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The Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb

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The Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb

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Abstract On the 18th of March in 2017 the associates of the Directorate General of Antiquities and the Directorate of Antiquities and Heritage of Erbil found an Assyrian vaulted tomb near to the mosque of Sheikhi Choli in the Arab quarter of Erbil. In the robbed grave 143 complete vessels and further sherds were found in high numbers. This article gives the preliminary technological and topological report and interpretation of these ceramics, furthermore it identifies that, as it was expected from the form of the tomb, they can be dated mostly to the Middle-Assyrian Period. The implementation and the architecture of the tomb, the great number of the pottery, the wide range of shapes and their high quality indicates that the tomb might have been used by a family of high social status and wealth. Furthermore, the location itself suggest that the lower city of Erbil was a residential area of important, high rank families.
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Dissertationes Archaeologicae
ex Instituto Archaeologico
Universitatis de Rolando Eötvös nominatae
Ser. 3. No. 5.
Budapest 2017
Dissertationes Archaeologicae ex Instituto Archaeologico
Universitatis de Rolando Eötvös nominatae
Ser. 3. No. 5.
Editor-in-chief:
Dávid Bartus
Editorial board:
László Bartosiewicz
László Borhy
Zoltán Czajlik
István Feld
Gábor Kalla
Pál Raczky
Miklós Szabó
Tivadar Vida
Technical editors:
Gábor Váczi
Dávid Bartus
Proofreading:
Szilvia Szöllősi
Zsófia Kondé
Available online at http://dissarch.elte.hu
Contact: dissarch@btk.elte.hu
©Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Archaeological Sciences
Budapest 2017
Contents

András Norbert Pál 
Tiszaug-Railway-station. An archaic Middle Neolithic community on the Great
Hungarian Plain
Zsuzsanna  
e spread of the products and technology of metallurgy in the Carpathian Basin
between 5000 and 3000 BC – Current questions
 
Grd-i Tle knapped and ground stone artefacts, excavation seasons 2016–2017
Tamás  
e arrowheads from Grd-i Tle (Rania Plain, Iraqi Kurdistan)
 
Early Iron Age burials from Tihany, Hungary
 
e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
 
Le renard dans les fables antiques et ses représentations
Lajos  
Burning money – a coin hoard from Brigetio
 
Physical landscape and selement paern dynamics around Aquincum and Carnuntum –
A socio-economic approach
Anna  
Beneath the Marketplaces. Árpádian Age (10th–13th century) selement traces from the city
centres of Pápa and Győr, Western Hungary

Zoltán  
Report on magnetometer geophysical surveys conducted in Hungary, Austria and Croatia
in the framework of the Interreg Iron Age Danube project
Tamás  
Preliminary Report on the Hungarian Archaeological Mission (Eötvös Loránd University)
at Grd-i Tle (Saruchawa) in Iraq. Second Season (2017)
 
Rescue excavations in the vicinity of Cserkeszőlő (Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county, Hungary)
in 2017
 
Short report on the excavations in the Castle of Sátoraljaújhely in 2017

András  
Changes in Copper Age Networks of Connections in Light of the Material Excavated
in the Danube-Tisza Interuve
 
Instruments of beauty care from the Hungarian part of Pannonia
Zsolt  
Die Marosszentanna-Kultur in Siebenbürgen
DissArch Ser. 3. No. 5. (2017) 207–239. DOI: 10.17204/dissarch.2017.207
e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb

Institute of Archaeological Siences
Eötvös Loránd University
Department of Archaeology
College of Arts – Salahaddin University
abdullah.archaeo@yahoo.com
Abstract
On the 18th of March in 2017 the associates of the Directorate General of Antiquities and the Directorate of
Antiquities and Heritage of Erbil found an Assyrian vaulted tomb near to the mosque of Sheikhi Choli in the
Arab quarter of Erbil. In the robbed grave 143 complete vessels and further sherds were found in high num-
bers. is article gives the preliminary technological and typological report and interpretation of these ce-
ramics, furthermore it identies that, as it was expected from the form of the tomb, they can be dated mostly
to the Middle-Assyrian Period. e implementation and the architecture of the tomb, the great number of the
poery, the wide range of shapes and their high quality indicates that the tomb might have been used by a
family of high social status and wealth. Furthermore, the location itself suggest that the lower city of Erbil
was a residential area of important, high rank families.
Introduction and acknowledgments
 

(Fig. 1).




  


(Fig. 3).
e excavation
 
 -


-




Abdullah Bakr Othman
     

 
3
  




 -


Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.

e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb


-
(Fig. 2).




e vaulted tomb, its analogies, and their architecture
 

(Fig. 4).




 
    

Fig. 3.-


Abdullah Bakr Othman
   

(Fig. 5)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.

e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb

(Fig. 6)
(Fig. 7)
  
 
-


Fig. 6.
Fig. 7.

Abdullah Bakr Othman
(Fig. 8)
 


 

Fig. 8.
Fig. 9.

e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
    
(Fig. 9).
   







(Fig. 7).





e pottery
     

-


(Fig. 10).
 
 
 
Fig. 10.

Abdullah Bakr Othman
Fig. 11.       

 
3

e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
Big jar
  3
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
Small jar
 
 
 3
 
 
  
 3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fig. 12.

-

1. Fabric groups
1.1. Very coarse ware
            

(Fig. 11.1)
    
  



Abdullah Bakr Othman
1.2. Coarse ware


(Fig 11.2)
1.3. Medium Coarse ware

(Fig. 11.3–4).
-

-

(Fig. 11.3).
1.4. Fine ware

(Fig. 11.5–6).



(Fig. 11.5).
Bowls
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Glazed bowls
 
 
Other
  
  
 
Fig. 13.

e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
2. Form groups

  

(Fig. 13)
-
(Fig. 12)

(Fig. 13)
1. Open shapes
open and deep bowls

Fig. 14.1high bowls

Fig. 17.1Fig. 17.2Fig.18.1
Fig. 15.1,Fig. 15.2Fig.
15.3Fig. 17.3Fig.
23.2Fig. 22.1Fig. 22.3-
Fig. 17.4

Fig. 16.1Fig.
16.2Fig. 22.2
2. Closed shapes
-
big jar 
 
Fig. 19.2Fig. 19.1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Abdullah Bakr Othman
small jars   Fig.
21.1Fig.21.2Fig. 21.3
Fig. 21.2

Fig. 20.133
Fig. 20.2
 beakers 

-
-

Comparison of shape and function



 



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
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-






Conclusion


 
 
 
 
 
33 
 
 

e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb






       


         

 



References
e Assyrian poery. Development and its distributions
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  Between the Cultures. e Central Tigris
Region from the 3rd to the 1st Millennium BC.-


Iraq
e Pots and Poers of Assyria, Technology and organization of production, ce-
ramic sequence, and vessel function At Late Bronze Age Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria
-
Understanding
Hegemonic Practices of the Early Assyrian Empire. Essays Dedicated to Frans Wiggermann.-

Researches on the Antiquities of Sad-
dam Dam Basin Salvage and Other Researches. 
Die Gräber und Grüe von Assur -

Status, Tod und Ritual. Stadt- und Sozialstruktur Assurs in neuassyrischer Zeit-

Neuassyrische Keramik im Kerngebiet Assyriens Chronologie und Form-

Al-Jazira-irrigation pro-
ject. e antiquities and archaeology directorate

Iraq
Iraq
   Munsell Soil
Color Charts
 in Assur II Die mielassyrische Zeit. -


Abdullah Bakr Othman
Mianische und Mielassyrische Keramik. Eine chronologische, funktionale und
produktionsökonomische Analyse. 


Céramique de l’âge du bronze en Syrie, 2, L’Euphrate et la
région deJézireh
e excavation at Tell Al Rimah: e poery

   Peshdar Plain Project Publications

Pot sherds
No. Burning Sherds
portion Dimension Fabric Comparison Period

(Fig. 14.1)
 










-


 


e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
Fig. 14. 

Abdullah Bakr Othman
Pot sherds
No. Burning Sherds
portion Dimension Fabric Comparison Period

(Fig. 15.1)












-









(Fig. 15.2)














-







(Fig. 15.3)
 











-


 


(Fig. 15.4)
 










-







e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
Fig. 15. 
3

Abdullah Bakr Othman
Pot sherds
No. Burning Sherds
portion Dimension Fabric Comparison Period

(Fig. 16.1)
 


-













 


(Fig. 16.2)















-








(Fig. 16.3)













-



 


e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
Fig. 16. 
3

Abdullah Bakr Othman
Pot sherds
No. Burning Sherds
portion Dimension Fabric Comparison Period

(Fig. 17.1)



















 



(Fig. 17.2)
 










-








(Fig. 17.3)
 













-








(Fig. 17.4)













-


clay
-
yad



e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
Fig. 17. 
3

Abdullah Bakr Othman
Pot sherds
No. Burning Sherds
portion Dimension Fabric Comparison Period

(Fig. 18.1)





-






-




clay





(Fig. 18.2)




-




-


-




Abyad



e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
Fig. 18. .

Abdullah Bakr Othman
Pot sherds
No. Burning Sherds
portion Dimension Fabric Comparison Period

(Fig. 19.1)
 

-








-

-

clay





(Fig. 19.2)
 

-

















e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
Fig. 19. .

Abdullah Bakr Othman
Pot sherds
No. Burning Sherds
portion Dimension Fabric Comparison Period

(Fig. 20.1)
 


-











-



 


(Fig. 20.2)





-










-



 


(Fig. 20.3)
 


-

-


















e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
Fig. 20. 
3

Abdullah Bakr Othman
Pot sherds
No. Burning Sherds
portion Dimension Fabric Comparison Period

(Fig. 21.1)























(Fig. 21.2)













-







(Fig. 21.3)













-


clay



e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
Fig. 21. .
3

Abdullah Bakr Othman
Pot sherds
No. Burning Sherds
portion Dimension Fabric Comparison Period

(Fig. 22.1)






















(Fig. 22.2)























(Fig. 22.3)
 





cm






-


clay

Abyad



e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
Fig. 22. .
3

Abdullah Bakr Othman
Pot sherds
No.
Burning Sherds
portion
Dimension Fabric Comparison Period

(Fig. 23.1)
 










-







(Fig. 23.2)
 












-


-
yad



(Fig. 23.3)
 









-


clay


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e Middle Assyrian Ceramics at Sheikhi Choli Tomb
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“The Pots and Potters of Assyria” is a comprehensive discussion of all evidence relating to pottery production from the Late Bronze Age site of Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria. Technological, morphological, stylistic and archaeological data are integrated into the understanding of pottery production and use. The pottery itself and its chronological sequence, the shaping and firing techniques, raw materials, wasters and unfired pottery are presented. In addition, workshops and their layout, tools, as well as pottery kilns and their construction are discussed. Together with information on standardization, output and demand, as well as information from contemporary texts, these sources are used to reconstruct the organization of pottery production at the site. A chapter on vessel function and use including a list of Middle Assyrian vessel names concludes the study. Introductory chapters discuss field methodology, the historical background and stratigraphical information. Seven appendices present the database used for this study, the shape typology, a detailed study of the pottery kilns, the results of archaeometric research including thin-section analyses, potters’ marks, and cuneiform texts from Sabi Abyad related to pottery. The thesis is lavishly illustrated, including an extensive catalogue, detailed illustrations of workshops, tools, shaping techniques, kilns, thin-section slides, and vessels in iconography
For parallels see: Syrian Jazirah
For parallels see: Syrian Jazirah, (Pfälzner 2007, Pl. XXX.344).
For parallels see: Neo Assyrian pottery
For parallels see: Neo Assyrian pottery (Anastasio 2011, Pl. XX.c).
The Assyrian pottery. Development and its distributions
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Assyrian pottery between the middle and neo-Assyrian periods (the case of Qasr Shamamuk-Kilizu
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The Pots of Assur in the Land of Hanigalbat -The Organization of Pottery Production in the Far West of the Middle Assyrian Empire
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Duistermaat K. 2015: The Pots of Assur in the Land of Hanigalbat -The Organization of Pottery Production in the Far West of the Middle Assyrian Empire. In: Düring B. S. (Ed.): Understanding Hegemonic Practices of the Early Assyrian Empire. Essays Dedicated to Frans Wiggermann. Uitgaven van het Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te Instanbul 125. Leiden, 126-152
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