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The affluent society and its leisure lifestyle and luxury consumption can influence the future tourism trends. One key prerequisite shaping the future of luxury tourism is the shift in values from the material to the experiential purchases. It is related to the assumption that money spent on experiences can satisfy various people's needs. Moreover, the luxury consumption displays wealth and social status. This exploratory study, based on the questionnaire survey among clients of one of the Czech luxury tour operators, analyses the Czech luxury tourism market segment and reveals the luxury-driven attitudes and consumption patterns. In conclusion, the findings are compared with the results of similar foreign studies. The results suggest that Czech luxury tourists are both similar in a lot of cases (age group, motivation, type of accommodation, preferred destinations etc.) and different in comparison to the traditional European markets, especially regarding the financial possibilities. Most of the Czech tourists are willing to pay considerably lower amounts of money for luxury holidays. The frequency of their luxury holidays is also significantly lower. In this respect, but also for example in special interest (eco-friendly goods and services), the Czechs fall behind the European luxury tourists.
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DETUROPE – THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND TOURISM
Vol. 11 Issue 2 2019 ISSN 1821-2506
121
Original scientific paper
EXPERIENCES MATTER! LUXURY TOURISM CONSUMPTION
PATTERNS AND MOTIVATION OF THE CZECH AFFLUENT
SOCIETY
Markéta NOVOTNÁa, Josef KUNCa
a Faculty of Economics and Administration, Masaryk University, Lipová 41a, Brno 602 00, Czech
Republic, E-mail: marketa.novotna@econ.muni.cz, kunc@econ.muni.cz
Cite this article: Novotná, M., Kunc, J. (2019). Experience Matters! Luxury consumption patterns and
motivation of the Czech affluent society. Deturope. 11(2), 121-142.
Abstract
The affluent society and its leisure lifestyle and luxury consumption can influence the future tourism
trends. One key prerequisite shaping the future of luxury tourism is the shift in values from the material
to the experiential purchases. It is related to the assumption that money spent on experiences can satisfy
various people's needs. Moreover, the luxury consumption displays wealth and social status. This
exploratory study, based on the questionnaire survey among clients of one of the Czech luxury tour
operators, analyses the Czech luxury tourism market segment and reveals the luxury-driven attitudes
and consumption patterns. In conclusion, the findings are compared with the results of similar foreign
studies. The results suggest that Czech luxury tourists are both similar in a lot of cases (age group,
motivation, type of accommodation, preferred destinations etc.) and different in comparison to the
traditional European markets, especially regarding the financial possibilities. Most of the Czech tourists
are willing to pay considerably lower amounts of money for luxury holidays. The frequency of their
luxury holidays is also significantly lower. In this respect, but also for example in special interest (eco-
friendly goods and services), the Czechs fall behind the European luxury tourists.
Keywords: luxury consumption, motivation, luxury travel, tourism demand; Czech Republic
INTRODUCTION
The development of the social status and lifestyle of consumers relates to various forms of
tourism reflecting the requirements of the demand. One such form that is becoming more
and more popular in the last decades is luxury tourism. A specific category of potential
consumers who are seeking something exceptional highlights the benefit of experiences and
material aspects of tourism. An increase in the consumption of luxury goods and services is
in case of the luxury segment of tourism related to the search of unique services provided at
an adequate level and with a possibility to have extraordinary experiences, which
consequently corresponds with a higher price evaluation.
The significance of the luxury sector is demonstrated by an increasing trend at the world
market for luxury personal goods that rose three and a half times between 1995 and 2015,
from 77 billion to 253 billion Euros (D’Arpizio, Levato, Zito, & Montgolfier, 2015). This
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market accounts for approximately 25% out of the entire luxury sector and is one of the most
significant parts together with the segment of luxury cars (39%) and “luxury hospitality”
(17%). “Hospitality” can be defined as an industry that includes hotels, restaurants and other
facilities offering accommodation and food catering, as well as clubs, resorts, attractions and
the like that create the base for (luxury) tourism and are an inspiration towards the demand
for such industry (Barrows, Powers, & Reynolds, 2012). The permeation of tourism and a
luxury sector thus offers a significant potential and an interesting perspective for the future.
Even though the foreign professional literature has been dealing with luxury tourism
largely for two decades (Bernstein, 1999; Silverstein & Fiske, 2003; Kapferer, 2008; Page,
2009; Park, Reisinger, & Noh, 2010; Hwang & Han, 2014; Correia, Kozak, & Kim, 2017;
Han & Hyun, 2018 and others), the research activities focused on luxury tourism in the
Czech environment are rather sporadic. The presented study is thus a response to such
situation, analysing the specific segment of the Czech luxury tourism. The objective of our
contribution is to create a profile of Czech participants of such type of tourism, that is an
affluent clientele, and explain their motivation to buy luxury services and products of
tourism. The characteristic of the Czech participants of luxury tourism is researched on a
sample of clients of a luxury travel agency by means of the questionnaire survey. We
determined the factors that influence the way people decide when choosing their holiday and
basic attributes of the stay/package holiday.
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
The term “luxury” has been used so often recently that it may seem its original meaning is
disappearing. One of the reasons might be the consistent global rise in the modern luxury
market and globalization, a second reason might be the relativity and subjectivity of the term
itself. The products and services that extend beyond the boundary of an elementary need,
and with their price, quality, aesthetics and rarity exceed the general character may be
considered luxurious (Bernstein, 1999). Such goods contribute to a personal satisfaction or
strengthen the social status of the buyer. When deciding to buy luxury goods, the desire of
the consumers to be part of the luxury market plays an important role (Heine & Phan, 2011).
Yet, a high price level of such products and services influence the number of consumers who
can afford to buy them (Silverstein & Fiske, 2003). The majority of ordinary consumers thus
never or very rarely reach such products or services. For this reason, most people perceive
the luxurious goods as “psychologically further away” than the necessary goods (Hansen &
Wänke, 2011).
Regardless of all definitions of luxury, it is necessary to consider that the term is
subjective and that luxury is derived from the perception of the consumer. For this reason,
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Kapferer and Laurent (2015) support the idea to research and analyse the perception of
consumers to detect the consumers´ definition of luxury that could be exploited by managers
and marketing experts dealing with a luxury market. Even though the status of several
products might be considered luxurious from the perspective of the society, it is highly
probable that not all individuals will agree whether the goods or the service is a luxury or a
necessity, and therefore it is necessary to take this paradox into consideration. Within the
luxury market, there is a vast range of potential levels (Heine & Phan, 2011). Fig. 1. depicts
the levels of luxury in the so-called Kapferer´s pyramid (Kapferer, 2008).
Figure 1 Kapferer´s pyramid of the level of luxury
Source: Kapferer (2008, p. 98)
Just as the idea of luxury, the concept of tourism as well can be linked to the beginning of
the human existence. Due to this fact, we can focus on luxury tourism within the general
definition of the luxury sector in its strict sense. According to the data of UNWTO of 2011,
the participants of the luxury tourism accounted for 3% of all tourists worldwide and
represented up to 20% of expenses on tourism (Chen & Peng, 2014). The essential
prerequisite of the growing importance of luxury tourism is the increase in the comfort and
the welfare of society and greater availability of leisure time.
According to Page (2009), the luxury tourism is defined as a consumption of high-priced
and high-quality experiences following the idea that the characteristics of luxury experiences
evolve during the course of time. So for example staying in luxury resorts and hotels, tailor-
made package holidays or travelling by private planes belong to such experiences. The
emphasis is put on comfort, relaxation and first-rate quality, while at the same time a high
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standard and unique and authentic services are expected (World Tourism Forum, 2014). In
the luxury market, the main idea is to transform dreams into reality through tailor-made
experiences. Such experiences are represented by stays in luxury hotels and resorts, luxury
cruises, travel and luxury shopping, unique tailor-made holidays with authentic experiences
or extreme experiences in unexplored places (Petrick & Durko, 2015).
With regard to the above-mentioned findings, we may state that the luxury tourism is
closely related to the so-called adventure tourism, as their common goal is to provide
consumers with experiences (Pine & Gilmore, 1999). The specifics of the luxury tourism lie
in its cross-sectional nature interfering in other forms of tourism. In this way, we can detect
luxury elements in for example spa tourism, cultural-cognitive tourism or congress tourism.
The important common ground is the motivation of individuals by way of satisfying the need
for holiday, regeneration, excursions or leisure time activities (Page 2009; Bacsi, 2017).
Hallot (2013) points out that a luxury visitor has generally the same needs and desires as a
common visitor. They undergo the same structure of experiences as it is with common
tourism, which is demonstrated in Fig. 2.
Figure 2 The structure of experiences in tourism
Source: Williams and Lew (2014)
Apart from common general needs such as relaxing, visits and sightseeing, social interaction
and economic and sports reasons, the motivation of the participants in case of the luxury
tourism is related to luxury places of stay, travelling to far-away exotic destinations, and
searching for exciting experiences distinct from ordinary life (Pásková & Zelenka, 2012).
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125
We can perceive experiences as a complex including a combination of factors that shape
the feelings and attitudes of the participants of tourism towards the given moment. The
experiences, therefore, affect individuals differently as their perception is based on various
personal evaluations, be it an emotional or physical aspect. (Page, 2009; Oťaheľ, Ira,
Hlavatá, & Pazúr, 2018). The specifics of experiences in luxury tourism depend on the level
of the demands of the travellers who usually wish to get authentic, exclusive and
personalized experiences with a benefit paying huge sums of money. Such experiences might
include e.g. individual excursions and trips, dinners at unique places (be it in renowned
restaurants or in a secluded place in the countryside), or a chance to experience traditional
rituals with local inhabitants in a given destination, etc. (Mahika, 2011).
As it was mentioned above, numerous studies in the last years were focused on examining
the motivations (e.g. Uysal & Jurowski, 1994; Baloglu & Uysal, 1996; Yoon & Uysal, 2005;
Novanská, Benová, & Geghamyan, 2018) that activate the needs for experiences and
subsequently satisfy the needs by participation in tourism (Lee, Chua, & Han, 2017). Based
on the analysis of the motivations in tourism, types of tourism were created (Mahika, 2011).
A study of demographic and socio-economic characteristics of consumers and their
psychological stimuli thus became useful not only for managers but also for businessmen
who wished to comprehend the behaviour of consumers and develop successful marketing
strategies (Park & Yoon, 2009; Kraftchick, Byrd, Canziani, & Gladwell, 2014; Bobková &
Holešinská, 2017; Han & Hyun, 2018). The providers of tourism services had to be able to
predict the changes in motivations that predetermine the tourists to buy a package holiday or
select a destination. Considering this, different motivations were hugely discussed, being
caused on one hand by the real psychological motives (push factors), while on the other hand
depending on specific characteristics of the destination, the so-called pull factors (Uysal &
Jurowski, 1994; Lesjak, Navrátil, Pícha, & Gilliam, 2015).
It is obvious that the demand in the segment of tourism differs from a common segment
e.g. by special interests and requirements. The specifics of the demand should be reflected
on the grounds of thorough market segmentation that is the basis of the marketing strategy.
The consulting company Horwath HTL (2011) assumes the typical participant of the luxury
tourism to be somebody who uses air transport or a ship to get to the target destination, and
the purpose of their trip is predominantly to discover, relax or change the pace of life.
According to Peak and Skift (2014), nowadays people simply wish to travel better and at a
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126
higher emotional and personal level, they turn away from standardized, prearranged package
holidays and their travel is more authentic, adventurous, active or locally focused. An
affluent clientele starts to search for not only material standard, but also for a specific added
value of non-material nature (Koch, 2011). Non-material nature is connected with
personalized services including the preparation of the tour, the stay itself and the services
after the return. The basic prerequisite is the ability to fulfil the personal requirements and
provide services customised to fit the preferences of the clients. By its definition, the luxury
tourism can be also perceived as a counterpart of the mass tourism. The basic characteristics
of luxury and mass tourism are summarized in Tab. 1.
Table 1 The basic characteristics of luxury and mass tourism
Luxury tourism Mass tourism
Travelling of individuals or smaller groups Travelling in larger groups
Representation of the older generation of
travellers
Rather younger generation of travellers
Social class with a high income Social class with lower income
Tailored products Catalogue-based and pre-arranged products
Selective communication, selling dreams Less selective communication, selling facts
High quality connected with higher prices Lower quality connected with lower prices
Stressing the respect for the privacy of visitors
High concentration of visitors in the destination
Stressing the prestige and unique experiences
Stressing the economic aspect and lower costs
Hotels and resorts ****, luxury residences Hotels *** and collective accommodation
facilities
Professional and trained staff The lower level of professionalism of the staff
High level of discreet behaviour The lower level of privacy
Use of high-quality means of transport Use of cheap means of transport
Source: authors’ processing based on Euromonitor International (2008); Pásková and Zelenka (2012)
The luxury tourism in the Czech Republic has a considerably shorter history than in the
developed western countries. This is also linked with the perception of luxury by the Czech
consumers, which is now getting closer to the perception of luxury by the affluent clients
from the traditional countries such as USA, Japan, Germany, China, France or United
Kingdom (Capgemini, 2019). The progress of the demand in the segment of luxury tourism
corresponds to the growth trend set across the world. By Investopedia server (2018), a better
validity regarding the potential luxury clientele presents the so-called concept of HNWI
(High Net Worth Individuals) that includes individuals with liquid assets exceeding a
specific limit, while the most frequent limit is 1 million USD. When applying the concept of
HNWI, the number of US dollar millionaires in the Czech Republic amounts to approx.
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28,000 (Credit Suisse, 2017; Prague Daily Monitor, 2018). Compared to the global statistics
with the entire value of 16.7 million of HNWI, it is a rather insignificant amount, yet the
year-on-year growth in the Czech Republic, oscillating recently between 10–11%, has
reached the level of the global average, even exceeding it slightly, which also offers a range
of opportunities for luxury tourism.
DATA AND METHODS
The basic methodological approach towards our research focused on the Czech luxury
clientele is based on the theoretical knowledge using the professional literature and formerly
published studies. Our own research is thus focused on the preferences and individual
characteristics of the participants of luxury holidays organised by the Czech travel agency.
The research questions were asked in such a way that when answering them, the Czech
demand segment of the luxury tourism was characterized and the goal was thus
accomplished, creating a profile of Czech participants of this type of tourism and explaining
their consumption behaviour and motivation to purchase luxury services and products of
tourism. The stipulated questions are as follows:
RQ1: What are the typical characteristics of the Czech luxury tourism participants and the
main differences from European participants?
RQ2: What are the consumption patterns and factors that motivate the Czech demand
segment to participate in the luxury tourism?
The research itself has a quantitative character (probability stratified sampling) and a
method of questionnaire survey performed directly among the clients of one of a luxury
travel agency at the Czech market was chosen. A range of more or less luxury travel agencies
operates in the Czech market. To map the Czech market of luxury travel agencies is a quite
difficult matter. The offer of some agencies pretends to be luxury. On the other hand, it
includes sometimes elements characterized as less luxurious or common. The careful
analysis of the offer of individual agencies shows that from a geographic perspective, some
of the agencies focus only on specific regions or countries (e.g. Palmyra Tour and its
specialization in Middle-East & North Africa; agencies China Tours or Latintour). As the
thematic focus regards, there are not only generally oriented travel agencies in the Czech
Republic, but also a number of agencies specialized in luxury golf tours (e.g. S-Guide),
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128
expedition and sightseeing tours (e.g. Inspira, CK Viva Travel or Orbis Link), as well as
incentive and congress travels (e.g. Connea Travel).
The selected joint-stock company called Deluxea was already established in 1995 and has
been recently very successful at the Czech market. It belongs to the major Czech travel
agencies operating in the luxury sector in the Czech Republic and offering general
worldwide journeys. It is exclusively specialized in tailor-made luxury tours and exotic
destinations. It is also considered to be one of the largest Czech luxury travel agencies by
revenue.
The questionnaire was based on the relevant theoretical-methodical grounds using
professional literature and real experiences of the employers of the travel agency. Its content
was adjusted to the segment of respondents who are assumed to be affluent and solvent. The
questions were aimed to ascertain the general opinion of the clients on the luxury tourism
and their concepts of the luxury holiday. One sector of questions examined the motivations
of the travellers. The other sectors covered questions concerning financial costs involved
with the luxury holidays, participants´ preferences and methods of the management of the
holidays.
For the purpose of our own survey, we have chosen a digital survey, which was underway
from November 2016 until April 2017. The questionnaires were being sent to the clients of
the travel agency that provided us with its database of 2,671 e-mail addresses. 425 fully
completed questionnaires were received. The final number of the returned questionnaires
represents approximately 16% of the entire number of the distributed questionnaires, which
may be considered as a decent return. From the spatial point of view (Tab. 2), all regions of
the Czech Republic were represented, yet there was a certain influence by the location of the
Deluxea travel agency offices in the largest cities of the country, Prague and Brno. Almost
one-third of the clients of the luxury travel agency who participated in the questionnaire
survey indicated the capital city of Prague as their place of residence, more than 10% of the
respondents were represented by the Central Bohemian Region (hinterland of Prague) and
the South Moravian Region (Brno). We believe that this distribution and the number of
respondents is sufficiently representative concerning the national level and the narrow
segment of the survey.
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129
Table 2 Spatial distribution of the Czech respondents
Name of the region share of the segment Name of the region share of the segment
Capital city of Prague 32.2%
Olomouc 3.5%
Central Bohemian 14.1%
Zlin 3.1%
South Moravian 12.9%
Hradec Kralove 2.8%
Moravian-Silesian 5.4%
Liberec 2.4%
South Bohemian 4.7%
Pardubice 2.4%
Usti nad Labem 4.0%
Vysocina 1.4%
Plzen 3.8%
Karlovy Vary 0.9%
Source: authors´ research
To evaluate the results, mathematical-statistical and analytical methods were applied using
mostly one-dimensional and two-dimensional statistical analysis. The data were processed
with the help of MS Excel software and SPSS statistical programme.
RESULTS
In the current competitive environment, there are growing demands for personalisation of
the product for the target market. It is highly important to focus on the exact aim of the
product and effective use of the marketing tools in order to segment the target customers.
Therefore, the participant of the luxury tourism is classified according to socio-demographic
characteristics of the researched segment, their concepts of the luxury holiday and motives
for such travelling are determined. To create an overall concept of the Czech affluent
clientele, the information is supplemented with time and financial aspects of the luxury
tourism.
As far as the socio-demographic characteristics are concerned (Tab. 3), the category
between 35 to 59 years of age is the most dominant one among the affluent clients (both
couples and individuals) and it represents almost two-thirds individuals out of the entire
number. By contrast, only an insignificant quantity of people under 25 years was found in
the researched sample. The most frequent respondents were men between 35 and 49 years
(21% of all respondents) and between 50 and 59 years (18%). Women were characterized
by a lower age, while the age category was the same as with men, 35 to 49 years (15%), yet
the second most numerous group were women between 26 and 34 years (12%). More than
60% of the participants in the luxury holidays who took part in the survey were tertiary-
educated people. The results show that the participants of the luxury holidays are
predominantly educated persons with tertiary or at least secondary education. As far as the
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130
economic status is concerned, people with a regular income, or rather anybody with a regular
employment, was among the most frequent respondents (more than 86%).
Table 3 Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents
Characteristic Absolute frequency Relative frequency
Sex
Men 236 55.5%
Women 186 43.8%
Not answered 3 0.7%
Age category
Up to 25 years 2 0.5%
26–34 years 74 17.4%
35–49 years 152 35.8%
50–59 years 126 29.6%
60 and more 71 16.7%
Education
Primary 2 0.5%
Secondary without a school-leaving exam 17 4.0%
Secondary with a school-leaving exam 142 33.4%
Tertiary 257 60.5%
Not answered 7 1.6%
Economic status
Employed/employer/self-employed 366 86.1%
Unemployed 4 0.9%
Maternity leave 12 2.8%
Retired 37 8.7%
Student 2 0.5%
Not answered 4 0.9%
Source: authors´ research
According to more than two-thirds of answers, respondents associate the term “luxury
holiday” with first-rate and personalized services. An appropriate finding corresponds with
the nature of the luxury tourism, as well as the second most frequent answer, which was an
association with a carefree stay. It is common across the world that luxury holidays are often
tailor-made for particular tasks and choices of the clients, which was confirmed by almost
one-half of the respondents. Other options are mentioned in Fig. 3. It is interesting to mention
that as far as the age category is concerned, especially younger respondents associate the
luxury holiday with a carefree stay, while people over 50 years of age would opt for the
tailor-made holiday.
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131
Figure 3 Preferences on a luxury holiday
Source: authors´ research
Generally, the majority of the affluent clients whose travelling is costly with luxury attributes
have their holiday tailor-made. Overall, we can state that a higher level of organization is
typical for these types of holidays. In view of the above-mentioned findings from the
questionnaire survey concerning the carefree stay and first-rate services, it is not a surprise
that the Czech affluent clientele (52%) prefer all-inclusive (four or five-stars hotels) and
tailor-made luxury holidays (Fig. 4). More than a half of the respondents are thus clients of
travel agencies that guarantee ready-made holiday packages inclusive of the reservation,
transport, trips, excursions and other activities. Two-fifths of the respondents are satisfied
with partly organized holidays inclusive of e.g. hotel and flight tickets reservation. Other
attributes of the stay are organised by the clients themselves. Only 8% of the respondents
prefer to organize all tour by themselves.
Ready-made holiday packages are preferred by respondents including retired people,
unemployed, women on maternity leave and students (64%) and respondents over 50 years
(55%). In case of partly organized luxury holidays, the situation is the opposite, i.e. they are
more preferred by employed people and people below 50 years. This is related to the fact
that the more affluent the clients are, the more they tend to use tailor-made services.
00%
04%
24%
26%
30%
48%
55%
65%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
not answered
others
absolute privacy and discretion
a minimum of 5-star hotel
all-iInclusive
tailor-made holiday
carefree holiday
first-class and personal services
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132
Figure 4 The level of organization of the luxury holiday
Source: authors´ research
The board basis is also important for clients when choosing the holiday. For the majority of
the respondents, comfort and carefree holiday are important, so almost 60% of them opt for
the all-inclusive type of holiday. These participants of the luxury holidays prefer to choose
such type of holiday where they need not be concerned about choosing the board basis. Only
a minimum of respondents prefer full-board or self-catering holiday.
Regarding the motivation of the participants of luxury holidays, the numerical scale
ranging from 1 to 5 was used to show which character of destination is most attractive for
the respondents (value of 1 represents “the most important” and 5 “the least important”).
According to the results, the respondents are most attracted by the beach and the sea. Almost
80% of the respondents assign it to the value of “the most important”, which is much more
than in case of other possible answers. The second most important factor is the nature and
attractiveness, which is ranked among the most important character by more than a half of
the respondents. Culture and history, too, play a significant role. By contrast, mountains and
skiing, cruises and urban tourism or cities are less interesting for the respondents. Men tend
to prefer culture and history, nature, mountains and skiing and luxury cruises, while women
prefer the beach by the sea and urban tourism. Nevertheless, the overall preferences in Tab.
4 are similar to those mentioned by men or women. The median is also available, expressing
the middle value of answers for individual sub-questions and dividing the set of answers into
two equal halves.
00%
08%
40%
52%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%
not answered
unorganized holiday with own booking and
program
partly organized holiday
completely tailored to client´s requirements
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133
Table 4 The character of the destination
mean
median
The percentage of total responses
(1 "the most important" and 5 "the least important")
1 2 3 4 5 unanswered
beach and sea 1.39
1 79.8% 10.4% 3.5% 0.2% 5.2% 0.9%
nature 1.72
1 52.5% 23.1% 11.1% 2.8% 3.3% 7.3%
culture and history 2.44
2 18.6% 32.0% 24.2% 8.9% 5.2% 11.1%
mountains and skiing 3.38
4 13.4% 11.8% 14.8% 13.4% 28.0% 18.6%
luxury cruises and
yachts
3.39
3 10.1% 12.9% 18.8% 17.2% 24.0% 16.9%
urban tourism and cities 3.48
4 4.0% 14.6% 22.4% 21.4% 20.2% 17.4%
Source: authors´ research
For more than 90% of the participants of luxury holidays, the main reason to travel is
relaxation, which includes exploring the nature and relaxation itself. For more than two-
thirds of the respondents, the main reason is to explore the destination. This is also connected
to the destination´s history and culture. For almost 35% of the respondents, sports activities
are an essential part of the holiday, for a little fewer people it is the health improvement,
entertainment or celebration of an important anniversary. Only a few people travel for
business, as it was mentioned only by several individuals.
An expression of their motivation is depicted in the form of a “word cloud” (Fig. 5). This
is a visual representation of the most frequently used answers of the respondents in the
questionnaires. The frequency is described by the font size. The word “relaxation” is
repeated in 94% of the cases in total, followed by the words “attractiveness”, “history”, and
“culture” (68%).
Figure 5 Motivations of luxury clients for travelling
Source: authors´ research
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134
The aim of the questions targeted at the time aspects of the luxury travelling was to ascertain
which season is most preferred by the respondents for travelling. The Czech participants of
luxury holidays prefer to travel in the off-summer months (Fig. 6), which represent the main
season in the Czech Republic. During this season, one can enjoy the sunshine in the home
country without the need to travel abroad. Yet, more than a quarter of the respondents do not
have any preferences at all. Approximately 26% of the respondents´ decisions are based on
the season in the destination.
Figure 6 Preferred season for travelling
Source: authors´ research
The preference to travel off-season is also related to the fact that the participants of the luxury
holiday prefer exotic places. According to the respondents, luxury holidays are mostly
related to the places in the Indian Ocean, along with the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean
(Fig. 7). We can conclude that luxury touristic places are typical for their tropical or exotic
features and a great distance from the Czech Republic.
04%
10%
17%
28%
41%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
main season in the Czech Republic (summer)
off-season in the destination
main season in the destination
no preferrences regarding the season
off-season in the Czech Republic (spring, autumn, winter)
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135
Figure 7 Luxury destinations according to the Czech respondents
Source: authors´ research
200 1
number of the respondents mentioning
the destination to be luxury
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136
According to the next question dealing with the frequency of travels, the clients involved in the
questionnaire survey take one luxury holiday per year in more than two-thirds of the cases.
Among the main reasons may be included a lack of financial resources and a lack of time. The
second frequent group involves participants who take a luxury holiday two or three times a
year. Fewer than 3% of the respondents take more than four luxury holiday per year. As far as
the time concept is involved, we must not forget the average length of the holiday spent by the
participants of the luxury holidays (Fig. 8). In this case, almost three-quarters of the respondents
chose the option of 8–15 nights. It corresponds to the fact that it is worthwhile to spend more
nights when travelling to faraway destinations. At the same time, more than one-fifth of the
respondents prefer to stay between 5 and 8 nights.
Figure 8 Average time spent on luxury holiday
Source: authors´ research
Two-thirds of younger people usually spend 8-15 nights on their holiday, and 27% of these
respondents then 5–8 nights. The same order is observed with luxury tourists over 50 years of
age, out of which 77% prefer to spend 8–15 nights on their holiday and merely 16% of them
prefer luxury holidays with 5–8 nights. Younger luxury clients thus spend a fewer number of
nights on their holiday, most likely due to their lack of time and workload.
Financial resources (Fig. 9) play an important part in the context of the luxury holidays,
considerably exceeding the price level of regular holiday packages. Almost one-half of the
respondents stated that they are willing to pay no more than 2,800 Euros for their luxury
holiday. The range between 2,800 and 4,000 Euros is the second most frequent amount of
money invested in luxury holiday mentioned by more than one-third of the respondents. The
smallest number of people is willing to spend more than 4,000 Euros. There are particular
differences when analysing the expenses of men and women, when 56% of men are ready to
spend more than 2,800 Euros on the luxury holiday of 7 nights, while only 46% of women are
00%
00%
06%
22%
72%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
not answered
less than 5 nights
more than 15 nights
5 – 8 nights
8 – 15 nights
Novotná, M., Kunc, J.
137
willing to pay the same amount. This conclusion may also encourage the gender topics, when
men usually earn more money and are afterwards willing to pay more for luxury holidays.
Another issue concerning the detailed analysis is to what extent the education influences the
amount of the expenses on holiday. It was found out that the share of the respondents who spend
less than 2,800 Euros is falling with growing education.
Figure 9 Costs per person on a 7-night luxury holiday
Source: authors´ research
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
In the discussion, we would like to explain how the results relate to the relevant literature and
suggest any implications they might have for the future marketing strategies. The growing
number of affluent clients and their increasing wealth cause that the luxury segment is
developing and expanding all the time, which provokes a response from the designers of the
marketing strategy. The issue of the luxury travelling is, therefore, becoming a part of the
research activities. Expert studies (mostly case studies), narrowly focused on affluent clientele
and the luxury segment of the tourism, are often related to the research of the quality of the
services offered (hotels, restaurants, etc.) as well as the environmental impacts of building and
managing the luxury resorts in, for a European person, exotic destinations such as island states
or city-states in the Caribbean, the Indian Ocean or Southeast Asia (e.g., Carey, 1989; Ka Wai
Lai & Hitschcock, 2016; Chen & Peng; 2018; Cowburn, Moritz, Birrell, Grimsditch, &
Abdulla, 2018; Novotná & Kunc, 2019). These are predominantly developing economies that
depend to a great extent on tourism revenues.
The mentioned activities are at their very beginnings in the Czech Republic, as it has been
only recently when the aspects of luxury started to be perceived by the Czech consumers in a
similar way as by the affluent clients from traditional European countries such as France, Great
3%
4%
12%
35%
45%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%
not answered
more than 6,000 EUR
4,000-6,000 EUR
2,800-4,000 EUR
less than 2,800 EUR
Novotná, M., Kunc, J.
138
Britain or Germany. Our contribution reflects this fact and it defines the demand segment of
luxury tourism in the Czech Republic, which might be considered unique within Central
Europe. Such knowledge of sociodemographic characteristics of the Czech affluent clientele
and their consumer behaviour may be a guideline to choose a suitable marketing strategy for
this market segment. We may use e.g. the amount of the travelling expenses as a variable as a
useful alternative instead of the general segmentation according to travelling activities.
Due to the limited possibilities of comparisons (see above), one of the most available
comprehensive research of the demand for luxury holidays called Luxury Travel Trends from
Pangea Network (2014, 2017) – which is an international organization of independent agencies
specializing in consultancy, marketing and communication services in tourism - was chosen in
order to compare the Czech affluent clientele and their profilation with other European
participants of luxury tourism. The agency implemented its research, besides other things, in 6
European source markets, which are France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Netherlands and Great
Britain. These markets may be regarded as relevant to the profilation of a participant of luxury
tourism, also thanks to the fact that they belong to the main source markets concerning the
demand in the luxury tourism.
As it can be seen from the Tab. 5, a typical Czech participant of luxury tourism is
considerably different from the European one (representing all European countries), while at
the same time similar consumers´ behaviour, motivation and activities can be noticed. Czech
participants in the luxury holidays are different as far as the financial possibilities are
concerned, as they are usually willing to pay less amount of money for their luxury holiday.
The frequency of travelling is lower, as well as the type of the preferred air transport. In these
aspects, the Czech tourists are definitely falling behind the European luxury tourists. Yet, the
situation is similar when regarding the organization of the holiday (the so-called “tailor-made”
packages prevail), as well as the board basis (All inclusive), the choice of the holiday and the
motives for travelling such as first-rate and all-inclusive services, comfort and relaxation.
European luxury tourists are more focused on unique experiences and pay attention to eco-
friendly goods and services. According to an expert on luxury tourism from Deluxea travel
agency who has been recently interviewed by way of additional controlled interviews, it is
obvious that requirements and possibilities of the Czech affluent clientele change rather quickly
and in near future they will equal the clients from the developed European countries. The expert
also mentions that this future progress means a bigger emphasis of the Czech clients on a certain
added value of non-material character, which was now expected rather by the clientele from the
developed countries.
Novotná, M., Kunc, J.
139
Table 5 A comparison of the consumption patterns and motivation
Czech affluent clientele
(Authors´ research)
European affluent clientele
(Pangea Network, 2014, 2017)
The most frequent age group (years)
35–59 (both couples and individuals) 36–55 (couples, generation X is the main target)
Influence on tour choice
Information from friends and tour specialist Information from friends, relatives, and online
reviews
The choice of the holiday according to (expectation of)
First-rate and personal services (65%) Added value (65%)
Motivations to travel
Relaxation, nature and attractiveness, culture,
history, mountains and skiing
Comfort and rest, completeness of services, new
destinations, authenticity, unique experiences,
culinary experiences, and culture tours
The level of organization of the holiday
“Tailor-made” (52%), Partly organized (40%) “Tailor-made” (69%)
The preferred season for holiday
Off-season in the Czech Republic (spring,
autumn, winter) (41%)
Winter, summer (25%)
The preferred accommodation type
Luxury hotels (four or five-stars) Exclusive boutique hotels or the best
international hotel brands
The most frequent length of the holiday
8–15 days, 1 holiday (72%) 10 days, 4 and more holidays (47%)
The most frequent costs per person
Up to 2 800 thousand Euros (45%) 5–10 thousand Euros (54%)
The character of the destination
Beaches and sea (78%; the Indian Ocean, the
Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean), Nature and
attractiveness (52%)
the Caribbean and Brazil, the Indian Ocean
Islands, East and South-east Asia, United Arab
Emirates, South Africa, Australia
Special interest
No special interest, just balanced price / quality
ratio
pay attention to eco-friendly goods and services
Board-basis
All Inclusive (60%) All Inclusive (69%)
Source: authors´ research
Based on the above-mentioned findings, we may find answers to the research questions
stipulated in the methodical part of the presented contribution. In order to answer RQ1, it was
necessary to define a Czech participant in the luxury tourism. Such a person is middle-aged
with a tertiary education and employed. Typical features of the luxury holiday of such person
include e.g. All inclusive, first-rate and personal services, and the possibility to relax in an
exotic country during a period when it is the off-season in the Czech Republic (in the off-
summer months).
RQ2 focused on the consumption patterns and motivation of the Czech demand segment to
participate in the luxury tourism may be answered by using the above-defined push and pull
Novotná, M., Kunc, J.
140
factors. The psychological incentives may be considered a primary motive, leading to the
satisfaction of the needs for relaxation that implies push factors. While specific characteristics
of the destination are the secondary motive for luxury tourism (pull factors), more than two-
thirds of the respondents´ state that getting to know the attractiveness of the destination is the
motivation for taking their holidays.
From the findings found not only in the research, it is possible to confirm the indisputable
importance and growth tendencies of luxury tourism, even though it is a form of travel adapted
only for a limited range of participants and thus a combined offer (e.g. Radiant Insights, 2018;
Adroit, 2019). The situation in more developed countries is still ahead of the state of luxury
tourism in the Czech Republic. However, the signs of catching up and leveling the world
standards in terms of domestic supply and travel habits of domestic demand are positive. These
facts are also confirmed by expert studies of Pangea Network (2014, 2017) expecting that high-
spending travellers will be very demanding, informed and increasingly sensitive to eco-friendly
travel solutions. Generally, luxury travel is expected to increase by 6–10% over the next 2–3
years.
Acknowledgement
This contribution was supported by an internal grant of the Faculty of Economics and Administration,
Masaryk University, entitled “Destination Sustainability under the Pressure of Global Tourism Trends”
(MUNI/A/1166/2018).
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... About luxury: Luxury is purely subjective and can be defined differently by people as per their perceptions (Novotná & Kunc, 2019). As per the available studies (Armitage, Roberts, & Dhillon, 2017) , defining and describing luxury is not a simple task. ...
... As far as the age structure is concerned, baby boomers are the most dominant among the affluent clients. If we focus on the consumption patterns Searching for information on the Internet, activity on social networks and travel websites Source: Own processing based on Novotná andKunc (2019a, 2019b), Pangea Network (2017), and Virtuoso (2019). and motivation of the Czech luxury segment, the satisfaction of the needs for relaxation and exploration of new destinations are the primary motives for taking luxury holidays. ...
... This implies that staying at high-end accommodation houses, eating at high-end restaurants, using private planes to travel is part of luxury tourism. The basic objective behind luxury tourism is to get such an experience that seemed unreal previouslya dream that has been converted to reality, the memory to be cherished later Luxury tourists are motivated to travel by the desire to experience luxury stays, far-off destinations, and excitement distinct from ordinary life apart from such places fulfilling the general needs for relaxation, visits and sightseeing, socialisation, economic and sports (Novotná & Kunc, 2019). ...
... About luxury: Luxury is purely subjective and can be defined differently by people as per their perceptions (Novotná & Kunc, 2019). As per the available studies (Armitage, Roberts, & Dhillon, 2017) , defining and describing luxury is not a simple task. ...
... As far as the age structure is concerned, baby boomers are the most dominant among the affluent clients. If we focus on the consumption patterns Searching for information on the Internet, activity on social networks and travel websites Source: Own processing based on Novotná andKunc (2019a, 2019b), Pangea Network (2017), and Virtuoso (2019). and motivation of the Czech luxury segment, the satisfaction of the needs for relaxation and exploration of new destinations are the primary motives for taking luxury holidays. ...
... This implies that staying at high-end accommodation houses, eating at high-end restaurants, using private planes to travel is part of luxury tourism. The basic objective behind luxury tourism is to get such an experience that seemed unreal previouslya dream that has been converted to reality, the memory to be cherished later Luxury tourists are motivated to travel by the desire to experience luxury stays, far-off destinations, and excitement distinct from ordinary life apart from such places fulfilling the general needs for relaxation, visits and sightseeing, socialisation, economic and sports (Novotná & Kunc, 2019). ...
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