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Toward a New Understanding of the Alignment of Ancient Egyptian Sites

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Abstract

It is generally believed that the ancient Egyptians oriented their pyramids, temples, and other structures to the sun and stars. Yet the alignments of many sites are either unexplained or are not consistent with accepted historical timelines. Even if one knew nothing about the Egyptian civilization it can be readily determined that many sites are oriented astronomically. In a study of 650 locations throughout Egypt, we identify 113 sites that are aligned in the cardinal directions, or to solstices, or lunar standstills. Using a new shifted geographic pole alignment model based on Charles Hapgood's theory of crustal displacements and geographic pole shifts to test the remaining sites an additional 60 sites were found that could have been astronomically aligned relative to previous locations of the North Pole. We propose that when these sites were first established they were aligned relative to the location of the geographic pole at the time but are now misaligned to the current pole due to subsequent pole shifts. Based solely on their alignment we hypothesize that these sites were built tens of thousands of years ago under the earlier pre-dynastic reigns listed in the Turin Papyrus. Analyzing the geographic distribution of sites aligned to current and past poles reveals a difference in the alignment statistics between Upper and Lower Egypt that could be explained by a flood or other disaster following the last pole shift.
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References'
P5'+(6)5>%o/"6%S6)(63(>%b;"')(/)>%!(0"'"+>%"6%c5$#3>%!"U:3%*]FFX1%_S0)#(6(+7>%T"6:0-"=5>%
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Cosmic* Order:* Selected* Essays* on* Egyptian* Archaeoastronomy>% <:3)5:% 87% o/"6% S6)(63(%
P5'+(6)5%"6:%!(0"'"+%b;"')(/).%c(#5B(#:%87%h";3%J"B"00.%b/=#5+5%&(/6-3'%(@%S6)3O/3)350%
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N50)>%o(;6%S6);(67%*GXXD1%The*Traveler’s*Guide*to*Ancient*Egypt>%p/50)%P(($0.% %
Table&1&Previous&hypothesized&locations&of&the&North&Pole&(Carlotto&2019a).&
%
%
% %
Table&2&Sites&aligned&to&the&cardinal&directions&(E),&solstices&(S),&and&major&(M)&and&minor&(m)&
lunar&standstills.&
%
%
&
Site Latitude Longitude Alignment
1002)%Colossi%of%Memnon 25.720499 32.610446 S
1006)%Kheny 24.650548 32.929441 E
1013)%Cemetery%at%Girza 29.434505 31.167509 S
1017)%Kom%Abu%Zeid 30.485517 30.890546 E
1019)%Predynastic%Cemetery%at%Tarkhan 29.492687 31.217724 E
1029)%Telll-Borg 30.923606 32.413702 m
1030)%Tellr-Herr 30.967337 32.492947 M
1031)%Tell%Hebua%II 30.931411 32.379644 m
1034)%Lepsius%Pyramid%24 29.893491 31.202836 E
1035)%Lepsius%Pyramid%25 29.893086 31.203059 E
1036)%Mastaba%at%Darah%K1 26.295308 31.771782 m
1037)%Mastaba%at%Zawyetl-Maiyitin 28.045889 30.828821 m
1039)%Mastaba%of%Hetepheres%I 29.979108 31.13654 E
1047)%Mastaba%of%Ptah-shepses 29.896648 31.204454 E
1049)%Mastaba%of%Ti 29.877615 31.211784 E
1050)%Meydum%mastaba%17 29.389504 31.15862 E
1054)%Cult%pyramid%of%Djedefre 30.031575 31.07553 E
1055)%Cult%pyramid%of%Djedkare%Isesi 29.850695 31.221495 E
1056)%Cult%pyramid%of%Khafre 29.974701 31.130728 E
1057)%Cult%pyramid%of%Khendjer 29.832895 31.224318 E
1058)%Cult%pyramid%of%Khufu 29.97805 31.135762 E
1059)%Cult%pyramid%of%Merenre 29.850214 31.215849 E
1060)%Cult%pyramid%of%Neferirkara 29.894575 31.203641 E
1061)%Cult%pyramid%of%Pepi%1 29.854123 31.219576 E
1062)%Cult%pyramid%of%Pepi%2 29.83995 31.214159 E
1063)%Cult%pyramid%of%Sahura 29.897219 31.204118 E
1064)%Cult%pyramid%of%Senusret%1 29.559688 31.221964 E
1066)%Cult%pyramid%of%Snefru%(B) 29.788721 31.209473 E
1076)%Pyramid%atdfu%(South) 24.943756 32.842032 E
1079)%Pyramid%at%Seila 29.382618 31.053648 E
1083)%Pyramid%of%Amenemhat%1 29.574809 31.225267 E
1091)%Pyramid%of%Djedefre 30.032154 31.0749 E
1092)%Pyramid%of%Djedkare%Isesi 29.850985 31.220948 E
1093)%Pyramid%of%Djehuti 29.830648 31.222459 E
1097)%Pyramid%of%Ini 29.895656 31.203453 E
1099)%Pyramid%of%Khafre 29.975919 31.130861 E
1100)%Pyramid%of%Khendjer 29.832408 31.223968 E
1101)%Pyramid%of%Khufu 29.979147 31.134342 E
1103)%Pyramid%of%Menkaura 29.97245 31.128304 E
1105)%Pyramid%of%Neferefra 29.893793 31.201559 E
1106)%Pyramid%of%Neferirkara 29.895027 31.202277 E
1107)%Pyramid%of%Pepi%1 29.854439 31.218983 E
1108)%Pyramid%of%Pepi%2 29.840252 31.213507 E
1110)%Pyramid%of%Rehrrychefnakht 29.853931 31.217881 E
1111)%Pyramid%of%Sahura 29.897654 31.203214 E
1113)%Pyramid%of%Senusret%1 29.560099 31.221229 E
1114)%Pyramid%of%Senusret%2 29.236189 30.97069 E
1115)%Pyramid%of%Senusret%3 29.819034 31.225648 E
1116)%Pyramid%of%Shepseskaf 29.838922 31.215241 E
1117)%Pyramid%of%Snefru%(A) 29.388329 31.157256 E
1118)%Pyramid%of%Snefru%(B) 29.7903 31.209459 E
1119)%Pyramid%of%Snefru%(C) 29.808503 31.206151 E
1121)%Pyramid%of%Unas 29.868219 31.214954 E
1123)%Pyramid%of%Userkaf 29.873449 31.218786 E
1124)%Pyramid%SAK%S%3 29.833806 31.22372 E
1125)%Pyramid%SAK%S%7 29.829582 31.223094 E
%
%
% %
1126)%Pyramid%South%Dahshur%B 29.780393 31.21742 E
1127)%Pyramid%South-Dahshur%A 29.78182 31.221609 E
1129)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Khufu 29.97888 31.136223 E
1130)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Khufu 29.978327 31.136245 E
1131)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Khufu 29.97787 31.136233 E
1132)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Menkaura 29.971593 31.127338 E
1133)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Menkaura 29.971607 31.127813 E
1134)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Menkaura 29.971615 31.128335 E
1135)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Pepi%1 29.853792 31.219077 E
1136)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Pepi%1 29.853683 31.218739 E
1137)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Pepi%1 29.853713 31.218426 E
1138)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Pepi%1 29.853469 31.21839 E
1139)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Pepi%1 29.853748 31.218155 E
1140)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Pepi%1 29.853282 31.218008 E
1141)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Pepi%1 29.854171 31.217948 E
1142)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Pepi%1 29.853949 31.218191 E
1143)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Pepi%2 29.839566 31.213983 E
1144)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Pepi%2 29.840842 31.212728 E
1145)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Pepi%2 29.840994 31.213192 E
1146)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Senusret%1 29.560606 31.222422 E
1147)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Senusret%1 29.560619 31.2222 E
1150)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Senusret%1 29.560558 31.220272 E
1151)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Senusret%1 29.559337 31.220712 E
1154)%Queen's%pyramid%of%Senusret%2 29.23694 30.971411 E
1189)%Qasrz-Zaiyan 25.251459 30.570933 E
1191)%Serapeum%at%Alexandria 31.182302 29.896172 m
1192)%Serapeum%at%Ismailia 30.468217 32.3151 E
1194)%Set%temple%at%Nubt 25.974326 32.732559 m
1195)%Shesmetet%temple 25.134386 32.817621 S
1196)%Solar%Temple%of%Nyuserre-Ini 29.904078 31.193792 E
1197)%Solar%Temple%of%Userkaf 29.900056 31.198933 E
1206)%Temple%at%Senmet 24.022098 32.886371 E
1218)%Temple%of%Sankhkare%Mentuhotep%3 25.765928 32.608772 S
1223)%Temple%of%Towseret 25.726268 32.607218 M
1231)%Tomb%NRT-II%at%Tanis 30.977 31.880636 S
1232)%Tomb%NRT-IV%at%Tanis 30.977133 31.88042 S
1233)%Tomb%NRT-VI%at%Tanis 30.976998 31.880424 S
1234)%Tomb%NRT-VII%at%Tanis 30.976995 31.880566 S
0003)%Qasr%Qarun 29.405564 30.419211 S
0007)% 29.379347 30.466878 E
0009)%Tebtunis 29.107046 30.76124 E
0013)%Abu%Ghurab 29.904723 31.194987 E
0014)%Abu%Rawash 30.040388 31.092467 E
0015)%Abu%Sidan 30.90436 30.195425 m
0025)%Bolbitino%Bolbitinum,%Rashit 31.439653 30.38942 M
0026)%Abusir 29.897646 31.206096 E
0155)%Bubastis 30.571659 31.513126 M
0157)%Pithom 30.552109 32.099126 m
0173)% 29.205149 25.543594 m
0217)%Tell%Gumaiyima 30.893038 31.886743 E
0236)%Teraniek 30.42901 30.8177 E
0240)%Sile,%Miktol,%Migdol 30.935285 32.366893 m
0268)%Tuphium 25.583069 32.533539 M
0285)%Nag%el-Madamud 25.734339 32.70989 m
0291)%Hierakonpolis 25.097665 32.77951 E
0295)%Philae 24.025698 32.884039 m,M
0308)%Waset,%great%Amun%temple 25.718202 32.65869 S
%
Table&3&Sites& that& reference& previous& geographic& poles&in&Hudson& Bay& (HB),& Greenland& (GR),&
the&Norwegian&Sea&(NS),&and&the&Bering&Sea&(BS).&“Z”&denotes&a&zenith&passage&alignment.&
&
1052)&North&palace&at&Akhetaten 27.669839 30.903871 Z
1202)&Temple&at&Deirl-Hagar 25.664764 28.813311 Z
0251)&Nitsana 30.876274 34.432855 Z
1011)&Al&Miallah 25.470968 32.529025 E
1027)&T-78 30.903885 32.443065 E
1032)&Tell&Kedua 30.983389 32.475396 S E
1040)&Mastaba&of&Kagemni 29.875961 31.221421 m E
1043)&Mastaba&of&Mereruka 29.875878 31.221156 m E
1069)&Lepsius&Pyramid&29 29.876716 31.222698 m E
1077)&Pyramid&atlephantine 24.085618 32.885562 m E
1098)&Pyramid&of&Khaba 29.93282 31.161262 E
1102)&Pyramid&of&Khui 27.30783 30.871612 E
1162)&Queen's&pyramid&of&Teti 29.876364 31.222142 E
1163)&Queen's&pyramid&of&Teti 29.876623 31.222222 E
1185)&Nadura&temple 25.46907 30.564147 E
1188)&Qasr&Dush 24.580004 30.717115 E
1209)&Temple&at&Sulb 20.436384 30.334119 E
1225)&Horemheb&Memphite&tomb 29.866199 31.217008 E
0004)&Narmouthis 29.193415 30.642165 E
0071)&Kom&Aushim 29.517891 30.903242 E
0175)&Damietta 31.417069 31.813612 E
0192)&Tell&Billa 31.057155 31.580874 E
0237)&Tell&Temai&el-Amdid 30.938813 31.515857 E
0278)&Hermonthis,&Erment 25.621875 32.544634 E
0283)&Khemennu,&Hermopolis&Magna 27.781756 30.803656 E
0302)&Dendera 26.142006 32.670367 E
1038)&Mastaba&of&Ankhmahor 29.876143 31.221873 m
1168)&Chapel&of&Dedwen 23.960745 32.866695 m
1173)&Enclosure&of&Khasekhemwy 26.189355 31.908125 M
1180)&Kiosk&of&Kartassi 23.960138 32.867599 m
1182)&Merenptah&temple 25.724993 32.606518 M
1190)&Ramesseum 25.727586 32.610493 M
1204)&Temple&at&Gerf&Hussein 23.960266 32.866955 m
1208)&Temple&at&Shanhur 25.861055 32.776811 m
1210)&Temple&in&Wadi&Hilal 25.138556 32.828627 M
1211)&Temple&of&Ahmose 26.176151 31.93583 M
1212)&Temple&of&Amenhotep&3 25.718182 32.594645 M
1221)&Temple&of&Snefru 29.795049 31.21677 M
1222)&Temple&of&Thutmosis&3 25.127664 32.793093 M
0238)&Tell&Tinnis 31.198935 32.234298 m
0245)&Sais 30.964854 30.768727 m
0254)&Elephantine 24.08454 32.88606 M
1041)&Mastaba&of&Khentkaus&I 29.973329 31.135486 S
1042)&Mastaba&of&Khentkaus&II 29.894122 31.202531 S
1046)&Mastaba&of&Ptahhotep 29.873544 31.21338 S
1053)&Palace&of&Amenhotep&3 25.715472 32.590714 S
1095)&Pyramid&ofl-Kula 25.133463 32.733508 S
1169)&Chapel&of&Ramesses&2 25.133678 32.818141 S
1172)&Enclosure&of&Khasekhemwy 25.091271 32.773584 S
1179)&Hierasykaminos 22.80077 32.547579 S
1181)&Luxor&Temple 25.699883 32.639319 S
1186)&Osireion 26.184095 31.918444 S
1199)&Temple&at&Amada 22.731097 32.262561 S
1201)&Temple&at&Deirl&Shelwit 25.695244 32.57845 S
1205)&Temple&at&Kalabsha 23.960882 32.867371 S
1214)&Temple&of&Hathor&and&Maat 25.728953 32.602094 S
1215)&Temple&of&Hibis 25.476538 30.555736 S
1216)&Temple&of&Ramesses&2 26.18642 31.916311 S
1219)&Temple&of&Seti&1 26.184537 31.91881 S
1220)&Temple&of&Seti&1 25.732671 32.628226 S m
0255)&Tell&el&Amarna 27.64529 30.896242 Z S
0290)&Eileithyiaspolis,&Lucinae&Civitas 25.119193 32.797871 S
0292)&Ombos 24.452076 32.928327 S
%
Figure&1& The& effect& of& a & pole& shift& is& to& shift& and& rotate& the& reference& frame& of& the & observer.&
Sites&once& aligned& to& the& sun& or& moon&are&no&longer&oriented&in&those&directions&after& a& pole&
shift.&
%
%
"1%b5))'5+56)0%90.%'")3)/:5%
%
81%b5))'5+56)0%90.%'(643)/:5%
%
-1%b3)50%90.%'")3)/:5%
%
:1%b3)50%90.%'(643)/:5%
Figure&2&Geographical&distributions&of&settlements&and&sites&in&Egypt.&
% %
S"
N"
E"W"
S"
N"
E"W"
0"
0.1"
0.2"
0.3"
0.4"
0.5"
0.6"
0.7"
0.8"
0.9"
1"
20" 22" 24" 26" 28" 30" 32" 34"
0"
0.1"
0.2"
0.3"
0.4"
0.5"
0.6"
0.7"
0.8"
0.9"
1"
20" 22" 24" 26" 28" 30" 32" 34" 36" 38"
0"
0.1"
0.2"
0.3"
0.4"
0.5"
0.6"
0.7"
0.8"
0.9"
1"
20" 22" 24" 26" 28" 30" 32"
0"
0.1"
0.2"
0.3"
0.4"
0.5"
0.6"
0.7"
0.8"
0.9"
1"
28" 29" 30" 31" 32" 33"
"1%S'$"3:%*-3#-'5:%36%#5:1%-/##56)'7%05)0%"8(/)%GFi%
"B"7% @#(+% "% 6(#);Q6(#);5"0)% 034;)'365% @#(+%
R5+='5%(@%J");(#%")%e56:"#".%
%
81% R;5% 4#556% -3#-'5% #5=#5056)0% );5% =");% (@% 0)"#0%
);")%-/##56)'7%="00%);#(/4;%);5%034;)'365.%
%
-1% M#5-5003(6% -"/050% );5% 4#556% -3#-'5% )(% #59('95%
"#(/6:% );5% 5-'3=)3-% =('5% *8'/5% :())5:% '3651.% 26%
)3+5% "''% 0)"#0% B3);36% );5% 75''(B% #543(6% B3''% ="00%
);#(/4;%);5%034;)'365.%
:1% `95#% );5% @/''% ]E>FFFQ75"#%=#5-5003(6"'% -7-'5%
"''% 0)"#0% B3);36% );5% 75''(B% -3#-'5% B3''% ="00%
);#(/4;%);5%034;)'365.%
Figure& 3& Stellar& alignments& change& over& long& periods& of& time& due& to& precessional& motion.&
(Base&chart&in&black-and-white&courtesy&Sky&Publishing&Corporation)&
&
% %
%
"1%M7#"+3:%(@%!56$"/#"%30%"'3465:%)(%);5%-"#:36"'%
:3#5-)3(60.%
81%&('(003%(@%!5+6(6%"#5%"'3465:%)(%);5%0('0)3-50.%
%
-1% R5''% P(#4% *-56)5#1% "6:% 0/##(/6:364%
"4#3-/')/#"'% @35':0% "#5% "'3465:% 36%+36(#% '/6"#%
0)"6:0)3''%:3#5-)3(60.%
%
:1%S%B"''%(@%);5% )(=%0)#/-)/#5%")%M;3'"5%30%"'3465:%
)(% +"U(#% '/6"#% 0)"6:0)3''0.% S% B"''% (@% );5% 8())(+%
0)#/-)/#5%30%"'3465:%)(%+36(#%0)"6:0)3''0.%
Figure& 4& Examples& of& sites& aligned& to& cardinal& directions,& solstices,& and& lunar& standstills&
relative&to&current&pole.&(Apple&Maps)&
% %
%
"1%`03#53(6%*-56)5#1% "6:% R5+='5%(@%b5)3%2% */==5#%
#34;)1%"#5% "'3465:% )(%);5% 0('0)3-50% #5'")395% )(%);5%
J/:0(6%P"7%=('5.%
%
81%M7#"+3:% (@% \;/3% 30%"'3465:% 36% );5%:3#5-)3(6%(@%
);5%W#556'"6:%=('5.%
-1% R5+='5% (@% \(+% `+8(%30% "'3465:% )(% );5%
0('0)3-50%#5'")395%)(%);5%L(#B543"6%b5"%=('5.%
%
:1% R;5% ^"+5005/+% 30% "'3465:% )(% +"U(#% '/6"#%
0)"6:0)3''0%#5'")395%)(%);5%P5#364%b5"%=('5.%
Figure& 5& Examples& of& sites& aligned& to& cardinal& directions,& solstices,& and& lunar& standstills&
relative&to&previous&poles.&(Apple&Maps)&
%
%
%
"1%&/##56)%=('5%
%
81%J/:0(6%P"7%=('5%
%
-1%W#556'"6:%=('5%
%
:1%L(#B543"6%b5"%=('5%
%
51%P5#364%b5"%=('5%
%
@1%S''%=('50%
Figure&6&Astronomical&directions&relative&to&current&and&past&poles&overlaid&on&site&alignment&
histogram&reproduced&from&Belmonte&et&al&(2009).&
%
0"
1"
0" 90" 180"
E" m"S"
0"
1"
0" 90" 180"
m"""M"
M"S"m"
0"
1"
0" 90" 180"
E"M" m"S"M"
0"
1"
0" 90" 180"
M""S" m""S""M"E"
0"
1"
0" 90" 180"
S"M"
M"S"m" E"
0"
1"
0" 90" 180"
%
%
Figure& 7& Polar& diagrams& showing& alignments& of& a& rectangular& structure& to& the& cardinal&
directions,& solstices,& or& lunar& standstill& relative& to& the& current& geographic& pole& (left)& and&
previous&poles&(right).&&
%
%
Figure&8&Distribution&of&sites&aligned&to&current&and&previous&poles&vs.&latitude.&
%
0"
0.1"
0.2"
0.3"
0.4"
0.5"
0.6"
0.7"
0.8"
0.9"
1"
21" 22" 23" 24" 25" 26" 27" 28" 29" 30" 31" 32"
Current"
Hudson"Bay"
Greenland"
Norwegian"Sea"
Bering"Sea"
"1%J30)(4#"+%(@%"''%"'346+56)0%#5'")395%)(%-/##56)%
"6:%=#593(/0%45(4#"=;3-%=('50%90.%'")3)/:5.%
%
81% e30)#38/)3(6% (@% "''% "'346+56)0% #5'")395% )(%
-/##56)% "6:% =#593(/0% 45(4#"=;3-% =('50% 90.%
'")3)/:5.%
%
-1%J30)(4#"+%(@%"''%"'346+56)0%#5'")395%)(%-/##56)%
"6:%=#593(/0%45(4#"=;3-%=('50%90.%'")3)/:5.%
%:1% e30)#38/)3(6% (@% "''% "'346+56)0% #5'")395% )(%
-/##56)% "6:% =#593(/0% 45(4#"=;3-% =('50% 90.%
'")3)/:5.%
Figure&9& Summary& of& all& alignments&to&current&and& previous&poles&for&the&sites& in& this& study&
(top)&and&a&previous&study&(bottom).&
% %
0"
10"
20"
30"
40"
50"
60"
70"
80"
90"
21" 22" 23" 24" 25" 26" 27" 28" 29" 30" 31" 32"
CURRENT"
PREVIOUS"
0"
0.1"
0.2"
0.3"
0.4"
0.5"
0.6"
0.7"
0.8"
0.9"
1"
20" 21" 22" 23" 24" 25" 26" 27" 28" 29" 30" 31" 32"
CURRENT"
PREVIOUS"
0"
2"
4"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
20"
23" 24" 25" 26" 27" 28" 29" 30" 31"
CURRENT"
PREVIOUS"
0"
0.1"
0.2"
0.3"
0.4"
0.5"
0.6"
0.7"
0.8"
0.9"
1"
23" 24" 25" 26" 27" 28" 29" 30" 31"
CURRENT"
PREVIOUS"
%
"1%J30)(4#"+%(@%"'346+56)0%90.%'")3)/:5%#5'")395%)(%
-/##56)%=('5.%
%
81%e30)#38/)3(6%(@%"'346+56)0%90.%'")3)/:5%#5'")395%
)(%-/##56)%=('5.&
%
-1%J30)(4#"+%(@%"'346+56)0%90.%'")3)/:5%#5'")395%)(%
=#593(/0%=('50.%
%
:1% e30)#38/)3(6% (@% "'346+56)0% 90.% '")3)/:5% )(%
=#593(/0%=('50.%
%
51%b3+/'")5:%=#5Q@'((:%;30)(4#"+%(@%"'346+56)0%
90.%'")3)/:5%#5'")395%)(%=#593(/0%=('50.%
%
@1%b3+/'")5:%=#5Q@'((:%:30)#38/)3(6%(@%"'346+56)0%
90.%'")3)/:5%#5'")395%)(%=#593(/0%=('50.%
Figure& 10&Geographic& distributions& of& equinox& (E),& solstice& (S),& and& major/minor& lunar&
standstill&(m,M)&alignments.&
%
%
0"
10"
20"
30"
40"
50"
60"
70"
80"
21" 22" 23" 24" 25" 26" 27" 28" 29" 30" 31" 32"
E"
M,m"
S"
0"
0.1"
0.2"
0.3"
0.4"
0.5"
0.6"
0.7"
0.8"
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... An analysis of site alignments in Egypt (Carlotto 2020a) suggests that the lack of sites aligned to previous poles in Lower Egypt close to the Mediterranean could have been the result of a flood or some other disaster 12,000-18,000 years ago caused by the last crustal displacement event that destroyed those sites. In contrast, there are numerous sites in Upper Egypt aligned to previous poles. ...
... An interpretation of column one of the Turin King list (Schwaller de Lubicz 1961) suggests that the historical period in Egypt was preceded by a longer "mythological" period dating back to approximately 40,000 BCE. In a previous paper (Carlotto 2020a) sixty sites were discovered in Egypt aligned to previous locations of the geographic pole that support the existence of an earlier pre-dynastic period in Egypt. An analysis of the spatial distribution of site alignments reveals an anomaly in Lower Egypt that could have been the result of a flood or some other disaster that wiped out sites built and aligned to pre-flood pole locations. ...
Article
Full-text available
In a previous study of over two hundred ancient sites, the alignments of almost half of the sites could not be explained. These sites are distributed throughout the world and include the majority of Mesoamerican pyramids and temples that are misaligned with respect to true north, megalithic structures at several sites in Peru’s Sacred Valley, some pyramids in Lower Egypt, and numerous temples in Upper Egypt. A new model is proposed to account for the alignment of certain unexplained sites based on an application of Charles Hapgood’s hypothesis that global patterns of climate change over the past 100,000 years could be the result of displacements of the Earth’s crust and corresponding shifts of the geographic poles. It is shown that over 80% of the unexplained sites reference four locations within 30° of the North Pole that are correlated with Hapgood’s hypothesized pole locations. The alignments of these sites are consistent with the hypothesis that if they were built in alignment with one of these former poles they would be misaligned to north as they are now as the result of subsequent pole shifts.
Article
Full-text available
There are hundreds, perhaps thousands, of sites of archaeological importance throughout the world. In this study, the alignments of more than two hundred ancient sites were measured and analyzed. Sites are organized into eight geographic regions: South America, Mesoamerica, North America, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Ocean. Google Earth imagery and measurement tools were used to estimate the alignment of linear and rectilinear structures at these sites with respect to true (geographic) north. In considering standard celestial and geographic reasons for the alignments, many were found to be oriented to the cardinal directions, in the directions of solstices and other solar events, to lunar standstills, and to certain stars. A number of sites in China and Thailand were likely aligned to magnetic north at the time of construction using a compass. Some sites appear to have been aligned to "sacred directions" that include Islamic qibla and Quechua ceques. Site-alignment statistics reveal similarities and differences between geographical regions in terms of how sites within regions are aligned. Perhaps the most unexpected finding is that the alignment of about half of the sites could not be explained in terms of any of the explanations considered.
Preprint
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Evidence is presented suggesting the possible existence of a previous temple dedicated to Hathor at Dendera. Two astronomical alignments of the temple with Alkaid, a star in the constellation Ursa Minor, occur during the 26,000-year long precessional cycle. The more recent alignment is when the current temple was constructed around 50 BCE. An earlier alignment occurred approximately 10,000 years ago. We propose that the present temple was built over a preexisting foundation that was originally aligned to Alkaid 10,000 years ago. An interpretation of parts of the Dendera Zodiac is consistent with this hypothesis.
Preprint
Full-text available
An analysis of over fifty Greek temple and other archaeological sites reveal that one-third (33%) are aligned to the cardinal directions, solstices, and lunar standstills. The others are largely unexplained in terms of current theories. We consider three alternative models that are able to account for the alignment of all but one of the other sites. The first, which assumes certain sites were aligned in the direction of the geomagnetic pole using some form of magnetic compass at the time of construction, accounts for approximately 10% of unexplained alignments. The second, which considers the possibility that ancient sites were aligned to older oracles or other centers of spiritual significance, reveals that a significant fraction (42%) appear to face in directions toward the Amun Temple in Siwa, the Cave of Zeus and Mt. Ida on Crete, Dodoni, Delphi, and Mycenae. Alignments of the remaining 15% of the sites have no conventional explanation. An analysis of these sites reveals that all but one are aligned in directions that reference previous hypothesized locations of the North Pole.
Article
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Algorithms are described for computing solar, lunar, and geographical alignment angles at any geo-location as a function of time. These angles include the directions of solstice and zenith passage sunrise and sunset, and major/minor lunar standstill moonrise and moonset, and the direction to another site or reference location (e.g., a geomagnetic pole). Two algorithm implementations that have been developed are demonstrated at a number of archaeological sites.
Article
Full-text available
Extant written records indicate that knowledge of an ancient type of compass in China is very old — dating back to before the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) to at least the 4th century BC. Geomancy (feng shui) was practised for a long time (for millenia) and had a profound influence on the face of China’s landscape and city plans. The tombs (pyramids) near the former Chinese capital cities of Xi’an and Luoyang (together with their suburban fields and roads) show strong spatial orientations, sometimes along a basic South-North axis (relative to the geographic pole), but usually with deviations of several degrees to the East or West. The use of the compass means that the needle was directed towards the actual magnetic pole at the time of construction, or last reconstruction, of the respective tomb. However the magnetic pole, relative to the nearly ‘fixed’ geographic pole, shifts significantly over time. By matching paleomagnetic observations with modeled paleomagnetic history we have identified the date of pyramid construction in central China with the orientation relative to the magnetic pole positions at the respective time of construction. As in Mesoamerica, where according to the Fuson hypothesis the Olmécs and Maya oriented their ceremonial buildings and pyramids using a compass even before the Chinese, here in central China the same technique may have been used. We found a good agreement of trends between the paleodeclinations observed from tomb aligments and the available global geomagnetic field model CALS7K.2. KeywordsChinese tombs (“pyramids”)–magnetic compass–paleomagnetic declination–Fuson hypothesis
The Complete Pyramids
  • Mark Lehner
Lehner, Mark (1997). The Complete Pyramids, Thames and Hudson, London.