determined approaches the designers used to improve their skills. Most respondents (28%) prefer reading books and watching video blogs on their own while 22% of designers took professional courses. Therefore, mechanisms that promote respondents’ involvement in selecting professional courses for designers have been described. Cognitive assessment of the skills acquired after completing the course showed significant advantages compared to those observed at the start of the experiment. This was confirmed by the Cohen coefficient. The hierarchy analysis method also contributed to the identification of program elements that are most important for the development of professional skills while not relying exclusively on the data from respondents. The value of the presented work lies in the possibility to improve the skills of gamification in the field of design with the help of the developed mechanisms, the effectiveness of which has been confirmed in practice.
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Many nudges are designed to make people better off, as judged by themselves. This criterion, meant to ensure that nudges will increase people’s welfare, contains some ambiguity. It is useful to distinguish among three categories of cases: (1) those in which choosers have clear antecedent preferences, and nudges help them to satisfy those preferences (often by increasing “navigability”); (2) those in which choosers face a self-control problem, and nudges help them to overcome that problem; and (3) those in which choosers would be content with the outcomes produced by two or more nudges, or in which ex post preferences are endogenous to nudges, so that without additional clarification or work, the “as judged by themselves” criterion does not identify a unique solution for choice architects. Category (1) is self-evidently large. Because many people agree that they suffer self-control problems, category (2) is large as well. Cases that fall in category (3) create special challenges, which may lead us to make direct inquiries into welfare or to explore what informed, active choosers typically select.
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The sociotechnical paradigm legitimates our discipline and serves as core identity of IS. In this study, we want to focus on IS-induced human behavior by introducing a process model for nudging in IS. In behavioral economics, the concept of nudging has been proposed, which makes use of human cognitive processes and can direct people to an intended behavior. In computer science, the concept of persuasion has evolved with similar goals. Both concepts, nudging and persuasion, can contribute to IS research and may help to explain and steer user behavior in information systems. We aim for an integration of both concepts into one digital nudging process model, making it usable and accessible. We analyzed literature on nudging and persuasion and derived different steps, requirements, and nudging elements. The developed process model aims at enabling researchers and practitioners to design nudges in e.g. software systems but may also contribute to other areas like IT governance. Though the evaluation part of our study has not yet been completed, we present the current state of the process model enabling more research in this area.
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Governments are increasingly adopting behavioral science techniques for changing individual behavior in pursuit of policy objectives. The types of “nudge” interventions that governments are now adopting alter people’s decisions without coercion or significant changes to economic incentives. We calculated ratios of impact to cost for nudge interventions and for traditional policy tools, such as tax incentives and other financial inducements, and we found that nudge interventions often compare favorably with traditional interventions. We conclude that nudging is a valuable approach that should be used more often in conjunction with traditional policies, but more calculations are needed to determine the relative effectiveness of nudging.
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People’s decisions are influenced by the decision environment. In fact, no choice is made in a vacuum, as there is no neutral way to present choices. Presenting choices in certain ways—even if this happens unintendedly— can thus “nudge” people and change their behavior in predictable ways. “Nudging” is a concept from behavioral economics that describes how relatively minor changes to decision environments (e.g., setting defaults) influence decision outcomes—which often remain unnoticed by the decision maker. We extend the nudging concept to the digital environment. We define “digital nudging” as the use of user interface design elements to guide people’s choices or influence users’ inputs in online decision environments. We propose a digital-nudging process and identify opportunities for future research.
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This brief essay offers a general introduction to the idea of nudging, along with a list of 10 of the most important “nudges.” It also provides a short discussion of the question whether to create some kind of separate “behavioral insights unit,” capable of conducting its own research, or instead to rely on existing institutions.
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Every day, we make decisions on topics ranging from personal investments to schools for our children to the meals we eat to the causes we champion. Unfortunately, we often choose poorly. The reason, the authors explain, is that, being human, we all are susceptible to various biases that can lead us to blunder. Our mistakes make us poorer and less healthy; we often make bad decisions involving education, personal finance, health care, mortgages and credit cards, the family, and even the planet itself. Thaler and Sunstein invite us to enter an alternative world, one that takes our humanness as a given. They show that by knowing how people think, we can design choice environments that make it easier for people to choose what is best for themselves, their families, and their society. Using colorful examples from the most important aspects of life, Thaler and Sunstein demonstrate how thoughtful "choice architecture" can be established to nudge us in beneficial directions without restricting freedom of choice. Nudge offers a unique new take-from neither the left nor the right-on many hot-button issues, for individuals and governments alike. This is one of the most engaging and provocative books to come along in many years. © 2008 by Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein. All rights reserved.
Many decisions are based on beliefs concerning the likelihood of uncertain events such as the outcome of an election, the guilt of a defendant, or the future value of the dollar. Occasionally, beliefs concerning uncertain events are expressed in numerical form as odds or subjective probabilities. In general, the heuristics are quite useful, but sometimes they lead to severe and systematic errors. The subjective assessment of probability resembles the subjective assessment of physical quantities such as distance or size. These judgments are all based on data of limited validity, which are processed according to heuristic rules. However, the reliance on this rule leads to systematic errors in the estimation of distance. This chapter describes three heuristics that are employed in making judgments under uncertainty. The first is representativeness, which is usually employed when people are asked to judge the probability that an object or event belongs to a class or event. The second is the availability of instances or scenarios, which is often employed when people are asked to assess the frequency of a class or the plausibility of a particular development, and the third is adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical prediction when a relevant value is available.
Analysis of decision making under risk has been dominated by expected utility theory, which generally accounts for people's actions. Presents a critique of expected utility theory as a descriptive model of decision making under risk, and argues that common forms of utility theory are not adequate, and proposes an alternative theory of choice under risk called prospect theory. In expected utility theory, utilities of outcomes are weighted by their probabilities. Considers results of responses to various hypothetical decision situations under risk and shows results that violate the tenets of expected utility theory. People overweight outcomes considered certain, relative to outcomes that are merely probable, a situation called the "certainty effect." This effect contributes to risk aversion in choices involving sure gains, and to risk seeking in choices involving sure losses. In choices where gains are replaced by losses, the pattern is called the "reflection effect." People discard components shared by all prospects under consideration, a tendency called the "isolation effect." Also shows that in choice situations, preferences may be altered by different representations of probabilities. Develops an alternative theory of individual decision making under risk, called prospect theory, developed for simple prospects with monetary outcomes and stated probabilities, in which value is given to gains and losses (i.e., changes in wealth or welfare) rather than to final assets, and probabilities are replaced by decision weights. The theory has two phases. The editing phase organizes and reformulates the options to simplify later evaluation and choice. The edited prospects are evaluated and the highest value prospect chosen. Discusses and models this theory, and offers directions for extending prospect theory are offered. (TNM)