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Digit Recognition From Wrist Movements and Security Concerns with Smart Wrist Wearable IOT Devices

Digit Recognition From Wrist Movements and Security Concerns with
Smart Wrist Wearable IOT Devices
Lambert Leong
University of Hawaii
Sean Wiere
University of Hawaii
In this paper, we investigate a potential security
vulnerability associated with wrist wearable devices.
Hardware components on common wearable devices
include an accelerometer and gyroscope, among other
sensors. We demonstrate that an accelerometer and
gyroscope can pick up enough unique wrist movement
information to identify digits being written by a user.
With a data set of 400 writing samples, of either the
digit zero or the digit one, we constructed a machine
learning model to correctly identify the digit being
written based on the movements of the wrist. Our
model’s performance on an unseen test set resulted
in an area under the receiver operating characteristic
(AUROC) curve of 1.00. Loading our model onto
our fabricated device resulted in 100% accuracy when
predicting ten writing samples in real-time. The model’s
ability to correctly identify all digits via wrist movement
and orientation changes raises security concerns. Our
results imply that nefarious individuals may be able to
gain sensitive digit based information such as social
security, credit card, and medical record numbers from
wrist wearable devices.
1. Introduction
Wearable smart technologies are becoming cheaper,
more accessible, and thus more common. The wrist is an
ideal location for wearable technologies and oftentimes
this technology is in the form of a smart watch. Smart
watches afford more functionality than just keeping
track of the time and are often equipped with various
hardware, such as infrared sensors, accelerometers,
gyroscopes, etc. These various on-board hardware
allows the user to track many personal metrics that have
implications for health and productivity benefits [1].
While many features which take advantage of wrist
wearable hardware output already exist, the output
variety is vast and all use cases have not yet been
explored. Exploration into new ways to use wearable
output metrics could result in beneficial as well as
malicious use cases. In this work we investigate
the potential of using wearable output metrics to
capture and predict hand written digits from users.
An individual’s wrist undergoes subtle movements and
orientation changes [2, 3] when writing different digits.
We hypothesized that these subtle wrist movements and
orientation changes are unique to the digit being written
and machine learning can be used to accurately classify
the written digits.
Hand written digit recognition from wrist movement
and orientation has security implications which include
nefarious individuals gaining sensitive information from
users wearing smart wrist devices. Sensitive information
is often in the form of digits such as social security,
credit card, and medical record numbers. In addition,
many wearable devices are connected to the internet and
recorded data is stored in the cloud. Machine learning
models which can classify hand written digits from wrist
movement and orientation could, in theory, be feed data
stored in the cloud to retroactively gain sensitive user
The remainder of this paper is organized as
follows: Section 2 looks at previous work on machine
learning and handwriting recognition; Section 3 details
our hardware design, experimental design, and the
construction and tuning of our machine learning model;
Section 4 our model’s performance is reported and we
discuss our findings; Section 5 concludes this paper with
the implications of our findings in the scope of wrist
wearable user security and directions of future research.
2. Related Work
Common wrist wearables, which include the
Apple Watch, Fitbit, and Samsung Galaxy Watch,
contain the hardware capable of capturing movement
and orientation [4–6]. These hardware includes
accelerometers and gyroscopes, which have been
shown to provide useful data needed to identify fine
motor task [7]. In fact, other works have shown
Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences | 2020
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(CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
that accelerometers mounted on the wrist have the
sensitivity to identify tremors associated with different
neuro-muscular diseases such as Parkinson’s [8] as well
as seizures [9]. Hand writing is a fine motor task and
these works lead us to believe that accelerometers and
gyroscope hardware are sufficient for measuring the
movements the wrist undergoes.
Wearable internet of things (IoT) devices provide a
constant data stream and result in a considerable amount
of data. Machine and deep learning offers many tools
and techniques to analyze the vast and copious amounts
of wearable IOT data [10]. Various research efforts are
aimed at leveraging machine learning models to help
make sense of all data and correlate them to particular
task and activity related to sports performance, health,
and safety [9, 11].
In our work, we focus specifically on wrist
wearables and machine learning models built around the
corresponding data. Data from just a wrist mounted
gyroscope alone has been shown to be adequate for
building a machine learning model to detect hand
gestures for a novel human computer interaction
(HCI) device [12]. Several groups have explored
machine learning to build models that perform writing
recognition task from wrist wearable device output. In
one instance, additional custom sensors were placed
on the upper forearm and on the finger tip to capture
additional information needed to correctly classify hand
gestures [13]. They were also able to identify characters
written with one’s index finger with an accuracy of
95%. However, the strength of their model is likely
attributed to the data coming from the finger sensor
more so, than the wrist sensors. Our work aims to
perform written digit recognition from sensors placed
solely on an individuals wrist. Word level recognition
from smart watches was explored by Xia et al. [14].
Their model was able to achieve an accuracy of 48.8%
on word level recognition based off wrist movement
and they highlighted potential security concerns of their
results. Letter level recognition with smart watches
was also explored [15]. In that work, writing tasks
were performed on whiteboards and audio input from an
on-board microphone was used for segmentation, which
helped recognition accuracy. These works assured us
that sensor data from wrist wearable devices provides
sufficient data for building machine learning models to
perform written recognition tasks.
Security issues associated with IoT devices is a
popular and an ever growing area of research. IoT
devices have been shown to be easily compromised [16]
and work has been done, using machine learning, to
help improve IoT security and detect threats on IoT
devices [17, 18]. Our work is not necessarily concerned
with the issue of compromised wrist wearable IoT
devices rather, it seeks to exploit a nefarious use case for
already available device data. An example of security
exploits on readily available wearable device data can
be seen in [19, 20]. In these articles, restricted areas
such as military bases have been mapped out just by
having a wrist wearable user, with security clearance,
passively walk around secure areas. Wrist wearables
were not compromised in those instances but the use of
the already available data (e.g. GPS coordinates) posed
an alarming security vulnerability. Sensor based attacks
involving wrist wearables to capture keystrokes have
been shown to be possible [21]. In another instance,
Pandelea et al. showed that a machine learning model
could be built using data from on-board smart watch
hardware to guess the password being entered onto the
device [22]. In that paper, they showed that pressing
different keys on the smart watch corresponded to a
different set of movements and their model was able to
map smart watch movements to different key inputs.
3. Methods
For the purpose of our investigation we focus on
handwritten digits. More specifically we focus only on
the wrist movements associated with writing the digit
zero and the digit one. We formalize our problem, with
respect to machine learning, as a binary classification
problem. Working with digits mitigates issues that arise
with the written differences in English upper and lower
case and cursive alphabet characters.
3.1. Hardware Design
Accelerometers and gyroscopes are common
amongst wrist wearables and these hardwares are ideal
for capturing the wrist movements and orientation. The
accelerometer can record the wrist acceleration in three
planes, x, y, and z and the gyroscope can capture the
wrist angle or tilt during writing, in the x, y, and z
plane. We fabricated our own devices equipped with an
accelerometer and gyroscope, similar to those seen in
popular wrist wearables. Designing our own hardware
allowed us to more accurately capture and label data for
our experiments.
We used Adafruit’s ESP32 Feather [23]
micro-controller board and the LSM9D1 inertial
measurement unit (IMU) [24]. The accelerometer and
gyroscope are housed on the IMU and serial peripheral
interface (SPI) protocols are used to communicate data
recordings from the IMU to the ESP32 Feather board.
The IMU and micro-controller were connected and
assembled into a single housing. Acquiring labeled data
or labeling data after collection can be expensive and
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often requires a degree of processing and cleaning. A
switch was added to the design of our device for the sole
purpose of parsing and labeling data during collection.
As a result, the accelerometer and gyroscope data would
only be recorded while the switch was engaged and the
switch was only engaged during the writing of either
of the digits. The switch allowed us to identify when
writing began and ended within the accelerometer and
gyroscope data streams and also allowed for immediate
(a) The ESP-32 feather board
was used to handle processing
and I/O from the LSM9D1
(b) The LSM9D1 housed the
accelerometer and gyroscope
Figure 1. Micro-controller and inertial measurement
unit (IMU)
3.2. Data Collection
We recruited participants who are right hand
dominant and write with their right hand. The sensor
housing was attached to the posterior side of the ulna
and radius at the most distal point from the body.
In other words, the housing was attached to the top
of the participants wrist, common in convention to
how a watch and wrist wearables are normally worn.
Participants wrote out digits to fill a 10 cm by 10 cm
square region. After the writing of each digit, the data
was labeled with the appropriate digit and saved to a
file. We collected a total of 400 writing samples of digits
which breaks down to 200 samples for the digit zero and
200 samples for the digit one.
3.3. Data Processing and Feature Engineering
Seven data fields, as seen in Table 1, were recorded
from our device during data collection. These fields
include time, acceleration in three planes (x, y, z), and
pitch angle in three planes (x, y, z). It is often the case
that certain digits can be written in different amounts
of time. For instance, writing the digit one usually
takes less time to write than the digit zero. To deter
our machine learning algorithm from only learning on
the time it takes to write a digit, we extracted features
which are uncoupled from time. The features we
extracted were the minimum, maximum, and mean for
acceleration and pitch angle in all three planes (x, y, z).
Using the acceleration features we were able
to engineer a velocity and a displacement feature.
Integrating over the acceleration yielded the velocity
and subsequently, integrating over the velocity yielded
the displacement. Velocities and displacements were
calculated in all three planes. The minimum, maximum,
and mean velocities for all three planes were added
to our current feature list. The total displacement in
all three (x,y,z) planes was also added to the feature
list. Lastly, we calculated the total overall displacement
and added that to the new feature list. As a result
we transformed our original seven features into 31 new
features, shown in Table 2, that are irrespective of time.
Table 1. List of original features gathered from the
Metrics Axis Value Type Feature Count
Acceleration x,y,z 3
Pitch Angle x,y,z 3
Time Total 1
Total Features 7
3.4. Principal Components Analysis and Class
Separability Investigation
Principal components analysis (PCA) was used
to evaluate the explained variance of each of the
31 re-engineered features. Data was normalized
and Scikit-Learns [25] PCA module was used to
perform PCA. It was found that the top three
principal components explain greater than 99.99% of
the variance. Mapping the principal components (PC)
back to the original features revealed that the top three
components are the maximum pitch angle in the z plane,
the displacement in the x plane and the mean pitch angle
in the z plane, respectively. Distributions for each of the
three features were generated with respect to class and
are presented in Figure 2.
Figure 2(a) shows the best separation of classes
when compared to the x displacement and mean z pitch
angle. There is still some, non-negligible overlap in
Figure 2(a) and other features may be needed to get
clear class separation. Figure 2(b) and 2(c) have a
considerable overlap but some separation can be seen
and including these features may help define a better
decision boundary. Scatter plots were generated to
investigate the separability of the two classes and a
potential decision boundaries. Plots are shown in
Figure 3.
Figure 3(a) shows fairly good separation amongst
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Table 2. List of engineered features. Features used in final model
Metrics Axis Value Type Feature Count
Acceleration x,y,z Minimum, Mean, Maximum 9
Pitch Angle x,y,z Minimum, Mean, Maximum 9
Velocity x,y,z Minimum, Mean, Maximum 9
Displacement x,y,z Total 4
Total Features 31
(a) Distribution of maximum pitch angle in
the z plane with respect to class. gz =
gyroscope z plane
(b) Distribution of displacement in the x
plane with respect to class dx = displacement
in x plane
(c) Distribution of mean pitch angle in the z
plane with respect to class.
Figure 2. Distribution of top three principal
components with respect to class
the classes however there there is some overlap in the
middle where the two classes meet. Figure 3(b) also
presents with fairly good separation but there is also
overlap in the middle where the two classes meet. Good
separability can be seen with respect to two of the top
three principal components. Figure 3(c) plots all three
principal components against each other to see if better
(a) x displacement versus maximum z pitch
angle colored by class
(b) mean z pitch angle versus maximum z
pitch angle colored by class
(c) x displacement versus maximum z pitch
angle versus mean z pitch angle colored by
Figure 3. Plots of top three principal components
versus each other to look for separability
separability can be seen in a higher dimension. Overlap
of the two classes is still present, however, there is
more separation seen in three dimensions than seen in
two dimensions. This is somewhat expected as greater
separability is often observed in higher dimensions and
using more features may create more separation between
the two classes. Therefore, it is likely that more features
are needed to generate a stronger model and thus we
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chose to build a model utilizing all 31 features rather
than just the top three PC.
3.5. Model and Hyper Parameter Tuning
The dataset of 400 writing samples was randomly
split into a training, validation, and testing sets via a
60%, 20%, 20% split. The number of samples for
each class is shown in Table 3. Our relatively modest
sample size led us to first explore simpler models rather
than a deep learning approach. We explored ensembling
methods which led us to use extreme gradient boosting
with the help of Sci-Kit Learn’s xgboost package. To
evaluate our model choice we set the following hyper
parameters to the package defaults as follows: number
of boosting stages at 100, learning rate of 0.1, max
tree depth of six, and the auto tree algorithm. The
classifier was trained on the training set with all 31
feature and the validation set achieved an AUROC of
88.03%. Preliminary performance was good and we
proceeded with gradient boosting as our model choice.
Table 3. Breakdown of sample per class
Dataset Class digit 0 Class digit 1
Train 122 118
Validation 42 38
Test 36 44
Total 200 200
Hyper parameters, which include the number of
estimators, the learning rate, the maximum depth of a
tree, and the tree construction algorithm, were optimized
using an exhaustive grid search. Models were trained on
different combinations of hyper parameters using five
fold cross-validation. A list of hyper parameters and
their explored ranges are presented in Table 4.
Table 4. Hyper parameters and ranges explored
Parameter Values and ranges
n estimators 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000
tree algorithm hist, exact
max depth 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
learning rate 0.1, 0.3, 0.5
The best hyper parameters, from the exhaustive
grid search, which yielded the best AUROC’s on the
validation, set are shown in Table 5. The final models
were retrained on the combined, train and validation,
dataset using five fold cross-validation. The best hyper
parameters, from Table 5 were used in the retraining of
the final PCA model and full 31 feature model.
Table 5. Best hyper parameters used to train final
Parameter Values
n estimators 1000
tree algorithm hist
max depth 1
learning rate 0.1
3.6. Performance Evaluation
Model performance was mainly evaluated using
the area under the receiver operating characteristic
(AUROC) curve. AUROC values are reported as values
between zero and one where values closer to one
indicate better performance. The test set, which is
20% of the dataset that was never seen by the models,
was used to calculate the final AUROC values. Final
AUROC values from both the final PCA model and the
final full feature model were compared to each other to
evaluate model performance.
4. Performance Results
Two models were constructed using a different
number of features. The first model was constructed
using the top three principal components (PC) and the
second model used all 31 features. The better of the two
models was used to construct our final model which was
ported to our device for real time evaluations.
4.1. PCA Model Results
As mentioned in Section 3.4, the top three principal
components explain 99.99% of the variance and we
investigated if these features were sufficient to build a
good classifier. The test set, which was held out and
not seen by the model during construction and hyper
parameter tuning, was offered to the model constructed
with the three features, shown in Table 6, corresponding
to the top three PC. The receiver operating characteristic
(ROC) curve and AUROC value is shown in Figure 4.
PCA was explored as a means of possibly reducing
the dimensionality of the data. We were interested to
see if any subset of the 31 features could be used to
build a strong model. Training a model with just the
top three PC resulted in an AUROC of 0.87, as seen in
Figure 4. Class break downs and predictions by class
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Table 6. List of PCA reduced features
Metrics Axis Value Type Feature Count
Pitch Angle z Maximum 1
Displacement x Total 1
Pitch Angle z Mean 1
Total Features 3
Figure 4. ROC curve and AUROC values calculated
as a result of running the test set through the model
trained with only the top three principal components.
The dash line indicates random guess performance.
Table 7. Confusion matrix of PCA models
performance on held out test set
Digit 0 Digit 1
Digit 0 33 3
Digit 1 8 36
are shown in the confusion matrix in Table 7. Results
indicate that three feature (maximum z pitch angle, total
x displacement, and mean z pitch angle) may not contain
enough information to define a clear decision boundary.
Dimensionality reduction offered the potential to build
our model off of only one sensor input which could have
made our methods more applicable to more devices. For
instance, if a model built on only gyroscope input could
correctly classify the written digits then accelerometer
hardware would not be needed. Our PCA model
suggested the contrary and more features were needed
thus both sensors are needed as well.
4.2. Full Feature Model Results
We constructed a second model in an attempt to
achieve better performance than the three PC model.
We used all 31 engineered features, shown in Table 2,
to train a second model and the performance results are
shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5. ROC curve and AUROC values calculated
as a result of running the test set through the model
trained on all 31 feature. The dash line indicates
random guess performance.
Table 8. Confusion matrix of final models
performance on held out test set
Digit 0 Digit 1
Digit 0 36 0
Digit 1 0 44
Figure 5 shows an improvement in model
performance when all 31 features are used to train
our model. The second model achieved an AUROC
of 1.00 on our test set. This indicates that it was
able to predict which digit was written without any
errors. Class break downs and full feature model
predictions by class are shown in the confusion matrix
in Table 8. Although the top three PC explain the great
majority of the variance, the other components contain
the information needed to create a good decision
boundary. Separability is often easier to observe in
higher dimensions and this seemed to be the case for
our classification problem. An AUROC value of 1.00
does not suggest the need for more feature engineering
and suggests that our current features are sufficient. We
are confident in our model’s generalizability due to its
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good performance on the test set and have no reason to
suspect any significant overfitting.
4.3. Real Time Performance
The second, full feature, model was retrained on the
entire dataset with the same optimum hyper parameters
to produce our final model. The final model was loaded
onto our hardware device so that real time predictions
could be made. A sample set of ten written digits, which
breaks down to five samples of written digit zero and
five samples of written digit one, was evaluated in real
time. Volunteers were randomly assigned to write either
the digit 0 or the digit 1. With the device attached to
their wrist, the volunteer wrote their assigned digit and
the devices output a prediction. Results from real time
testing are reported in Table 9.
Table 9. Confusion matrix of final models
performance during real time testing
Digit 0 Digit 1
Digit 0 5 0
Digit 1 0 5
As seen from the confusion matrix, in Table 9,
the final model was able to predict all written digits
accurately which results in an AUROC of 1. Real
time performance results reassures us of our models
generalizability and, again, does not lead us to suspect
significant overfitting. Performance metrics, including
accuracy, percision, recall and F1 score, are reported for
the PCA, full feature, and real time full feature models
in Table 10.
5. Conclusions
Our findings imply a potential security vulnerability
that is associated with wrist wearable devices.
Accelerometers and gyroscopes, which we used,
are common hardware on-board wrist wearables. We
demonstrate the ability to capture the subtle movements
and position changes of the wrist with those hardware
during writing. Using machine learning, we were
able to identify that the wrist movements involved in
writing the digit zero is unique and different to the wrist
movements involved in writing the digit one. As a result,
a robust machine learning model was constructed which
demonstrated perfect real-time prediction performance.
Our results imply a plausible reality where sensitive
information can be recorded from users during writing
while wearing some smart watch or wrist wearable
device. In addition, our potential security exploit results
from using already available data from smart wrist
wearables. Our methods do not involve nor require
compromising the wearable devices themselves. While
the machine learning model we developed is simple and
only for the binary classification of two written digits, it
is an important first step and brings awareness to some
security vulnerabilities associated with wrist wearables.
6. Future Work
We hope to explore how our data and model relates
to left hand dominant users. It is hypothesized that
since your left hand is a mirror image of the right that
simply flipping signs or the direction vector will lead to
the correct solution. More data, specific to left handed
users, is needed to explore how handedness affects
generalizability of machine learning writing recognition
The size of our data set was modest and only
contained wrist movement data for the digits one and
zero. Our binary classification problem was not hard to
solve and thus a simpler model was sufficient which also
raises concerns. The use of a simpler machine learning
model implies that capturing users private information
may be a trivial task. Our current findings warrant
further work to aggregate wrist movement data for the
writing of all ten digits, zero through nine. Working
with all ten digits presents as a multi-class classification
problem and while it may be more difficult there exists
more powerful tools which were not explored in our
work. In fact, deep neural networks could potentially
handle classifying wrist movements for all ten digits
fairly easily. More work is needed to explore these
concepts to improve and maintain security for the vast
variety of wearable IoT devices.
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Table 10. Performance metrics for the PCA, full feature models, and real time full feature models
Model Accuracy
Digit 0
Digit 0
Digit 0
F1 Score
Digit 1
Digit 1
Digit 1
F1 Score
PCA 86.25 80.49 91.67 85.74 92.31 81.82 86.75
Full Feature 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Real Time, Full Feature 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
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... Such sophisticated tools can be used to recognise the password typed by a user or the security number of an employee when they type it in real time. Using machine learning, researchers were able to detect the wrist movement while writing digits and were able to construct a robust machine learning model predicting perfect real-time performance [18]. ...
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The popularity of wearable devices is growing exponentially, with consumers using these for a variety of services. Fitness devices are currently offering new services such as shopping or buying train tickets using contactless payment. In addition, fitness devices are collecting a number of personal information such as body temperature, pulse rate, food habits and body weight, steps-distance travelled, calories burned and sleep stage. Although these devices can offer convenience to consumers, more and more reports are warning of the cybersecurity risks of such devices, and the possibilities for such devices to be hacked and used as springboards to other systems. Due to their wireless transmissions, these devices can potentially be vulnerable to a malicious attack allowing the data collected to be exposed. The vulnerabilities of these devices stem from lack of authentication, disadvantages of Bluetooth connections, location tracking as well as third party vulnerabilities. Guidelines do exist for securing such devices, but most of such guidance is directed towards device manufacturers or IoT providers, while consumers are often unaware of potential risks. The aim of this paper is to provide cybersecurity guidelines for users in order to take measures to avoid risks when using fitness devices.
The popularity of wearable devices is growing exponentially, with consumers using these for a variety of services. Fitness devices are currently offering new services such as shopping or buying train tickets using contactless payment. In addition, fitness devices are collecting a number of personal information such as body temperature, pulse rate, food habits and body weight, steps-distance travelled, calories burned and sleep stage. Although these devices can offer convenience to consumers, more and more reports are warning of the cybersecurity risks of such devices, and the possibilities for such devices to be hacked and used as springboards to other systems. Due to their wireless transmissions, these devices can potentially be vulnerable to a malicious attack allowing the data collected to be exposed. The vulnerabilities of these devices stem from lack of authentication, disadvantages of Bluetooth connections, location tracking as well as third party vulnerabilities. Guidelines do exist for securing such devices, but most of such guidance is directed towards device manufacturers or IoT providers, while consumers are often unaware of potential risks. The aim of this paper is to provide cybersecurity guidelines for users in order to take measures to avoid risks when using fitness devices.
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Human hand gestures are a widely accepted form of real-time input for devices providing a human-machine interface. However, hand gestures have limitations in terms of effectively conveying the complexity and diversity of human intentions. This study attempted to address these limitations by proposing a multi-modal input device, based on the observation that each application program requires different user intentions (and demanding functions) and the machine already acknowledges the running application. When the running application changes, the same gesture now offers a new function required in the new application, and thus, we can greatly reduce the number and complexity of required hand gestures. As a simple wearable sensor, we employ one miniature wireless three-axis gyroscope, the data of which are processed by correlation analysis with normalized covariance for continuous gesture recognition. Recognition accuracy is improved by considering both gesture patterns and signal strength and by incorporating a learning mode. In our system, six unit hand gestures successfully provide most functions offered by multiple input devices. The characteristics of our approach are automatically adjusted by acknowledging the application programs or learning user preferences. In three application programs, the approach shows good accuracy (90-96%), which is very promising in terms of designing a unified solution. Furthermore, the accuracy reaches 100% as the users become more familiar with the system.
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Wearable technology impacts the daily life of its users. Wearable devices are defined as devices embedded within clothes, watches, or accessories. Wrist-worn devices, as a type of wearable devices, have gained popularity among other wearable devices. They allow quick access to vital information, and they are suitable for many applications. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of wearable computing as a research field and provides a systematic review of recent work specifically on wrist-worn wearables. The focus of this research is on wrist-worn wearable studies because there is a lack of systematic literature reviews related to this area. This study reviewed journal and conference articles from 2015 and 2017 with some studies from 2014 and 2018, resulting in a selection of 54 studies that met the selection criteria. The literature showed that research in wrist-worn wearables spans three domains, namely, user interface and interaction studies, user studies, and activity/affect recognition studies. Our study then concludes with challenges and open research directions.
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As the Internet of Things (IoT) continues its run as one of the most popular technology buzzwords of today, the discussion really turns from how the massive data sets are collected to how value can be derived from them, i.e., how to extract knowledge out of such (big) data. IoT devices are used in an ever-growing number of application domains (see Figure 1), ranging from sports gadgets (e.g., Fitbits and Apple Watches) or more serious medical devices (e.g., pacemakers and biochips) to smart homes, cities, and self-driving cars, to predictive maintenance in missioncritical systems (e.g., in nuclear power plants or airplanes). Such applications introduce endless possibilities for better understanding, learning, and informedly acting (i.e., situational awareness and actionable information in government lingo). Although rapid expansion of devices and sensors brings terrific opportunities for taking advantage of terabytes of machine data, the mind-boggling task of understanding growth of data remains and heavily relies on artificial intelligence and machine learning [1], [2].
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An Internet of Things (IoT) architecture generally consists of a wide range of Internet-connected devices or things such as Android devices, and devices that have more computational capabilities (e.g., storage capacities) are likely to be targeted by ransomware authors. In this paper, we present a machine learning based approach to detect ransomware attacks by monitoring power consumption of Android devices. Specifically, our proposed method monitors the energy consumption patterns of different processes to classify ransomware from non-malicious applications. We then demonstrate that our proposed approach outperforms K-Nearest Neighbors, Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine and Random Forest, in terms of accuracy rate, recall rate, precision rate and F-measure.
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The design of multiple human activity recognition applications in areas such as healthcare, sports and safety relies on wearable sensor technologies. However, when making decisions based on the data acquired by such sensors in practical situations, several factors related to sensor data alignment, data losses, and noise, among other experimental constraints, deteriorate data quality and model accuracy. To tackle these issues, this paper presents a data-driven iterative learning framework to classify human locomotion activities such as walk, stand, lie, and sit, extracted from the Opportunity dataset. Data acquired by twelve 3-axial acceleration sensors and seven inertial measurement units are initially de-noised using a two-stage consecutive filtering approach combining a band-pass Finite Impulse Response (FIR) and a wavelet filter. A series of statistical parameters are extracted from the kinematical features, including the principal components and singular value decomposition of roll, pitch, yaw and the norm of the axial components. The novel interactive learning procedure is then applied in order to minimize the number of samples required to classify human locomotion activities. Only those samples that are most distant from the centroids of data clusters, according to a measure presented in the paper, are selected as candidates for the training dataset. The newly built dataset is then used to train an SVM multi-class classifier. The latter will produce the lowest prediction error. The proposed learning framework ensures a high level of robustness to variations in the quality of input data, while only using a much lower number of training samples and therefore a much shorter training time, which is an important consideration given the large size of the dataset
Wearable automated seizure detection devices offer a high potential to improve seizure management, through continuous ambulatory monitoring, accurate seizure counts, and real-time alerts for prompt intervention. More importantly, these devices can be a life-saving help for people with a higher risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), especially in case of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). The Embrace and E4 wristbands (Empatica) are the first commercially available multimodal wristbands that were designed to sense the physiological hallmarks of ongoing GTCS: while Embrace only embeds a machine learning-based detection algorithm, both E4 and Embrace devices are equipped with motion (accelerometers, ACC) and electrodermal activity (EDA) sensors and both the devices received medical clearance (E4 from EU CE, Embrace from EU CE and US FDA). The aim of this contribution is to provide updated evidence of the effectiveness of GTCS detection and monitoring relying on the combination of ACM and EDA sensors. A machine learning algorithm able to recognize ACC and EDA signatures of GTCS-like events has been developed on E4 data, labeled using gold-standard video-EEG examined by epileptologists in clinical centers, and has undergone continuous improvement. While keeping an elevated sensitivity to GTCS (92-100%), algorithm improvements and growing data availability led to lower false alarm rate (FAR) from the initial ˜2 down to 0.2-1 false alarms per day, as showed by retrospective and prospective analyses in inpatient settings. Algorithm adjustment to better discriminate real-life physical activities from GTCS, has brought the initial FAR of ˜6 on outpatient real life settings, down to values comparable to best-case clinical settings (FAR < 0.5), with comparable sensitivity. Moreover, using multimodal sensing, it has been possible not only to detect GTCS but also to quantify seizure-induced autonomic dysfunction, based on automatic features of abnormal motion and EDA. The latter biosignal correlates with the duration of post-ictal generalized EEG suppression, a biomarker observed in 100% of monitored SUDEP cases.