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Subtle energy system of human body based on energy model of Yoga and Traditional Chinese Medicine

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Volume 5 | Issue 3-4 | May - Aug 2019
Review Article
Subtle energy system of human body based on energy
model of Yoga and Traditional Chinese Medicine
Kuntal Ghosh*, Alex Hankey1, TM Srinivasan2
*Assistant Professor, 1, 2 Professor, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana,
Eknath Bhavan, 19 Gavipuram Circle, K. G. Nagar, Bengaluru 560 019, Karnataka, India.
Abstract
Background: Subtle energy system of human body is explained in two eastern
philosophies. In Yoga, it is explained through Chakra, Nāḍī and Prāṇa. The same concept is
depicted in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as dantian, meridian and Qi.
Objective: is to understand the subtle energy system of the human body using an
energy model based on Yoga and TCM.
Materials and Methods: Tra di ti on al t ex ts su ch a s Upa ni sh ad s, c la ss ic al Yog a a lo ng
with TCM texts were studied to provide a fuller understanding of the human body’s
subtle energy system based on Chakra, dantian, Nāḍī, meridian, Prāṇa and Qi.
Observations and results: Fo ur t e en p ro m i ne n t Nāḍī are identified by Upanishads
and major Yoga texts. TCM also recognises 14 main meridians. Nāḍī connect to higher
centres in the head and to the ‘gates’ of our body. In TCM, meridians originate or
terminate from head region, hand and feet which are close to Nāḍī points.
Conclusion: Nāḍī and meridians are close to three Chakra groups or three dantians.
Chakras and dantians are energy centres. Both share a similar function to move Prāṇa or
Qi energy through subtle channel of Nāḍī or meridian. Prāṇa or Qi is the fundamental
energy in the human subtle energy system recognised by Yoga and TCM.
Keywords: Chakra, Dantian, Meridian, Nāḍī, Prāṇa, Qi, TCM, Yoga
Address for
Correspondence:
Dr. Kuntal Gosh
Swami Vivekananda Yoga
Anusandhana Samsthana,
Eknath Bhavan, 19
Gavipuram Circle, K. G.
Nagar, Bengaluru 560 019,
Karnataka, India.
Email:
ghosh.kun@gmail.com
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Citation
Kuntal Ghosh, Alex Hankey, TM Srinivasan. Subtle energy system of human
body based on energy model of Yoga and Traditional Chinese Medicine.
J.res.tradit.med.2019;5(3-4): 51-57
DOI: 10.5455/JRTM.2019/58025
ISSN: 2455-3166
Access free download of this article on: www.tmjournal.org
Received: 22/07/2019! !
Accepted : 17/09/2019
J.res.tradit.med
Materials and Method
For a in-depth understanding of the human body’s
subtle energy system, in the present study those texts
were used where subtle system is explained. For
searching the text from the Indian philosophy the key
words used were Prāṇa, Nāḍī and Chakra. Considering
the yoga texts, all major Upanishad, also Yoga
Upanishad and classical Yoga texts had been
searched. Searching the text from the TCM, the key
words used were dantian, meridian, Qi. To chose and
the authenticate TCM texts, help was taken from the
expertise in the field of TCM. Following texts were
used are mentioned in the following chart below (chart
no. 1),
The second, Padma or Svādisthana Chakra is situated
at the root of reproductive organ. The third, Padma
or Maipura Chakra is located at naval region. In the
heart, there is the fourth Padma or Anāhata Chakra. At
the throat, the fifth Padma or Viśuddha Chakra is
situated. Between the eyebrows, the two petal Chakra is
Āāpadma or Āā Chakra. [3] At the crown of the
head, is the Sahasrā Padma or thousand petalled lotus
Chakra. (Padma is as an alternate name of Chakra).
Shivasamhita is the only one which gives explanations
regarding seven Chakras. It has also portrayed that
there are more Chakras in our subtle body. [3]
Nādī
Number of Nādī
Upaniad and Yoga texts describe innumerable
number of Nāḍī spread all over the body. Number of
Nāḍī is different in different Yoga texts.
(a) According to Upaniad:
There are 72,000 Nāḍī [4] and 101 of them are in
heart.[5]
J. res. tradit. med. | Volume 5 | Issue 3 -4 | May - Aug 2019
Review Article: Ayurveda
Introduction
Eastern science of philosophy is based on Indian and
Chinese science of philosophy. Yoga is the main component
in Indian science of philosophy where in Chinese science of
philosophy, the main component is Acupuncture. Yoga and
Acupuncture have their own potentiality. When we look into
the principle of two philosophies, both work on subtle
energy level and recognise its importance in health. There
are lots of evidence based research on application of both
sciences. In Yoga, the observed effects are explained through
Chakra, Nāḍī and Prāṇa. The same concept is depicted in
Tr ad it io na l Ch i ne se Me d ic in e ( TC M) a s d an t ia n, me r id ia n
and Qi. The aim of the study is to understand the subtle
energy system of the human body using an energy model
based on Yoga and TCM.
Observations
Subtle energy system according to Yoga
Chakra
Description of Chakra can be found in various Upaniad
and Yoga texts. Chakra are subtle energy centres. Pranic
energy accumulates in Chakra, which are said to store
and distribute it to all parts of the body. They are
located along the spinal cord. In the subtle human
body, there are seven major Chakra.
Suumnā is between Idā and Pingalā and has six energy
places known to the learned Yogi as six Chakrā. [1] Two
finger widths above the rectum and two finger widths
below the genital organ, there is space of about four
fingers area known as Ādhāra or Mulādhāra Chakrā. [2]
Chart no. 1: Details of literature reviewed
1. Jābāladarśana
2. Sāndilya
3. Yogaśikhā
4. Yogācūḍāmai
5. Triśikha rāhmaa
!
Ancient Yoga texts
Upaniad
Classical Yoga
texts
TCM Texts
!
Major
Upaniad
Yoga Upaniad
1. Śivasahitā
2. Shiva Svaroday
.Hahayogapradīpik
ā
1. AcuYoga
2.Advance
Acupunctuer
Theory
1. Bhadārayaka
2. Chāndogyo
3. Kaha
4. Praśno
J. res. tradit. med. | Volume 5 | Issue 3 -4 | May - Aug 2019
Tanmūlā bahavo naya sthūlasūkmāśca nāḍikāḥ|
Dvāsaptatisahasrāai sthūlāḥ sūkmāca nāḍya|
Sakhātu naiva śakyante sthūlamūlāḥ pthagvidhāḥ|
Yathāśvatthadale sūkmāḥ sthūlāśca vitatāstathā|
Tri bra u-1|75-76
All the Nāḍī are both gross and subtle, and originate
from energy centers called Chakras. It is very difficult to
differentiate each of them as with the leaves of a peepul
tree.[6]
(b) According to Yoga Texts
In a bunch there are 72,000 Nāḍī.[7] Like a sprout, Nāḍī
originating from the navel region and extending up to
the shoulders are 72,000 in number, and then spread
throughout the body. Of the 72,000 Nāḍī, 10 are main
Nāḍī among them, the 3 most important are called Iḍā,
Pigalā and Suumnā.[8] In an another reference, it has
been told that the human body has 3,50,000 Nāḍī.[9]
There is no general agreement about the number of
Nāḍī which exist in our body. From above information
it is well understood that the figure may be from 100 to
72 000 or it could be even more, upto 3,50,000.
Name of Nādī
The next level of knowledge of the Nāḍī system
concerns their names and locations. The names of
fourteen Nāḍī are given in various Upanishad and Yoga
texts.
(i)According to Upanishad
A. Śāṇḍilyopaniad
Depending on Kundalini which is situated in the
centre of the spinal cord, there are fourteen
principal Nāḍi. They are Iḍā, Pigalā, Suumnā,
Sarasvatī, Vāruṇī, Pūṣā, Hastijihvā, Yaśasvinī, Viśvodarī,
Kuhūḥ, Śakhinī, Payasvinī, Alambusā and Gāndhārī.[10]
B. Yogaśikhopaniad
The Śakhini Nāḍi which originates from pharynx
and facing downwards collects nutrients and supply
them to head region. The Chitra Nāḍi traverses in a
zig - zig manner and has the function of formation
and release of semen. It is also called Nāḍi Chakra.[11]
C. Jābāladarśanapaniad
Describes 14 major Nāḍī. They are Suumnā, Iḍā,
Pigalā, Sarasvatī, Pūṣā, Varuṇā, Hastijihvā, Yaśasvinī,
Alambuṣā, Kuhu, Viśvodarī, Tapasvinī, Śakhinī and
Gāndhārī.. It also mentions another Nāḍī called the
Brahma Nāḍī.[12]
(ii) According to Yoga Text:
Śivasvarodaya describes 10 major Nāḍī; of them, Iḍā
Pigalā and Suumnā are most important, the other
lesser Nāḍī are Gāndhārī, Hastijihvā, Yaśasvinī, Pūṣā,
Alambuṣā, Kuhu and Śakhinī.[13]
Shivasamhita names 14 Nāḍī, the Suumnā, Iḍā, Pigalā,
Gāndhārī, Hastijihvikā, Kuhu, Sarasvatī, Pūṣā Śakhinī,
Payasvinī, Varuni, Ālambusā, Viśvodarī and Yaśasvinī.
Among them Pigalā, Iḍā and Suumnā, are the three
most important ones. It also describes Citrā Nāḍī which
is more auspicious and subtler than others.[14]
Location of Nādī
Nāḍī originate from lower or middle spiritual center
and spread all over the body. Location of Nāḍī are
described in Yoga texts and Upaniad in various ways.
Śāṇḍilyopaniad mentions the location of 14 Nāḍī.
It starts with Suumnā, which is situated at the back of
the anus. It is attached to the spinal column and
extends to the Brahmarandhra on the head. Iḍā is
situated on the left of Suumnā and on the right of
Suumnā is Pigalā. Pigalā goes upwards to the right
nostril. To the back and on the side of Suumnā are
situated Sarasvatī and Kuhū respectively. Sarasvatī goes to
the upper part of the tongue. Between Pūṣā and
Sarasvatī lies Payasvinī. Payasvinī goes to right ear. Pūṣā
moves from behind the Pigalā extending to the right
eye. In the centre of the navel is Ālambusā. Ālambusā
goes upwards and downwards from the root of the
anus. In front of Suumnā there is Kuhū, which proceeds
as far as the genital organ. Between Yaśasvinī and Kuhū
stands Vāruṇī. Above and below Kuṇḍali, Vāruṇī is
situated, which proceeds everywhere. Between
Gāndhārī and Sarasvatī, Yaśasvinī is situated. Yaśasvinī
which is beautiful (or belonging to the moon), goes on
to the great toes. Śakhinī goes to the left ear. Gandhārī
goes from the back of Iḍā to the left eye. From these
fourteen Nāḍī, other Nāḍī (minor) spring; from them
others originate.[15]
Yogācūḍāmai Upaniad explains the site of 10
Nāḍī as follows. On the left of Suumnā, Iḍā is situated.
On the right of Suumnā, Pigalā is situated. Suumnā is
situated in the middle. Gāndhārī goes to the left ear and
Hastijihvā goes to the right ear. Pūṣā moves to the right
ear. Yaśasvinī moves to the left ear. Alambusā is situated
in mouth. Kuhū is situated in the root of genital organ
and Śakhinī is situated at anal region.[16]
Yogaśikhopaniad mentions in Muladhāra there is
Suumnā of twelve fingers width. Iḍā, pigalā nāḍis
which run on the either side of nose, will follow
Vilambini and terminates at end of the nose. Gāndhāri
and Hastijihvā nāḍis towards the eyes. Pūṣā and
Ālambusā Nāḍis run towards ears. Śurā Nāḍi resides in
the center at eyebrow, it is also called Mahānāḍi.
Viśvodarī Nāḍī consumes four types of food. Sarasvatī
Nāḍī spreads at the tip of the tongue.[17]
Jābāladarśana Upaniad mentions Iḍā and
Pgalā are on the left and right side of Suumnā
Sarasvatī and Kuhu are to the side of Suumnā.
Gāndhārā and Hastijihvā are situated at the back of
the Iḍā. Pūṣā and Yaśasvinī are situated in front and
before the Pigalā. Between the Kuhu and
Hastijihvā is located Viśvodarī. Va r u ā is located
between Yaśasvinī and Kuhu. Yaśasvinī is situated
between Pūā and Sarasvatī. Śakhinī is situated
between Gāndhāri and Sarasvatī. Alambusā is located
at the root of the anus. Iḍā goes up to left nostril and
Yaśasvinī goes to the left big toe.
Pūṣā goes from back of Pigalā to the left eye.
Payasvinī goes to right ear. Sarasvatī goes to the upper
part of the tongue. Hastijihvā goes to the toes of left
leg. It is said by wise that Śakhinī Nāḍī moves to the
left ear and Gāndhāa Nāḍī to the left eye. In the
centre of the navel is Viśvodarī.[18]
According to Śivasvarodaya
In Nāḍī, Kundalini Shakti exist, which looks like a
snake. From Kundalini ten Nāḍī move upward and ten
Nadis moves downwards. On each side of Kundalini,
two Nadis move in oblique directions. Similar to
these two, there are 24 Nadi. Among them ten are
significant for carrying the Prāṇa. The Iḍā is situated
on left side; the Pigalā is situated on right side and
Suumnā is in the middle. Gāndhārī attaches to the left
eye. The Hastijihvāa Nāḍī connects to the right eye.
Pūṣā Nāḍī connects to right ear. The Yaśasvinī nadi
connects to the left ear. The Alambuā connects to
the mouth. Kuhū is in the reproductive organ and
Śakhinī in the anal region. These are the ten
opening of the body. The three main Nāḍī Pigalā,
Iḍā, and Suumnā are situated in the pranic passage.
[19] The 14 principle Nāḍī of interest for this
discussion are: Suumnā, Iḍā, Pigalā, Gāndhārī,
Hastijihvikā, Kuhu, Sarasvatī, Pūṣā,Śakhinī, Payasvinī,
Varuni, Ālambusā, Viśvodarī and Yaśasvinī.#
Functions of Nāḍī
Nāḍī are spread throughout the body, they transport
sensation and control the movement of Vayu throughout
the body.[20] It is said in Sivasvarodaya that the principle
ten Nāḍī carry the ten Prāṇa.[21]
Prāṇa is the vital force which sustains life and flows
through subtle channels in the body. It is also identified as
‘vital energy’ that makes everything to take place in the
universe. Prāṇa is a central concept in Ayurveda and was
first elaborated in Prasnaupanisad. Prāṇa controls
everything that exists in the universe. It is said that the
greater Prāṇa is the cosmic Prāṇa, all encompassing
energy, which enters our body through breath as
individual Prāṇa. It takes care of all activities in sustaining
life.[22]
Subtle energy system according to Traditional
Chinese Medicine
Dantian
In Chinese philosophy and medicine, there are three
important energy centres called dantians. Dantians are
regions in the central core of the body where Qi energy is
stored, refined and dispersed. The lower Dantian (Jin
Dantian) is located in the lower abdomen. It is connected
with the Qi field of the physical body. The middle
Dantian (Qi Dantian) is located in the centre of the chest
and connected with the Qi field of the emotional body,
surrounding the physical body. The third Dantian (Shen
Dantian) is located in the middle of the head, and is
associated with the spiritual field of Qi surrounding the
physical and emotional bodies. Qi energy flows from
these along acupuncture meridians to all bodily organs
and tissues.[23]
Number of Meridians
Meridians are considered as interconnected channels for
circulation of Qi energy. The number of meridians may
be similar to number of Nāḍī. The interconnections form
endless closed circuits reaching every part of the body.
Meridians are divided into groups based on their Yin and
Ya n g p r op e r t ie s , a n d f u r th e r c l as s i f ie d i n t o 6 g r o u ps
according to location and function: 12 are main or
regular, 8 regulatory, 15 collateral, 12 divergent, 12
muscle and 12 cutaneous.[24,25]
Names of Meridians
Twel ve re gul a r m er id ia n s a re L ung Me r id ia n ( Tai y in ),
Large intestine Meridian (Yangming), Pericardium
(Jueyin), Sanjaiao (Shaoyang), Heart Meridian (Shaoyin),
Small intestine Meridian (Taiyang), Spleen Meridian
(Taiyin), Stomach Meridian (Yangming), Liver Meridian
(Jueyin), Gall bladder Meridian (Shaoyang), Kidney
Meridian (Shaoyin) and Bladder Meridian (Taiying).
J. res. tradit. med. | Volume 5 | Issue 3 -4 | May - Aug 2019
J. res. tradit. med. | Volume 5 | Issue 3 -4 | May - Aug 2019
The 8 regulatory meridians differ in important respects
from the 12 regular meridians; they form the body’s
master homeostatic or balancing mechanism. The 8
regulatory meridians are grouped in 4 pairs: the Great
Regulatory (Yinwei, Yangwei), Great Central (Gover nor
and Conception Vessels), Great Bridge (Yinqiao and
Ya ng q i ao ) , a n d t h e Pe n e tr a ti n g a n d B e lt M e r id i an s .
Collateral meridians arise from each regular meridian
and some main meridians. Both the governor and
conception vessels have major collateral meridians while
the spleen meridian also has a major collateral
meridian. Hence, 15 collateral meridians are named
based on the regular meridian or organ from which they
arise.
The 12 divergent, 12 muscle and 12 cutaneous
meridians correspond to 12 regular meridians according
to their function.Therefore their names are based on
related regular meridians.[25]
Location of Meridian
The paths of the Regular Meridians are as follows:
I. The Lung (LU), Pericardium (PC), and Heart (HT)
meridians are Yin meridians of the hand which start
from the chest and go down the middle of the arm
to different fingertips.
II. The Large Intestine, Sanjiao (Triple Energizer) and
Small Intestine meridians are Yang meridians of the
hand starting at the fingertips, and going up the
lateral aspect of the upper arm to the head and
face.
III. Spleen, Liver, and Kidney are Yin meridians of the
foot starting from the foot and going up the middle
of the lower limb through the abdomen to the chest.
IV. The Stomach, Gallbladder and Bladder meridians
are Yang meridians of the foot starting from the
head and face and going through the trunk and
lower limb to the toe tips. [26]
V. The Great Regulatory Meridians are called Yinwei
and Yangwei. Yin indicates that a section of the
meridian flows along the front of body, while Yang
indicates a section along the back. Yinwei flows
from both side of temple and moves down through
the front of the body to the toes. Yangwei flows
from the toes and then goes up the outside of the
legs, ascending through the back, shoulder, neck,
and up over the head where it joins with main
branch.[27]
VI. The great central meridians flow through the
median line of the body. One part of the Governor
Ve s s e l ( D u M a i ) c o u r s e s f r o m t h e p e r i n e u m , r u n s
along the spinal column to the neck, and over the
head to the centre of the upper lip. Another part,
the Conceptual vessel (Ren Mai) descends from
palate to the throat and through the sternum,
abdomen and pubic bone to the perineum.[28;29]
VII. The great bridge meridian, Yinqiao courses from
above the eyes then travels through the side of
throat, chest, abdomen, inside of the legs to the
ankles. The Yangqiao flows up from outer back of
the legs, hips, then moves over buttocks, ascending
the back, neck, and over the head to the forehead
VIII. The penetrating meridian (Chong Mai) originates
in the lumber region, moving internally through the
reproductive organs and penetrating up the front of
the body near the spine, to above the upper lip.
IX. The Belt meridian moves horizontally around the
waist, then it drops down moving across the
abdomen at a lower level and crosses the back.
[30-31]
Qi energy
According to TCM, Qi is the basic substance that
constitutes the universe. All objects in this universe are
born from the transformation of Qi. Qi is neither
abstract nor beyond sensation. It can be perceived
through its various forms of existence. Further, Qi is
the basic substance that makes up the human body. In
a condensed form, Qi gives shape to the organic body;
when it is dispersed, the organic body dies. Central to
TCM, Qi is divided into two major kinds, Yang Qi
and Yin Qi, considered as its masculine and feminine
forms. On a cosmic level, they are responsible for the
creation of all matter and energy in the universe and
its transformations, changing it from one form into
another.[32]
Discussion
In the present work, the observations show that classics
of Yoga have identified 7 Chakras and TCM identifies
3 dantians as energy centres in the human body.
Fourteen prominent Nāḍī are identified by Upaniad
and major Yoga texts. TCM also recognises 14 main
meridians. Nāḍī connect to higher centres in the head
and to the ‘gates’ of our body. In TCM, meridians
originate or terminate from head region, hand and
feet. Both systems recognise subtle energy in human
body. It is named as Prāṇa in Yoga and as Qi in TCM.
An attempt was made to bring a correlation of subtle
energy system according to Indian and Chinese
concepts.
Comparison between Chakra and Dantian
Chakra and dantian are energy centres where Prāṇa or
Qi energy is stored and transported to various part of
the body. Both are related to physical, emotional and
higher consciousness. Studying TCM, it is obvious that
the number of dantians is different from number of
Chakras. The lower three Chakras namely Mulādhāra,
Svādisthana, and Maipura are located between the base
of the spine and the navel region. Together they are
J. res. tradit. med. | Volume 5 | Issue 3 -4 | May - Aug 2019
called the Kanda or bulb. Kanda is very similar to lower
dantian (Jin Dantian) and related to physical functions.
Similarly the three higher Chakra, Vishuddhi, Āā and
Sahasrāra are closely related and form the region of head.
This region is related to spiritual and higher dimension of
consciousness. The upper dantian (Shin Dantian) is
located inside the middle of the head. It collects and
emits refined Qi energy which is again related to the
transcendental state of consciousness. Between the lower
Chakras and higher Chakras stands the Anāhata Chakra
related to emotion. The middle dantian (Qi Dantian) is
located in the centre of the chest and connected with the
Qi field of the emotional body. Fig 1shows the
comparison. Chakra and dantian which share a similar
function. Both occupy the subtle body, both are energy
centres and are able to move the energy through subtle
channels. In the practice of Qigong and Yoga, some of
the concept are similar to Chakra and dantian. The
similarity can be found in function of Chakra and dantian.
[33]
Correlation between Nāḍī and Meridian
The subtle body contains seventy two thousand Nāḍī. Out
of 72,000 Nāḍī, the 14 prominent Nāḍī identified by
major Yoga texts and Upaniad have been described
above. TCM also recognises 14 main meridians, namely
12 regular meridians and two extraordinary meridians.
Two ext rao rd i na ry me rid i an s ar e D u me ri d ia n (G ov er n or
Ve s s e l ) a n d Re n m e r i d i a n ( Co n c e p t u a l Ve s s e l ) .
The Upaniad and Yoga texts mentions Nāḍī to be
originating from the Anāhata Chakra (chest) and Mulādhāra
Chakra, they also describe how major Nāḍī are connected
to nose, eyes, ears, mouth and higher centres in the head,
the “opening gates”. In TCM, six regular Yin meridians
originate or terminate in the chest. The six regular Yang
meridians originate or terminate from head region which
are nearer to Nāḍī points. They all are connected to
hands and feet. Two central meridians originate and
terminate at the base of spine or head. Therefore, Nāḍī
and meridians are close to three Chakra groups or three
dantians. According to this concept, the fourteen Nāḍī
seems to correspond closely to the regular meridians.
In addition, a few Nāḍī individually relate to specific
meridian for example Suumnā and governor vessel.
Suumnā, the most important central Nāḍī follows the
spine. Most Yoga texts agree with the Upaniad that the
Mulādhāra is its starting point. Its end point is always
described as the Brahman gate at the top of the head,
where Prāṇa and Kundali Shakti are said to enter and exit.
TCM names the governor vessel as a central meridian
(the Great Hammer Meridian) starting at the tip of the
coccyx just below the Mulādhāra Chakra, going up the
centre of the back, over the top of the head and
terminating in the middle of the upper lip.
All 12 regular meridians are said to be linked to it, as
the storage place from where Qi energy is distributed
to various organs.
The Governor vessel and Suumnā are most important
regarding spirituality. Tantra Sadhan says that Kundali
Shakti moves upward from the Mulādhāra to Āā
Chakras along the Sushumna. Taoist practitioners also
say that circulating light is observed as Qi energy
moves from the lower dantian to upper dantian. These
aspects suggest that the Suumnā and Governor Vessel
may have close correspondence to each other. The
present study finding is similar with Motoyam’s some
statements (1988) where he also stated the correlation
between Nāḍī and Meridians.[34]
Correspondence between Prāṇa and Qi
In the another conceptual study by Hankey (2006), the
association between Prāṇa and Qi in the context of
function to maintain health has been detailed. From
the present observation, it can be stated that Prāṇa is
the fundamental energy in the human subtle energy
system recognised by Indian systems of medicine.
Similarly in TCM Qi is considered the most
fundamental constituent of the body. Prāṇa has major
subdivisions, locations and functions. As in Prana and
Shakti, Qi comes in two major kinds, Yang Qi and Yin
Qi. Prāṇa and Qi are different names for equivalent
vital energies circulating in the body to maintain
body’s balanced functioning.[35]
Conclusion
Nāḍī and meridians are close to three Chakra groups or
three dantians. Chakras and dantians are energy
centres. Both share a similar function to move Prāṇa
or Qi energy through subtle channel of Nāḍī or
meridian. Prāṇa or Qi is the fundamental energy in the
human subtle energy system recognised by Yoga and
TCM.
Limitation and future scope of the Study
The present study shows the similarities with Yoga and
TCM philosophy. Still the number of the Nāḍī and
meridians concept was not the same in respect of the
location of the Nāḍī and meridians. On the other
hand, both Yoga and TCM use specific methods to
enliven Prāṇa / Qi and promote free flow of energy
through the subtle channels in order to restore or
improve individual health. Major methods include
Asāna, Prāṇāyama and Meditation in Yo g a , and
Acupuncture, Acupressure and Qigong in TCM. To
bring both philosophies’ concept in one umbrella,
evidence-based research is required in the future with
a combination of both techniques.
J. res. tradit. med. | Volume 5 | Issue 3 -4 | May - Aug 2019
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Source of Support: None declared
Conflict of Interest: NIL
© Journal of Research in Traditional Medicine 2015-2019
Published by Likhita Medical Publications (OPC), Pvt. Ltd (R)
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Article
Full-text available
Many CAM modalities afford relief from pain, each in its own way, or according to its own terminology. Comparison of different CAM modalities results in a simple phenomenology of pain centered around the idea that pain may be associated with blockages of the flow of energy in the system of nadis/acupuncture meridians.
India; Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd
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S.C.Vasu, Shivasamhita Commentary, Chapter 2, Verse 27, 9th ed. India; Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd; 2008. p. 23
The Brihadaranyaka Upanisad Commentary
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Swami Madhavananda, The Brihadaranyaka Upanisad Commentary, Adhya 2, Chapter 1, Verse 19, 1st ed, Uttarkahand, India; Adhyksha Advaita Ashrama; 1934. p. 198
Verse 16, Chennai; Sri ramkrishna math
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The Yoga Upanishads Commentary (Triśikhabrāhmaṇa upanisata
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Pandit Mahadev Shastri, The Yoga Upanishads Commentary (Triśikhabrāhmaṇa upanisata), Chapter 1, Verse 35-36, Madras, India; Adyar library; 1920. p. 136
The Yoga Upanishads (YogaChudamani upanishad) Commentary, Verse 18,19&20, Madras, India; Adyar library
  • Pandit Mahadev Shastri
Pandit Mahadev Shastri, The Yoga Upanishads (YogaChudamani upanishad) Commentary, Verse 18,19&20, Madras, India; Adyar library; 1920. p.340-341
The Yoga Upanishads (Jabaladarshan upanishad) Commentary, Chapter 2, Verse 25&27, Madras, India; Adyar library
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Pandit Mahadev Shastri, The Yoga Upanishads (Jabaladarshan upanishad) Commentary, Chapter 2, Verse 25&27, Madras, India; Adyar library; 1920. p. 352
Verse 13, Kolkata; Sri ramkrishna mission institute of culture
  • Swami Lokeswaranandaa
Swami Lokeswaranandaa, Prashna Upanishad commentary, Adhya 2, Chapter 5, Verse 13, Kolkata; Sri ramkrishna mission institute of culture; 2007. p.58
Analysis of the TCM theory of traditional Chinese health exercise
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  • J Zou
Jing Y, Zou J. Analysis of the TCM theory of traditional Chinese health exercise, Journal of sprot and health Science. 2013; 4: 204-8
The Parallels Between Yoga and Acupuncture Theory
  • H Motoyama
Motoyama H. The Parallels Between Yoga and Acupuncture Theory, Edited by Srinivasan TM (Ed.),1st ed., Phoenix, Gabriel press. 1988, Energy medicine around the world; p. 61-69