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MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF ACACIA NILOTICA LINN (BABUL), ITS PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND DIVERSE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

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Abstract

Acacia nilotica Linn commonly known as Babul is a multipurpose tree. As the world is turning back towards the herbal drug, it is the need of the hour to re-evaluate the knowledge of traditional medicine through vast review. In the Unani traditional system of medicine, all parts of the plant have been used as a remedy for various diseases and are imputed for their medicinal properties. Hence, this review presents an overview of the medicinal properties of different parts of A. nilotica L. used in Unani medicine, its phytochemical constituents, and diverse pharmacological activities. The information related to this drug was retrieved using the classical Unani sources viz., Al-Qanun fi’l Tibb (Canon of Medicine), Iksir-i-A‘zam, Al Hawi fi’l Tibb (Continens Liber), Tarjuma Kamil al-Sana‘a al-Tibbiyya, Dhakhira Khawarizm Shahi, Biyaz-i-Kabir and Tibb-i-Akbar for medicinal properties used in Unani Medicine. Further for other traditional uses, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities, different search engines like PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Ovid, Science Direct and Scopus were also browsed. A. nilotica possesses various medicinal properties as per classical Unani texts such as astringent, tonic, wound healing, aphrodisiac, expectorant, resolvent, and antispasmodic. In vivo, in vitro, and clinical studies from the published articles validate the fact that A. nilotica is a potential source of various bioactive compounds having various pharmacological properties and therapeutic uses. The various pharmacological activities are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, anticancerous, antidiabetic and antihypertensive properties. This review concludes that the Unani medicinal effects of A. nilotica are proven by scientific studies.
MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF ACACIA NILOTICA LINN (BABUL), ITS
PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND DIVERSE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
Review Article
RUSHDA SAEEDI1, ARSHIYA SULTANA2*, KHALEEQUR RAHMAN3
1Department of Amraze Niswan wa Ilmul Qabalat, Jamia Tibbiya Deoband, Sararanpur, UP, India. 2Department of Amraze Niswan wa Ilmul
Qabalat, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. 3
Received: 13 Sep 2019, Revised and Accepted: 30 Dec 2019
Department of Ilmus Saidla (Pharmacy), National Institute of
Unani Medicine, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Email: drarshiya@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Acacia nilotica Linn commonly known as Babul is a multipurpose tree. As the world is turning back towards the herbal drug, it is the need of the
hour to re-evaluate the knowledge of traditional medicine through vast review. In the Unani traditional system of medicine, all parts of the plant
have been used as a remedy for various diseases and are imputed for their medicinal properties. Hence, this review presents an overview of the
medicinal properties of different parts of A. nilotica L. used in Unani medicine, its phytochemical constituents, and diverse pharmacological
activities. The information related to this drug was retrieved using the classical Unani sources viz., Al-Qanun fi’l Tibb (Canon of Medicine), Iksir-i-
A‘zam, Al Hawi fi’l Tibb (Continens Liber), Tarjuma Kamil al-Sana‘a al-Tibbiyya, Dhakhira Khawarizm Shahi, Biyaz-i-Kabir and Tibb-i-Akbar for
medicinal properties used in Unani Medicine. Further for other traditional uses, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities, different search
engines like PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Ovid, Science Direct and Scopus were also browsed.
A. nilotica possesses various medicinal properties as per classical Unani texts such as astringent, tonic, wound healing, aphrodisiac, expectorant,
resolvent, and antispasmodic. In vivo, in vitro, and clinical studies from the published articles validate the fact that A. nilotica is a potential source of
various bioactive compounds having various pharmacological properties and therapeutic uses. The various pharmacological activities are anti-
inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, anticancerous, antidiabetic and antihypertensive properties. This review concludes that the Unani medicinal
effects of A. nilotica are proven by scientific studies.
Keywords: Acacia nilotica Linn, Analgesic, Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant
© 2020 The Authors. Published by Innovare Aca demic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This i s an open access article under the CC BY license (http://cre ativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
DOI: http://dx.do i.org/10.22159/ijpps.2020v12 i2.35672. Journal homepage: htt ps://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps
INTRODUCTION
Medicinal plants have a long history of use for the benefit of
mankind. According to the report of the World Health Organization
(W. H. O), about 80% of the world’s population relies chiefly on
traditional therapies [1]. Acacia nilotica Linn commonly known as
Babul and Kikar has been used in Unani and other Indian System of
Medicine for hundreds of years for the prevention and treatment of
various health ailments. It was first described by Linnaeus in 1773
[2]. A. nilotica L belongs to the kingdom Plantae and family Fabaceae
[3]. It is the second-largest genus of the family Fabaceae, with about
1350 species. It is distributed throughout tropical and warm
temperate areas of the world like Asia, Australia, Africa and America
[4, 5]. A. nilotica has various complex phytoconstituents including
alkaloids, volatile essential oils, phenols, phenolic glycosides, and
terpenes. These types of phytoconstituents play a role in the
therapeutic actions of A. nilotica. Earlier traditional description
confirmed that A. nilotica has a rich amount of nutrients and
contains a high therapeutic value which is capable of prevention,
mitigation, and treatment of various infectious diseases and
deleterious conditions [6]. The studies based on the animal model
established that A. nilotica and its chief phytoconstituents play a
pivotal role in anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-
cancer, and anti-hypertensive management. It is considered a safe
medicinal plant and modulates the numerous therapeutic actions
without any adverse effect.
The main objective of this review article is to describe a
comprehensive therapeutic Unani traditional uses and novel scientific
studies of A. nilotica, which will be noteworthy for the design and
synthesis of new promising leading compounds with all plant parts.
Literature sources were from the Unani classical texts viz., Al-Qanun
fi’l Tibb (Canon of Medicine), Iksir-i-A‘zam, Al Hawi fi’l Tibb
(Continens Liber), Tarjuma Kamil al-Sana‘a al-Tibbiyya, Dhakhira
Khawarizm Shahi, Biyaz-i-Kab'ir and Tibb-i-Akbar for medicinal
properties used in Unani Medicine. For recent scientific studies
articles published in Pub Med, Ovid, Medline, Science Direct,
Springer, Scopus, Google scholars, and Google electronic databases
were retrieved.
Ethnobotanical description
The vernacular names of A. nilotica are Ammughilam, Ummughilam,
Akakia [7] in Arabic. Babbuula, Babbuuri, Baavari, Aabhaa, Shuulika,
Shitaka, Kinkiraata, Yugmakantaka, Sukshmaptra, Pitapushpaka [8]
in Ayurvedic medicine. It is known as Babul, Black babul, Indian gum
Arabic tree [7-10] and Karemugila [7, 11] in Persian. The other
synonyms of A. nilotica are Acacia arabica Willd [8, 10], Acacia
scorpioides, Mimosa Arabica and Mimosa nilotica [12].
A. nilotica L. is described as a perennial tree, 2.5-10 m tall. Branches
spread, forming a dense flat or rounded crown with dark to black
coloured stems. Bark thin, rough, fissured, deep red-brown. Spines
(thorns) thin, straight, light grey in axillary pairs, usually in 3-12
pairs, 5-5.7 cm long in young trees. Leaves bipinnate 30-40 mm long,
often with 1-2 petiolar glands; pinnae 2-11 pairs, with 7-25 pairs of
leaflets per pinnae. Peduncles clustered at nodes of leafy and leafless
branchlets. Flowers prolific, golden yellow, in globules heads 1.2-1.5
cm in diameter. Pods straight or slightly curved 5-15 cm long on a
pedicel, 0.5-1.2 cm wide, with constrictions between the seeds
giving the appearance of a string of pearls, fleshy when young
indehiscent, becoming black and hard at maturity. Seeds are deep
blackish-brown, smooth, sub-circular, compresses, areole 6-7 mm
long, 4.5-5 mm wide. Branches are scattered and the bark is thick
and fissured. The orange-brown coloured sticky resinous substance
is present inside the plant [11, 13-16].
As per Unani classical texts, the parts used are flower [15-17], leaves
[7, 10, 15-18], roots [19], stem/bark [7, 8, 10, 11, 15, 16], gum [7, 8,
10, 12, 15-17, 20], pods [7, 10, 16, 17, 20, 22], seeds [8, 7] and
branches [15, 19]. The temperament as per Unani classical texts is
Hot and Dry 2 ° [14, 15], Cold and Dry 2 °[11, 13, 16, 17, 23, 24], and
gum-moderate [25]. The dosage mentioned in classical texts for
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Print ISSN: 2656-0097 | Online ISSN: 0975-1491 Vol 12, Issue 2, 2020
Sultana et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 12, Issue 2, 8-14
9
roots decoction is 84 g to 112g[15] and 5 to 7 g [17] for powder. The
compound formulations of Babul are Habbe tappe balghami, Habbe
sil, Laooq sapistan [11, 14] and Sanoone mughilan [14].
Medicinal properties of A. nilotica in unani traditional medicine
Qabiz (Astringent), Habis-i-dam (Haemostatic), Mujaffif (Desiccant),
Mubarrid (Cooling), Muqawwi (Tonic), Mufattih (Deobstruent), Muqi
(Emetic), Mudammil-i-juruh (Wound healing), Mumsik (Aphrodisiac),
Muzeeqi-i-farj (Constricts vagina), Munaffith-i-balgham
(Expectorant), Muqawwi-i-mida wa jigar (Liver and stomach tonic),
Rada (Divergent), Muhallil (Anti-inflammatory), Muqawwi basr (Eye
tonic) and Dafi-i-tashannuj (Antispasmodic) [8, 11, 13-, 15, 20, 24].
Phytoconstituents of a. nilotica l. (babul) with the possible
mechanism of action
A. nilotica has a therapeutic implication in disease prevention and
treatment as it is a source of various types of phytoconstituents like
tannins, alkaloids, polyphenolic compounds, and flavonoids. The most
characteristic types of secondary metabolites of this genus are
flavonoids [26]. The compounds such as kaempferol-3-glucoside, iso-
quercetin, catechin, kaempferol, galactose, l-arabinose, l-rhamnose, etc
are also present in this plant. The isolated bioactive constituents of A,
nilotica are summarized in table 1. [8, 9, 18, 27-38].
The Possible mechanism of action of A. nilotica is presented as follows
Flavonoids present in the flower, fruit, and leaves are the key
constituents responsible for an anti-microbial property. The plant
parts exhibit anti-microbial role through inhibition of microbial
growth, inhibition of cytoplasmic membrane function, inhibition of
the attachment and biofilm formation, and alteration of the
membrane permeability [39].
A. nilotica plays an important role as free radical scavenging
properties due to a rich source of antioxidants like flavonoids,
phenolics, tannins, curcumin, and terpenoids. They can reduce the
contact of oxidants and other toxic molecules due to their ability to
scavenge oxygen-nitrogen-derived free radicals by donating
hydrogen atom or an electron, chelating metal catalysts, activating
antioxidant enzymes, and inhibiting oxidases. A. nilotica ingredient
shows an effective role in the management of cancer through the
regulation of cell signalling pathways. It modulates the activity of
various tumour suppressor genes, angiogenesis, and apoptosis [38].
A. nilotica also plays a role as an anti-inflammatory via regulation of
pro-inflammatory enzyme activities including cyclooxygenase and
lipoxygenase enzyme. Among the phytoconstituents found in plants
like flavonoids, polysaccharides and organic acids may be mainly
responsible for its pharmacological action [40]. Tannin is an active
chemical responsible for its anti-diabetic activity [41].
Table 1: Phytoconstituents of Acacia nilotica Linn
Composition
Bioactive constituents
References
Alkaloids
Dimethyltryptamine, N-methyltryptamine, tryptamines
[27]
Tannins
Methyl gallate
Ethyl gallate
Gallic acid
,
Gallocatechin-5-O-gallate, Dicatechin, Polygalloytannin
Egallic acid
[28]
[18]
[29]
[30]
Proteins
Cysteine, Methionine, Threonine, Lysine, Tryptophan
[31]
Polysaccharides
D-pinitol
T-Sitosterol
Acanilol
[32]
[33]
[34]
Terpenes
Lupenone, Lupeol, Niloticane
[35]
Gums/Fatty
acids
D-Galactose, L-Arabinose, L-Rhamnose
6-O--D-glucopyranosyluronicacid)-D-galactose
4-O--D-glucopyranosyluronicacid)-D-galactose
Gallic acid, Tannic acid, Cresol
[36]
[32]
[32]
[37]
Flavonoids
Kaempferol kaempferol-3-glucoside, iso-quercitin, leucocyanidi, Catechin, Catechin-7-O-gallate,Quercetin,
Quercetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, Naringenin, Naringenin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, Chalconaringenin-4-O-β-
glucopyranoside
[38]
[8-9]
Therapeutic implications and pharmacological studies of A.
nilotica
Anti-microbial potential
A. nilotica fruit is used for the treatment of sore throat, cold,
bronchitis, pneumonia, ophthalmia, diarrhoea, dysentery, leprosy
and venereal diseases as per Unani traditional medicine. The
decoction of the bark is largely used as an astringent douche in
sozak (gonorrhea), waram al-mathana (cystitis), waram-al-mahbil
(vaginitis), sayalan al-rahim (leucorrhoea) [17].
A study was conducted to investigate the in vitro antibacterial
activity of Acacia nilotica methanolic fruits extract against clinical
isolates performed by cup-plate agar diffusion method against five
gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, S. flexneri, Salmonella typhi,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia) and 2 gram-
positive bacteria i.e., Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. Out
of 7 cultures tested, it showed good activity against Salmonella typhi
and Bacillus cereus. The authors concluded that the methanolic fruit
extract of A. nilotica showed significant inhibition against gram-
positive and gram-negative species [42]. One of the studies found
that the methanolic extracts of A. nilotica pods were most active
against different bacterial and fungal strains. The methanolic extract
of pods showed the highest activity against E. coli, S. aureus and A.
niger [43]. The antimicrobial property of 50 percent aqueous
ethanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica
Some of these diseases such as venereal diseases, diarrhoea,
vaginitis, cystitis, pneumonia, and sore throat are microbial diseases
mentioned in Unani medicine [15, 17]. A. nilotica is effective in
aforementioned conditions because of its anti-microbial activity.
(L.) exhibited antifungal property
against Rhizoctonia solani. [44]. A. nilotica demonstrated the highest
activity against three bacterial strains (E. coli, S. aureus and
Salmonella typhi) and two fungal strains (Candida albicans and
Aspergillus niger) [18]. Pods and leaf extracts exhibited the anti-viral
effect [45]. Pods of A. nilotica were reported to inhibit HIV-1 induced
cytopathogenicity [46].
Anti-inflammatory activity
Traditionally, A. nilotica is used in various inflammatory conditions like
bronchitis, pharyngitis, vaginitis, and conjunctivitis as it possesses
Muhallil al waram (anti-inflammatory) property. The decoction of the
bark is locally useful in cystitis, and vaginitis [7]. The juice of bark mixed
with breast milk is dropped into the eye in conjunctivitis [7, 15].
Theointment of the young leaf around the eyes is beneficial in Ashob-i-
chashm harr (Acute conjunctivitis) [17]. It is used in ophthalmia, tender
leaf fried in ghee and wrapped around the eyes in chronic ophthalmia
and subconjunctival haemorrhage [15]. The bruised leaves are applied to
sore eyes in children[47]. The tender leaves growing tops rubbed into a
paste with sugar and water and given two times a day are useful in
cough [7]. The bark is also used in asthma and bronchitis [47].
Plants or their isolated derivatives are in practice to treat/act as anti-
inflammatory agents. Study results had confirmed that ethyl extract of
A. nilotica bark showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in 12-O-
tetradecanoyphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced mouse ear oedema
Sultana et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 12, Issue 2, 8-14
10
[48]. Other study results revealed that its pod aqueous extract at a
dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w. showed significant anti-inflammatory
activity in cotton pellet granuloma assay in rats [40]. Another study
investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of A. nilotica on albino rats
using carrageenan-induced paw oedema and yeast induced pyrexia at
a dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w. The results exhibited an increased inhibition
of paw oedema and pyrexia (20%) [49].
Anticancerousactivity
Cancer is a multifactorial disease and a major health problem worldwide.
Earlier studies reported that plants and their constituents show
inhibitory effects on the growth of malignant cells through modulation of
cellular proliferation, tumour suppressor gene, apoptosis, etc. It contains
flavonoids and various other constituents that play an important
function in the inhibition of cancer development. The experiment was
made to evaluate the anticancer activity of aqueous extracts of gum,
flower and leaves of A. nilotica in 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene
(DMBA) induced skin papallomegenesis in Swiss albino mice. The results
showed a significant reduction in the values of tumour burden, tumour
incidence and cumulative papillomas [50]. A study finding revealed that
methanolic pods extract showing anti-uveal melanoma activity [38].
Antioxidant activity
Free radical or reactive oxygen species are one of the main causes in the
genesis of various diseases. Antioxidants deactivate free radicals, often
before the attack targets in cells. Medicinal plants have been reported to
have antioxidant activity. A valuable study was carried out to evaluate in
vitro antioxidant activity in 8 different crude extracts of the pods of A.
nilotica. The results obtained strongly indicated that green pods of A.
nilotica are an important source of natural antioxidants [29]. Other
results revealed that umbelliferone a coumarin derivative studied in
vitro, and exhibited a higher antioxidant activity [51]. Another study
revealed that A. nilotica was an easily accessible source of natural
antioxidants, which can be used as a supplement to aid the therapy of
free radical-mediated diseases such as cancer, diabetes inflammation, etc
[52]. Furthermore, the high scavenging property of A. nilotica may be
due to hydroxyl groups existing in the phenolic compounds that can
scavenge the free radicals [The antioxidant activity of fruit extract of A.
nilotica and leaves extract of the date palm revealed that the methanol
extract of each plant powder was obtained by dissolving 5g of each plant
powder in 50 ml methanol-water had rich sources of total phenol
content and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) radical
scavenging activity [53].
Antimalarial potential
A study was performed to investigate the anti-plasmodium activity of
aqueous and methanolic root extract of Babul in Plasmodium Berghei
infected mice. The results revealed significant activity against
chloroquine-sensitive strains [54]. Ethyl acetate extract of its root
showed the highest activity against P. falciparum. Another in vitro
study was made to evaluate the antimalarial activities of leaves, pods
and bark extracts of A. nilotica. The results revealed that it had an
antimalarial effect as all extracts inhibited the development of mature
schizont indicating schizonticide activity against P. falciparum [55].
Analgesic and antipyretic activity
Traditionally, A. nilotica has been shown to be a potent analgesic as
it is used in ophthalmic pain. The young leaves fried in ghee and
wrapped around the eyes in chronic ophthalmia and subconjunctival
haemorrhage [15, 20].
Modern researches also have revealed that it has analgesic and
antipyretic activity. One of the studies examined antipyretic as well
as the analgesic activity of an aqueous root extract of A. nilotica in
Wistar Albino rat models. The antipyretic and analgesic activity of
the extract was compared with acetaminophen. The results showed
that extract produces a significant dose-dependent reduction in
rectal temperature of rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight.
Significant analgesic activity was also observed which was
comparable to the acetaminophen [56].
Degenerative diseases
Acetylcholinestrase (AChE) inhibitor has been used as a drug for the
symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease [57]. The root
aqueous, ethyl acetate leaf, ethanol leaf, and ethyl acetate bark
extract of A. nilotica had AChE inhibitory activity [58]. Another study
showed inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by diterpene niloticane
isolated from stem bark ethyl acetate extract of A. nilotica [47].
TheeExperimentation showed potent that the AChE-inhibiting effect
of A. nilotica was much more potent than Portuguese and Danish
medicinal plants such as Brassica nigra and B. alba, Myristica
fragrans, Juniperus Sabina and other plants [59].
Gastrointestinal tract
Traditionally, the decoction of leaves is used as astringent for the bowels
[11, 14, 17]. Pods and bark are useful in piles [20]. Dry thorn of Acacia,
boiled in 400 ml of water, filtered and add honey in it, is useful in hiccups
[15, 20]. The gum mucilage in useful in diarrhoea and dysentery [7]. The
paste of leaves with Zeera siyah (Bunium bulbocastanum) and Zeera
safaid (Cuminum cyminum) is useful in phlegmatic diarrhoea. Powdered
pods and leaf extracts are also useful in diarrhoea. Flowers are used as a
tonic in diarrhoea and dysentery. Fresh leaves along with sugar and Kali
mirch (Piper nigrum) are useful in intestinal abrasions and hemorrhagic
diarrhoea. The decoction of bark causes constipation when used orally
or as an enema [15].
The significant protective effect of 50% hydroethanolic and 70%
hydroethanolic pods extract was revealed in gastric ulcers [22]. The
methanol fruit (pods with seeds) extract of A. nilotica showed a dose
and time-dependent antihelminthic effects in worms by inhibiting
egg hatching and larval development [60]. The methanol bark
extract was used to treat barium chloride-induced peristaltic
movements and castor oil, magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhoea
and in vitro antimicrobial activity against common micro-organisms
causing diarrhoea in Swiss albino mouse model [61].
Metabolic disorders
Metabolic disorders consist of hyperglycemia, hypertension,
hyperlipidemia, and central obesity. Each metabolic disorder is
associated with other risk factors that promote cardiovascular disease
[62]. Herbal medicines have therapeutic effects on regulating these
disorders. A. nilotica is a useful drug for Zyabetus (diabetes) as stated
in the traditional Unani medicine [20], which is scientifically proven i n
various in vivo, in vitro and clinical studies. An in vitro study was
undertaken to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of roasted A. nilotica
powder in diabetic rats, statistically significant lowering of blood
glucose levels from 132.23±26.68 to 106.1±10.92 was observed [63].
Another important study suggested that aqueous and methanol leaves
extracts of A. nilotica exhibited hypoglycemic and anti-platelet
aggregation activity in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats [64].
The hot water extract of pods showed hypoglycemic effects in adult
male albino rat models [65]. However, pods and tender leaves are
considered very beneficial in folk medicine to treat DM.
Hyperlipidemia one of the risky metabolic disorders can progressively
cause and/or exacerbated a wide spectrum of co-morbidities. Animal
studies have shown that A. nilotica is protective against hyperlipidemia.
In an animal study, A. nilotica extract was given in doses of 100 mg/kg
and 200 mg/kg orally for 21 d to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic
female albino rats to assess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and
antioxidant effects. Its treatment had decreased total cholesterol level
(TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),
malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant increase in high-density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was observed [65].
Traditionally, flowers of A. nilotica are powerful tonic and enrich the
blood [49]. The flower extract is useful in Khafaqn harr (palpitation)
[13, 23].
A decrease in arterial blood pressure was reported with the use of a
methanolic extract of A. nilotica pods and provided evidence of
antihypertensive activity independent of muscarinic receptor
stimulation. In the in vitro study, A. nilotica has an inhibitory effect
on force and rate of spontaneous contractions in guinea-pig paired
atria and rabbit jejunum. Another study showed that methanol
extract of A. nilotica pods had antihypertensive and antispasmodic
activity [32]. It also inhibited K+induced contraction in rabbit
jejunum and suggested the antispasmodic action of A. nilotica, which
was mediated through the calcium channel blockade, hence also be
responsible for the blood pressure-lowering effect of A. nilotica
observed in the in vivo studies [66].
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Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 12, Issue 2, 8-14
11
Table 2: Clinical studies of Acacia nilotica linn
Title of the study,
author with year
Study
design
Sample
size
Participants
Dosage with route of
administration
References
Short-term clinical
effects of
commercially
available gel
containing
Acacia
arabica
Prospective
Randomized
placebo
control trial
90
Subjects having chronic
generalized gingivitis.
Local application of gel
on gums.
clinical improvement in
gingival and plaque
[70]
Anti-gingivitis
Effects of
Acacia
arabica-containing
Toothpaste
Randomized
, Double-
blind
crossover
control trial
60
8-37 y of age with
minimum of 15 teeth,
good general health, a
baseline plaque index
(PI) mean>1.510 and the
presence of established
gingivitis along
with mean gingivitis
scores
Subjects brush their
teeth thrice daily with
50g 0f non-fluoridated
toothpaste containing
Acacia.
>1.0.
28 d was recorded in
the test group before
crossover is (0.69) and
0.94 whereas the lowest
score differential was
recorded in the control
[71]
Evaluate the efficacy
of
Aqaqia
(Gum of
Acacia) in improving
women quality of
life in uterine
prolapse with P-QOL
Quetionnaire
Single-blind,
Randomized
study
30
Participants diagnosed
with uterine prolapse.
Acacia powder orally as
well in the form of
pessary given
Acacia
significant
improvement in QOL in
the uterine prolapse
[72]
Babul A potential
source of tannin and
its suitability in the
management of type
II diabetes mellitus
Pilot study
42
30 normal subjects (20
female and 10 males) for
assessing the Glycemic
index.
12 diabetic subjects (8
males and 4 females)
Babul pods powder
incorporated in biscuits
(3g per serve)-Blood
sugar levels recorded at
every 30 min interval for
2 hr
of blood glucose levels.
[41]
Efficacy of Herbal
Formulation
(containing Acacia
Arabica and Butea
Frondosa) In
Treatment of Post-
natal Backache
Open
prospective
clinical trial
12
21-45 age year women in
the postnatal period
complained backache,
white discharge and
fatigue without any other
pathology.
6g of Acacia and Butea
powder gave twice daily
with a glass of milk for 30
d.
[73]
for pain relief. Relief in
other symptoms is
77.7% patients for
Efficacy of Acacia
arabica
gum as an
adjunct to scaling
and root planning in
the treatment of
chronic
periodontitis
Randomized
, triple-blind
controlled
trial
80
Age between 18-70 y with
mild to moderate chronic
periodonitis analyzed for
clinical improvements in
periodontal pocket depth
and clinical attachment
levels.
Application of Acacia gel
twice daily after tooth
brushing.
observed with the use of
Acacia gel.
[74]
Efficacy of bark of
Acacia arabica
in
management of
bacterial vaginosis:
a randomized
controlled trial
Single-blind,
randomized
standard
controlled
study
45
Participants diagnosed
with bacterial vaginosis
The decoction of Chal
babool
was given orally
(30 gms twice daily) for
one month and standard
drug Tab. Metronidazole
(400 mg twice daily) for
7 d was given
the control drug in the
management of
Bacterial Vaginosis
[75]
Effect of Abzan of
Samar Babool
in
Sayalan al-Rahim-A
randomized
controlled study
Single-blind,
randomized
placebo-
controlled
study
66
Married women within
the age group of 18–50 y,
presenting with sayalan
al-rahim (abnormal
vaginal discharge)
and/or associated with
any of these symptoms
such as pain in the lower
abdomen, low backache,
dyspareunia, dysuria,
burning micturition,
vulvar itching and vulvar
irritation
In the test group aqueous
extract powder of
samar
babool (30g) followed by
hamul (5 ml of the same
solution) intravaginally
and in the control group
placebo palm sugar
powder (30g) once daily
for 10 d. In both groups,
orally, one capsule of
placebo was given daily
for 10 d.
for the treatment of
sayalan al-rahim
assessed by VAS scale
and for the
improvement in HRQoL
of women assessed by
EQ-5D-5L.
[76]
Gum arabic reduces
C-reactive protein in
chronic kidney
disease patients
without affecting
urea or indoxyl
sulfate levels
Open-label
randomized
clinical trial
with
parallel
design
36
Eligible candidates were
adult CKD patients in
stage 3B/4
Each patient 28 labelled
packages containing 10,
20, or 40 grams of gum
Arabica in the form of
instantly soluble granules
1040 g/day of GA
significantly reduced
CRP level.
[77]
Sultana et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 12, Issue 2, 8-14
12
Oral cavity
Oral hygiene measures have been practiced by different populations
around the world since antiquity. Dental caries is one of the most
common human diseases that affect the vast majority of individuals.
The bark of Acacia is used in toothpaste, which acts as a Mujali-i-
dandan (tooth cleaner) [16]. Extract of leaves is used as hemoptysis,
the paste of its bark makes the gum strong, strengthens the teeth
and also checks bleeding gums. The bark decoction is used as a
gargle in various throat problems. The bark of Acacia and the bark of
mango in an equal quantity (6g) boiled in 750 ml of water for half an
hour and gargled with the filtered solution is useful in mouth ulcers.
Gargles with its leaves, bark and Hardh (Terminalia chebula) bark
are also used in the treatment of sore throat [7, 15, 47].
An in vitro study was done to assess the effectiveness of 5%, 10%, and
50% extract of dried chewing sticks of A. nilotica on Streptococcus
mutans. The results showed the effect of various concentrations of
aqueous A. nilotica extracts on Streptococcus mutans [4].
Prolactin release and milk production
Stem bark aqueous extract in the dose of 280-560 mg/b. w was
proven to have the stimulation of milk production and mammary
gland development in the female rats [67].
Sexual and urogenital
Traditionally, A. nilotica has been used to treat sexual dysfunctions.
Pods are Muqawwi-i-bah (strong aphrodisiac) and useful to treat
Salyan al-rahim (leucorrhoea) [13, 15, 20, 47]. A douche of decoction
of the bark is also useful in Silsil al-bawl (incontinence of urine) [16].
A douche of bark decoction with alum powder is useful in abnormal
vaginal discharge. The oral intake of bark decoction is useful in
Istehaza (Abnormal uterine bleeding) [15]. Powdered pods are used
in impotency, spermatorrhoea and effective in urogenital disorders
[47]. Recent scientific studies have also proven the same effect that
the fresh pods extract are useful in the treatment of sexual disorders
such as spermatorrhoea, loss of viscidity of semen, frequent night
discharges and premature ejaculation [68].
In vitro study with ethanolic bark extract of A. nilotica 300 mg/kg b.
w showed an increase in the volume of urine and concentrations of
Na, K, and Cl ions proving its diuretic effect [69].
Smooth muscle relaxant property
An experiment was made to assess the smooth muscle relaxant
activity of methanolic leaf extract against the acetylcholine and
oxytocin-induced contractions in isolated Wistar rat uterus. The
results showed excellent muscle relaxant activity of A. nilotica [35].
Clinical trials
Various clinical trials were conducted to study the effect of A.
nilotica in gingivitis, uterine prolapse, leucorrhoea, diabetes
mellitus, postnatal backache, chronic periodontitis, and bacterial
vaginosis. The clinical trials are summarized in table 2 [41, 70-77].
Side effects as per unani classical texts
It affects stomach [11, 13, 14, 23], intestines [11, 13, 14]; rectum
[23], brain [23], chest [15, 16]. To prevent these side effects Kateera
(Astragalus tragacanth) [11, 13, 14, 16, 23], Shehad (Honey) [11, 13,
14, 16], Mirch siyaah (Piper nigrum) [13] and Banafsha (Viola
odorata)[15]; Bahi (Cydonia oblonga)[23] is used.
Safety and toxicological studies
The measurement of toxicities of the natural compounds are crucial
before their application in health management. Various studies
based on animal models confirmed that A. nilotica is safe at a certain
dose. One of the studies has proven that A. nilotica extract has
hepatoprotective action and this effect relies on reducing the
oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in the
rat model [78]. Another study showed the protective effect of A.
nilotica leaf extract and ethyl gallate on DNA and protein against
oxidative stress in
A study showed that the bark extract of Acacia is very much toxic to
Vero cells at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 micro gm/ml
[45]. Another study revealed that LD50 was found to be 215.36
mg/kg for ethanolic extract of Acacia in rats. Further, the authors
concluded that some toxicity was observed when administered
subacutely and intraperitoneally in rats, especially at a higher dose
of 60 mg/kg [80]. The possible toxicity of A. nilotica was examined in
rats maintained at 2% and 8% acacia diet for 2 and 4 w. A significant
reduction in body weight in all acacia fed rats and a significant
decrease in the levels of hemoglobin, serum total protein, and total
cholesterol in rats fed at 8% acacia diet for up to 4 w were noted
[81]. One of the studies showed that goats who received oral doses
of 1 g/kg/day of Acacia had an intermittent loss of voice, in-
coordination in movement and one goat died after 3 d of dosing,
another died on day 15 and the last goat with this dose died on day
35. Goats who received oral doses of 5 g/kg/day of Acacia nilotica
pods, the prominent signs observed from day one of dosing was the
thick saliva, loss of voice, staggering movement, recumbence loss of
appetite and all goats with this dose died between day 4 and day 8 of
the experiment [82].
in vitro study [79].
CONCLUSION
The popularity of Traditional medicinal plants or their derivatives role
in disease prevention and management is increasing worldwide. The
extensive survey of literature revealed that A. nilotica is an important
traditional medicinal plant with diverse medicinal properties with an
array of pharmacological activities. It has been traditionally used
worldwide since ancient times. The clinical-based studies confirmed
that it plays an important role in the prevention and management of
various diseases. Further, evaluation needs to be carried out in order
to explore the concealed areas and their practical clinical applications,
which can be used for the welfare of mankind.
FUNDING
Nil
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Authors acknowledge the tremendous help obtained from the
scholars whose articles are cited and included in references for this
review article.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
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... It is distributed in many countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Oman, Pakistan, Nepal, India, Egypt, Libya, Ethiopia, Angola, Kenya, Mali, Botswana, Israel, Angola, Ghana, Malawi, Uganda, Somalia, Mozambique, Sudan, Tanzania, Senegal, South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Nigeria. The bark and stem of A. nilotica can be used in tooth cleaners and toothpaste [69,70]. To treat the bleeding of gum and to make strong gums, the paste of the bark and stem of this plant is used. ...
... The combined mixture of extract from Terminalia chebula and A. nilotica is proven to treat sore throat and ulcers of the mouth. Its extract provides toothache relief, and its branches are used for teeth cleaning [70][71][72]. ...
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Plant-derived phytochemicals have been touted as viable substitutes in a variety of diseases. All over the World dentists have turned to natural remedies for dental cure due to the negative pos-sessions of certain antibacterial mediators used in dentistry. Antimicrobial and other drugs are currently in use, but they show some side effects. Since ancient times, antioxidant EOs has used for different ailments and have grown in popularity over time. Several in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials have shown the safety and effectiveness of antioxidant EOs in oral health obtained from medicinal plants. The current review of literature provides a summary of secondary metabolites more specifically EOs from twenty most commonly utilized medicinal plants and their applica-tions in maintaining oral health. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common and preventable global infectious diseases, with diseases of the oral cavity being considered ma-jor diseases affecting a person's health. Several clinical studies have shown a connection between oral diseases and the oral micro-biota. This review discusses the role of antioxidant secondary metabolites in inhibiting the growth of oral pathogens and reducing the formation of dental plaque and as well as reducing the symptoms of oral diseases. This review article contributes a basic outline of essential oils and their healing actions.
... Through this review authors have tried to explore the therapeutic potential of A. nilotica and thus may be a promising rout for new, safe, biodegradable and renewable source of drugs with high therapeutic index. The paste of bark is useful in strengthening teeth and gums ( Saeedi et al., 2020 ). Furthermore, the extract of A. acacia alone and in synergistic with Psidium guajava showed substantial antibacterial activity (equivalent chlorhexidine) against teeth associated with bacteria viz ., Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguis and S. salivarius causing dental caries and periodontitis ( Saeedi et al., 2020 ;Shekar et al., 2014 ). ...
... The paste of bark is useful in strengthening teeth and gums ( Saeedi et al., 2020 ). Furthermore, the extract of A. acacia alone and in synergistic with Psidium guajava showed substantial antibacterial activity (equivalent chlorhexidine) against teeth associated with bacteria viz ., Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguis and S. salivarius causing dental caries and periodontitis ( Saeedi et al., 2020 ;Shekar et al., 2014 ). As an olden medicine, the plant also revealed antidiabetic, anticancer, anthelminthic, antihypertensive, antidiarrheal activity and used for healing skin wounds (cuts, burns leprosy) ( Farzana et al., 2014 ). ...
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Background The Dearth of the self-rejuvenation capability of cartilage tissue is one of the frequent problems encountered by the dentist and orthopedic surgeons. Acacia nilotica commonly known as (babul, thorny acacia, Egyptian acacia or thorn mimosa) has wide range of medicinal uses. The current study was carried out to investigate the herbal-based chondrogenesis inducing ability of leaves extract of A. nilotica in Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Purpose To investigate the ability of Acacia nilotica leaves extract in chondrogenesis induction from Mesenchymal stem cells Study design The experimental were designed according to the completely randomized design (CRD). Methods Different concentration of water and ethanol extract of plant leaves were tested for its inhibitory activity on HDP-SC. The HDP-SCs were stimulated to differentiate into chondrocytes in the presence of water extract of A. nilotica leaves. The study was accomplished by assessing the glycosaminoglycan (GAG), aggrecan, collagen 2α1 (Col2α1), and sox9 in the cellular matrix required for cartilage tissue formation. The MSCs revealed surface markers like CD45, CD90, CD105, and CD166 cultured on specialized chondrogenic differentiation medium in presence of leaves extract of A. nilotica. Results The aqueous leaves extract showed a time-dependent increase in the concentration of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) deposition on 7th, 14th, and 21st day of incubation. The chondrogenic specific markers like aggrecan and col2α1were up-regulated from 7th to 21st days of incubation showing the highest protein expression on the 21st day. The sox9 protein was substantially enhanced on the 7th to 21thday of incubation of HDP-SC with leaves extract of A. nilotica compared to standard TGF-β inducer. Conclusion The results demonstrate that aqueous leaves extract of A. nilotica promotes chondrogenesis of Mesenchymal stem cells. The study suggests that water leaves extract of “Babool"can be used as an alternative strategy for treatment of dental pulp through chondrogenic differentiation. A. nilotica as a source of many active secondary metabolites which may serve as potential candidates for development of novel lead compounds. This research confirmed the usefulness of this plant A. nilotica as a characteristic feature of medical plant and pharmaceutical. Further studies in the future are required to identify the role of the rest of the active compounds.
... It is noticeably scattered throughout the entire globe, specifically in the tropical parts as well as sub-tropical parts. Also, holds nativity to Egypt, America, India and America (Saeedi et al., 2020). In the Indian Ayurvedic healing system, the leaves, pods and barks were served against gastrointestinal troubles (diarrhea), menstrual issues, fever, metabolic diseases (cancer and diabetes mellitus), gallbladder issues, smallpox and respiratoryrelated diseases (cold and tuberculosis). ...
Article
The medicative plants were copiously applied in the healing of health complications. Traditionally implemented, medicative-worthy Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae family), is applied globe-wide in customary healing practices. Here, we have tried to unravel the antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial and cytotoxic trait of A. nilotica bark aqueous extract. Phyto-content testing revealed presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, phenols, carbohydrates, proteins, and amino acids. The antioxidant efficacies were 39.12 µg/ml (for DPPH assay) and 42.64 µg/ml (for NO assay) as IC50 ranges, respectively. The bark aqueous extract manifested fungicidal impact on all the screened fungal strains with the highest inhibitory zone against A. fumigatus (19.5 ± 0.45 mm). The MTT assay of bark aqueous extract registered a dose-related cytotoxic impression with 39.05 µg/ml (IC50 outcome). Hence, it emphasizes strongly that A. nilotica bark aqueous extract is a prospective therapeutic source and it is indispensable to further scrutinize its therapeutic and curative properties.
... The CDC holds an Expanded Access of an Investigational New Drug for use in outbreak of orthopoxvirus infection including monkeypox [59][60][61][62]. [63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74]. Of course, their traditional use needs to be substantiated with in-depth studies that demonstrate their antiviral activity in both in vitro and in vivo bioassays. ...
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Introduction The re-emergence of monkeypox virus in the twenty-first century, calls for an urgency in its control and preventive measures. There is a long-standing concern, that the re-emergence of monkeypox across countries, could lead to another epidemic like the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the disease ecology, preventing its transmission could help curbing its spread. The established treatment protocols along with development of new antiviral agents and vaccines could play a pivotal role in controlling its transmission. Areas covered In this review, we summarize the different modes of transmission of this disease, the associated symptoms, the standard protocol of treatment, the available vaccines and use of alternative treatments. We have collated recent research on novel entities that could potentially treat monkeypox infection. Expert opinion The One Health approach fostered by the World Health Organization (WHO) for emergent and reemerging zoonotic diseases has to be implemented with a view to curb their transmission. The growing global population and increased inter-country travel has led to rapid spread of transmissible pathogens. Stigmatization, associated with lack of knowledge can be prevented by enhancing awareness campaigns. Vaccines need to be administered to high-risk individuals, and drug discovery efforts need to be intensified to combat such diseases.
... Another ingredient, Babool, is very rich in secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, tannins, terpenes, flavonoids, and fatty acids. These metabolites show anti-inflammatory effect [28]. This study has certain limitations which have to be taken into consideration while generalizing the findings. ...
Article
Background and AimPain management following tooth extraction is crucial in minimizing patient suffering and risk of infection and hastening the recovery. Safety issues with routinely prescribed drugs such as NSAIDs for pain management call for search of an effective and safe alternative. Advances in the field of alternative medicine have led to the use of various natural products for pain management in the field of dentistry. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy between the analdent and aceclofenac in terms of alleviation of post-operative pain and facial swelling after extraction of tooth.MethodsA split-mouth randomized clinical trial was conducted on 22 participants in the age range of 13–25 years requiring extraction of first permanent premolars for orthodontic reason. The extraction sites were randomized to receive either analdent or aceclofenac post-orthodontic extraction. Post-extraction dental pain was assessed after 8 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post-operatively using a visual analog scale, and incidence of swelling was recorded.ResultsPain score showed a significant reduction (p = 0.001) post-operatively within analdent (herbal drug) group as well as Zerodol (aceclofenac) group. However, there was no significant difference in pain intensity between the two groups at each interval. Two participants in analdent group and one participant in aceclofenac group reported swelling after 8 h of extraction which subsided after cold pack application.Conclusion Analdent was found to be equally effective as aceclofenac in managing pain after the tooth extraction with relatively no side effects.CTRI Registration Number: CTRI/2020/ 03/024296 dated 27/03/2020.
... Nowadays, plants are recognized as a form of folk remedies due to their wide therapeutic potential and, in turn, minor side effects and good toleration with patients regardless of age [2][3][4]. The use for the benefit of mankind of medicinal plants (MP) in folk and scientific medicine has a centuriesold tradition [5,6]. Medicinal plants play a main role in the development of traditional medicine, as well as actual pharmaceuticals [7][8][9]. ...
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Objective: The aim of our study was to establish the content of some primary metabolites, such as amino acids in Crambe cordifolia and Crambe koktebelica. The lack of experimental data induced us to determine these compounds. Methods: Crambe cordifolia and Crambe koktebelica leaves were selected as the objects of the study. The amino acids in the raw materials were determined by the HPLC method. Results: The results of the research revealed that the leaves of Crambe cordifolia and Crambe koktebelica contain fifteen and sixteen free amino acids respectively. Among the free amino acids L-histidine was presented in Crambe cordifolia leaves in the greatest amount, its content was 12.19 µg/mg. The content of free L-arginine, L-valine, L-phenylalanine, L-isoleucine was the greatest in Crambe koktebelica leaves, it was 2.23 µg/mg, 2.04 µg/mg, 1.74 µg/mg, 1.50 µg/mg respectively. The content of bound L-glutamic acid, Glycine, L-arginine, L-leucine was the highest in Crambe cordifolia and Crambe koktebelica leaves. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that Crambe cordifolia and Crambe koktebelica can be considered as a source of highly digestible amino acids that can be used to treat some diseases.
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Aim The aim of the present study was to explore the adjunctive use of Acacia arabica gel in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Methods Single centre, randomised, triple blind, controlled trial on mild to moderate chronic periodontitis patients; Group I (SRP + Acacia arabica, n = 40) and Group II (SRP + placebo, n = 40); were analysed for clinical improvements in periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment levels (CAL) at baseline, 15 and 90 days on application of gels. Gingival index and plaque index were assessed as secondary parameters. Results Statistically significant PPD reduction (p < .05) and CAL gain (p < .05) was observed with use of Acacia arabica gel. The reduction in sites with moderate PPD was observed more among Group I than Group II and the difference was statistically significant (p = .001). Secondary outcome variables; Plaque Index and Gingival Index showed better resolution with Acacia arabica gel. Conclusion Acacia arabica leads to better clinical outcomes in patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis with effective antiplaque and anti-gingivitis action. It may be recommended adjunct to SRP for maintenance in patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis.
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Background The emergence of drug resistant malaria is threatening our ability to treat and control malaria in the Southeast Asian region. There is an urgent need to develop novel and chemically diverse antimalarial drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the antimalarial and antioxidant potentials of Acacia nilotica plant extracts. Methods The antioxidant activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts were determined by standard antioxidant assays; reducing power capacity, % lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. The antimalarial activities of plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum parasites were determined by the 48 h schizont maturation inhibition assay. Further confirmation of schizonticide activity of extracts was made by extending the incubation period up to 96 h after removing the plant extract residues from parasites culture. Inhibition assays were analyzed by dose-response modelling. Results In all antioxidant assays, leaves of A. nilotica showed higher antioxidant activity than pods and bark. Antimalarial IC50 values of leaves, pods and bark extracts were 1.29, 4.16 and 4.28 μg/ml respectively, in the 48 h maturation assay. The IC50 values determined for leaves, pods and bark extracts were 3.72, 5.41 and 5.32 μg/ml respectively, after 96 h of incubation. All extracts inhibited the development of mature schizont, indicating schizonticide activity against P. falciparum. Conclusion A. nilotica extracts showed promising antimalarial and antioxidant effects. However, further investigation is needed to isolate and identify the active components responsible for the antimalarial and antioxidant effects.
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Introduction Gum Arabic (GA) is a complex polysaccharide with proven prebiotic properties and potentially beneficial systemic effects. Methods We randomly allocated 36 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients to receive 10, 20, or 40 grams daily of GA for four weeks and studied the systemic effects of this intervention. Results Thirty participants completed the study with baseline glomerular filtration rate 29.1 ± 9.9 mL/min/1.7 m². In contrast to previous observations, we found no effect on serum urea or creatinine levels. GA supplementation was associated with a small but statistically significant drop in serum sodium level (138 ± 2 to 136 ± 3 mmol/L, p = 0.002) without affecting other electrolytes, urine volume, or indoxyl sulfate (IS) levels. GA supplementation was also associated with a significant drop in C-reactive protein (CRP) level (3.5 ± 1.5 to 2.8 ± 1.6 ng/mL, p = 0.02) even in patients who received only 10 g/day (4.4 ± 1.2 to 3.2 ± 1.5 ng/mL, p = 0.03). Conclusions Supplementing the diet of CKD patients with 10–40 g/day of GA significantly reduced CRP level which could have a positive impact on these patients' morbidity and mortality. This trial is registered with Saudi Clinical Trial Registry number 15011402.
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Microbial infections are major public health problems in the developing countries. Infectious disease consider as the most cause of death for approximately one-half of all deaths in tropical countries. This study was carried out to investigate the in-vitro antibacterial activity of Acacia nilotica methanolic fruits extract against clinical isolates performed by cup-plate agar diffusion method against 5 Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia and 2 Gram positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. The methanolic extract exhibited inhibitory effects against most of the tested microorganisms with zone of inhibition ranging from (11-39 mm). The largest inhibition zone were obtained from the methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica (fruits) against the Gram negative Salmonella typhi (39mm) in 100 mg/ml concentration, and Gram positive Bacillus cereus (30mm) in 100 mg/ml concentration comparison with Gentamicin (10μg/disc). These studies conducted for A. nilotica (fruits) was proved to have potent activities against clinical isolated bacteria in vitro and was considered as treatment of several bacterial and viral infections.
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Objective . The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in the management of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods . On December 9, 2015, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, AMED, CNKI, KoreaMed, KMBASE, OASIS, and J-STAGE with no restriction on language or published year. We selected randomized controlled trials that involved patients with metabolic syndrome being treated with herbal medicines as intervention. The main keywords were “Chinese herbal medicines”, “metabolic syndrome”, and “randomized controlled trials”. Herbal substances which were not based on East Asian medical theory, combination therapy with western medicines, and concurrent diseases other than metabolic syndrome were excluded. The risk of bias was assessed by Cochrane’s “Risk of Bias” tool. The protocol or review was registered in PROSPERO (an international prospective register of systematic reviews) ( CRD42014006842 ). Results . From 1,098 articles, 12 RCTs were included in this review: five trials studied herbal medicines versus a placebo or no treatment, and seven trials studied herbal medicines versus western medicines. Herbal medicines were effective on decreasing waist circumference, blood glucose, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Conclusion . This study suggests the possibility that herbal medicines can be complementary and alternative medicines for metabolic syndrome.
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India is a great country that is recognized for its rich culture and medicinal plants. Most of the people in India is reliant on the herbal plant for their therapeutic needs. The present review will focus on Therapeutic plants from India along with its medicinal use. Various medicinal plants have already proved their significance with curing diseases including bacteriological infections and some life threating serious diseases. Medicinal plants are rich in antioxidant and proved best as antimicrobial agents. Herbal drugs are achieving popularity as compared to allopathic drugs the reasons includes adverse effects of man-made antibiotics, the prompt surge in contagious diseases, the resistance of drug in microbes. Herbal plants show slow recovery; still a great population is using it because it showed no side effects and low resistance in microbes. Antimicrobial status of various herbal plants has been reported. Therapeutic plants work as a potent antimicrobial. Herbal plants are used for its medicinal purpose throughout the world as an herbal plant provides a base material for various effective drugs. A great number of herbal plants has been used as a drug in the form of crude extracts and extensively used for their therapeutic possessions. A huge number of plants have been examined for antimicrobial possessions, but still the majority of plants have not been examined adequately. So, the present review will focus on some of the selected medicinal plants along with its antimicrobial status.
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The present study is to systematically evaluate smooth muscle relaxant activity against Acetylcholine and Oxytocin induced contraction in Wistar rats.Methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica (L) Willd leaf extract were carried out by soxhlet extraction and separation of phytoconstituents by using Thin Layer Chromatography. Identification of phytoconstituents was done by using different physicochemical parameters and smooth muscle relaxant activity was observed against Acetylcholine and Oxytocin induced contraction. The results of the present study concluded that the methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica (L) Willd leaf extract has smooth muscle relaxant activity against both Acetylcholine and Oxytocin induced contraction on duodenum and uterus respectively. Triterpenoid present in the methanolic extract responsible for smooth muscle relaxant activity.
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Objectives: To study the antimicrobial property of 50% aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. against few micro organisms. Method: The leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. were sequentially soaked in petroleum ether (60-80° C), chloroform, benzene and 50% aqueous ethanol, extracts were collected, filtered and concentrated. Antimicrobial potentiality of the extracts were tested against few micro-organisms. Result: Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. exhibited antifungal effect against Rhizoctonia solani. Conclusion: The plant leaf extract can be used as antimicrobial agent against Rhizoctonia solani.