THE IMPACT OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE ON
Katedra Zarządzania, Wyższa Szkoła Handlowa we Wrocławiu
The main aim of this paper is to explore the meaning of organisational culture
and its influence on the phenomenon of creating positive image of an organisation as
an employer. Becoming an employer of choice and establishing a recognizable
employer brand are founded on a recognition and development of the valuable inner
reservoirs of human capital – the knowledge and experience that flow throughout
organisations, and rational capital in the form of organisational culture and high
levels of employee identification.
The future role of HR in contributing towards sustaining the long-term success
of organisations lies in uncovering and maximising these valuable resources. In the
changing labour market the concept of employer branding has recently grown in
significance, since for many companies is has become a competition tool
determining the operational success and that is why it is being discussed in this
2. Understanding organisational culture
While not always easy to capture or define, culture is an observable, powerful
force in any organisation. Based on shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, and written
and unwritten rules that have been developed over time and are considered valid, it
can have a compelling effect on a company’s well-being and success.
Organisational culture includes an organisation's expectations, experiences,
philosophy, and values that hold it together, and is expressed in its self-image, inner
workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations. Also called
corporate culture, it is demonstrated in the following elements of an organisation’s
− the ways the organisation conducts its business, treats its employees, customers,
and the wider community,
− the extent to which freedom is allowed in decision making, developing new
ideas, and personal expression,
− how power and information flow through its hierarchy,
− how committed employees are towards collective objectives.
It affects the organisation's productivity and performance, and provides
guidelines on customer care and service, product quality and safety, attendance and
punctuality, and concern for the environment. It also extends to production-methods,
marketing and advertising practices, and to new product creation. Organisational
culture is unique for every organisation and one of the hardest things to change.
Organisational culture is a concept developed by researchers to explain the
values, psychology, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of an organisation. Generally
speaking, it is viewed as the shared norms and values of individuals and groups
within an organisation. This set of mutual understandings controls the way
individuals interact with each other within the organisation as well as with
customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders existing outside the boundaries of the
The managers and executives within an organisation have a significant impact
on the culture because of their role in making decisions, but they are not the only
members of the work community. In reality, all employees contribute to the norms
of the group. Culture, in the environment of the workplace, is the result of the
weaknesses, strengths, life experiences, and education of everyone who is part of the
The culture of an organisation also is moulded by its mission. For example, a
university’s culture is different from that of the military, a hospital, or a for-profit
company. Understanding the culture of a specific enterprise is made more difficult
by the fact that there is no single culture. Instead, complex organisations also reflect
the culture of the sub-groups within them. Individuals might adhere to the core
values and beliefs of the organisation, but they also belong to sub-groups or cultures
that form along the lines of occupational duties, professional skills, age, union
Organisational culture is one of the factors which are shaping the image of the
company, including its image as an employer. Employer brand is influenced by
culture which is strong, distinct, and deeply rooted. One of the elements of the
culture has a key role – values. The attractiveness of these values in the eyes of the
stakeholders can facilitate creating favourable employer image [Bukowska 2009, p.
We can even speak of remarkable organisational culture which let some
organisations become unequalled exemplars. How can that be achieved? Accepting
the culture of a special company will let for:
− easier recruitment through attracting better employees,
− more efficient recruitment process,
− good results in employees’ retention,
− lower costs of employees’ retention,
− high level of creativity and innovations,
− better customer service,
− excellent atmosphere of the work environment,
− savings thanks to higher level of trust,
Organisational culture, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/organizational-culture.html
− leadership influence on the company’s financial results,
− guarantee of good performance through clear evaluation procedures,
− two-way communication influencing smooth functioning of the organisation
[Leary-Joyce 2007, pp. 16-20].
On the basis of the above, we can easily observe that organisational culture is
very much affected by human resources aspects, such as talent management
including both recruiting new employees and retaining the current ones, which is the
main aim of employer branding.
3. The concept of employer branding
Employer branding has captured considerable attention in recent times.
Academicians and practitioners have reported evidence of organisations expending
considerable resources on development of employer brand programme indicating its
value. Employer branding as a concept is an extension of relationship marketing
principles which identify the need to build acquisition and retention strategies
across a number of critical stakeholder markets through closer relationships. One of
the most basic understandings about brand comes from the definition provided by
the American Marketing Association which defines a brand as "a name, term sign,
symbol, or design, or combination of them which is intended to identify the goods
and services of one seller group or group of sellers and to differentiate them from
those of competitors". The term employer branding is used for the application of
branding principles to human resource management. The concept is being
increasingly used for attracting prospective employees while engaging the present
employees to the organisation [Backhaus, Tikoo 2004, pp. 501-517].
The concept of employer brand was first introduced in 1996, where the authors
defined “employer brand” as “the package of functional, economic and
psychological benefits provided by employment, and identified with the employing
company” [Ambler, Barrow 1996, p. 185-206]. Initial application of employer brand
in human resource management focused heavily on attracting and recruiting talents.
However, a recent survey by People in Business Co. found that 42% of the 104
survey participants (organisations that are currently developing employer brands)
focus as much internal as external [People in Business, 2010].
Employer brand is recognized as a powerful tool to help employees to
internalize corporate values, to shape corporate culture, to engage employees, and to
align talent management with business strategies. Society for Human Resource
Management survey in 2008 found that 61% of surveyed companies have had an
employer brand, and that 25% were either developing or planning to do so within the
next 12 months [SHRM, 2008].
Further, employer branding or employer brand management involves internally
and externally promoting a clear view of what makes a firm different and desirable
as an employer. According to Backhaus & Tikoo, employer branding is essentially a
three step process. First, a firm develops a concept of the particular value it offers to
prospective and current employees. This value proposition provides the central
message that is conveyed by the employer brand. It is of key importance that this
value proposition derives from a thorough audit of the characteristics that make the
firm a great place to work. The second step in employer branding process deals with
externally marketing this value proposition to attract the targeted job applicants. The
third step involves carrying the brand "promise" made to recruits into the firm and
incorporating it as part of the organisational culture.
Figure 1 presents the phases of creating a distinctive employer brand within the
context of the organisational culture.
Figure 1. The process of creating employer brand
Source: based on [Ingham 2010].
The process of building employer brand should start with a clear focus, a good
idea of what the organisation is about (mission/vision/strategy/values), which should
consequently be translated into an employer value proposition (EVP). This EVP
needs to be developed to fit the organisation’s employees, and should also influence
potential employees. Next, this EVP (or a tailored version of it) should be delivered
to each employee. It is the result of the delivery of this EVP which provides the
basis for employer brand [Ingham 2010].
Besides, HR practitioners also suggest five steps to developing a strong
1. Understand your organisation.
2. Create a 'compelling brand promise' for employees that mirrors the brand
promise for customers.
3. Develop standards to measure the fulfilment of brand promise.
4. Ruthlessly align all people practices to support and reinforce brand promise.
5. Execute the measure.
Companies with strong employer brands can potentially reduce the cost of
employee acquisition, improve employee relations, increase employee retention and
even offer lower salaries for comparable staff to firms with weaker employer brands.
Perception of an organisation's image is a significant predictor of decisions to pursue
employment with that company. Using brand in the context of employment,
employer brand loyalty was found by many to be a useful concept to be applied.
Brand loyalty is the attachment that a consumer has to a brand.
Employer branding is a term used to describe the many different strategies that a
business uses to build a reputation among individuals with the skill sets and
backgrounds to move the company forward. Part of the branding process involves
marketing the company to this select group of potential employees, identifying the
reasons why those individuals should choose employment with the firm rather than
with other companies who are interested in hiring them. This often leads to the need
to differentiate the employer in the eyes of potential employees in some manner,
often relying on a combination of benefits, opportunities for advancement and a
desirable day-to-day culture in the workplace.
With employer branding, the focus is on convincing prospective employees that
a given company is the best employment option available, and is most likely to
provide the individual not only with stable employment but also other benefits that
will improve the quality of his or her life. This is because the process of employer
branding requires identifying qualified personnel, then proactively targeting those
personnel for hiring. As part of this phase of the branding process, many companies
work closely with universities and other institutions of learning to evaluate the
qualifications of students as they graduate and prepare to enter the work force.
Doing so makes it possible to market the company to those students, possibly
winning them over before competitors have the chance to make an offer.
Even within the wider community, employer branding is often used to help make
people aware of not only what the company looks for in the way of employees, but
also what employees receive in return for their committed service. While this
includes offering wages and salaries that are competitive within the job market, it
also involves providing benefits such as health insurance, pension plans, and other
perks that are proven to attract certain types of employees. In addition, the company
will seek to distinguish itself in some manner that is likely to further attract people
with specific skill sets.
The exact components used in employer branding will vary, depending on the
nature of the business and the skill sets it requires of its employees. In areas where
competition for qualified employees is particularly aggressive, employers will often
match or exceed monetary benefits but also offer additional benefits that are likely to
inspire a sense of pride and identity within employees, a factor that not only helps to
attract the right people but also aids in building employee loyalty and making sure
the business can benefit from the talents of those employees for many years to come
[M. Tatum 2014].
4. The growing significance of employer branding
Employer image and employer branding have become important topics for most
employers in recent years, as more and more companies realize that the demographic
and social changes outlined above are a real strategic and competitive threat to their
Organisations are using branding as a strategic tool in today’s business
environment with increasing regularity. Although brands and branding are not new
ideas, firms are applying them to more diverse settings where the role of branding is
becoming increasingly important. Branding can be described as the process of
developing an intended brand identity. It is often used to differentiate products and
companies in order to build economic value for both the consumer and the company.
It is concerned with the attraction, engagement and retention initiatives targeted at
enhancing a company’s employer brand.
Employer branding is a relatively new approach toward recruiting and retaining
the best possible human talent within a recruiting environment that is becoming
increasingly competitive. The term is often used to describe how organisations
market their offerings to potential and existing employees, communicate with them
and maintain their loyalty “promoting both within and outside the firm, a clear view
of what makes a firm different and desirable as an employer” [Backaus, Tikoo 2004,
p. 120]. Employer branding has the potential to be a valuable concept for both
managers and scholars. Managers can use employer branding as a shade under
which they can channel different employee recruitment and retention activities into a
coordinated human resource strategy. Accordingly, employers can control brand
power to engage their employees in emotional ways to achieve change, outstanding
results or increase attraction and retention.
Organisations have found that effective employer branding leads to competitive
advantage, helps employees internalize company values and assists in employee
retention. It plays a significant role in influencing employee’s perceived
differentiation, affinity, satisfaction and loyalty. Research findings emphasised the
importance of an employer brand with the results highlighting the complexity in its
management, as no one aspect has a dominant influence on outcomes relevant to the
employer. An issue which sprang up was which function within an organisation
should be tasked with managing the employer brand. According to a survey of 1,889
”Personnel Today” readers with responsibility for recruitment, the most often it is
Marketing department (41%), HR and Corporate communications (25% each). This
exclusive survey also reveals that 95% of respondents believe employer branding is
‘important’, with 80% saying that it will become even more so [Willock 2005].
While organisations increasingly recognize that the strengthening of the
employer-employee relationship and their attractiveness, future profitability and
“licence to operate” depend on their willingness and ability to recognize employees
and potential employees as important stakeholders and contributors to the corporate
brand, research indicates that they do not yet approach the issue strategically, and
that sustainability or social responsibility in human resource management is ignored
This also seems to be the case in the field of employer branding.
According to a survey by Hewitt Associates (2010), in which 76 international
and global companies from the German speaking region took part, more than 70 per
cent of these companies see themselves challenged by a talent shortage even after
the recent economic crisis. Technical specialists, IT- and e-Business-specialists as
well as management staff are regarded as particularly scarce. 46 per cent of the
surveyed companies state that their organisation is not familiar enough or not
considered an attractive employer. Scientific research additionally highlights that
shortages of international management talent, and especially of leadership talent,
prevent many companies from implementing their global strategies successfully
Especially companies in less attractive regions or industries increasingly face the
problem of having to be content with employees who do not match their
requirements in every aspect.
Even though the scientific discussion of the topic has just begun in recent years,
employer branding has already become an important part of management activity, as
an increasing number of managers realize that economic success heavily depends
upon the performance and commitment of their employees. The growing
significance of employer branding is also emphasized in a recent survey by
Kienbaum Communications (2009), in which 140 German companies of all sizes
and industries were asked about their employer branding strategies and activities. 74
per cent of those companies claim to have developed or to be in the process of
developing an employer branding strategy [Christiaans 2013, pp.3-4].
5. The models of employer branding
In research concerning employer branding several model can be found. Two of
them will be presented in this paper, as they illustrate the interrelatedness between
employer branding and organisational culture. The first model, illustrated by Figure
2, is American and was proposed by Backhaus and Tikoo, according to whom
employer branding creates two basic assets – brand associations and employer brand
loyalty. The former shape the employer image, which in turn influences the
attractiveness of the company for potential employees. Employer branding affects
organisational culture and identity, which in turn contribute towards creating
employer brand loyalty. Organisational culture has also returnable impact on the
processes of creating employer brand
Figure 2. Conceptual framework for employer branding
Source: [Backhaus, Tikoo 2004, p. 505].
The second model, presented by Figure 3, was created in Great Britain by
Martin. In this conceptualization employer branding starts with creating employer
brand image – represented by a set of benefits offered by the employer and
communicated as employee value proposition (symbolic and instrumental
attributes). This image affects the attractiveness of the employer in the eyes of
external candidates and the identification of current employees with the company
and its brand. The employer image is a derivative of organizational identity and is
influenced by corporate identity. Both these determinants are deeply rooted in
Figure 3. The model structure of creating employer brand
Source: [Martin 2007, p. 18]
Comparing these two models, we can extrapolate that Martin’s model presents
the concept of employer branding in a more complex way – it contains more key
terms connected with this phenomenon. It also refers to one of key challenges
identified by employer branding practitioners – the issue of coherence between
information communicated in promotional campaigns and the employment realities.
As employer branding specialists emphasise, if companies want to attract and retain
valuable staff, they should focus on communicating clear and coherent message
[Kantowicz-Gdańska 2009, pp. 60-63].
6. Successful employer branding strategy
In order to create a successful employer’s image, the following set of activities
should be carried out:
− fostering the nature of individualism
− achieving differentiation in competitive environment
− providing the fundamentals of integration within the defined sector
− providing a platform for coherent corporate communication
− striving for achieving consistency between the created image and the
organisation’ ethos and character
− shaping the climate of understanding and cooperation between the organisation
and its network of shareholders
− attracting and retaining employees and outside recipients
− entering into and strengthening strategic alliances
− achieving and maintaining support from self-government organisations [Baruk
2006, p. 55].
Through implementation of the above-mentioned activities, the company can
create in the long run an integrated employer’s image, which can become its
competitive edge. Among the rules of creating the integrated company image the
following should be ranked:
− market segmentation, i.e. identification and selection of the image addressees,
− assuring the image uniqueness thorough defining the personality of the company
and the platform of its identity,
− effective communication of the planned image of the organisation
− concentration on clients’ satisfaction
− defining barriers and disruptions in shaping the desired image,
− image management in time [Dewalska-Opitek 2009, pp. 27-28]
In order to pursue a successful employer branding strategy, an organisation must
go through six steps (from analysis to realisation), which have been visualised on
Figure 4. Model for development of employer branding strategy
Source: [Frank, Bauer 2012].
The model is based on a comprehensive benchmarking foundation with internal,
regional, branch-specific and cross-branch data. This consists of two building
blocks, the first being “internal employer branding”. Analysis and internalization of
the strengths and values perceived by outsiders enables the company to develop a
lasting and attractive profile as an employer. By strategically aligning and
continually enhancing these qualities, the company can sustainably position itself as
a trustworthy employer brand. This brings us on to the second building block,
“external employer branding”, covering the effect achieved by the company on the
employment market and, more specifically, in the recruiting of qualified staff. The
benchmarking process helps us to co-ordinate the employer’s image with the
applicants available, aimed at achieving the best possible fit of employee to job
[Frank, Bauer 2012].
7. Internal and external employer branding tools
As a closed and repeating cycle, consisting of consecutive phases, employer
− employer brand planning,
− organizing activities in the range of building employer brand,
− motivating employees to be involved in strengthening employer brand,
− controlling the effects of activities [Wojtaszczyk 2012, p. 103].
The realization of the distinguished functions requires the application of a
diversified set of tools. We can divide them into internal and external ones,
depending on to whom they are directed.
Internal employer branding is directed to all existing employees. As part of the
activities inside the company, employers have a the whole set of tools to choose
from. It is worth, however, to choose those which directly or indirectly contribute
towards the development of the company, and not only temporary improvement of
opinion. Internal communication is gaining more and more forms and dimensions, as
well as is the external one.
The organisation’s operations outside its premises, relations with potential
candidates, opinions and media coverage concerning the organisation – these are
effect of external employer branding activities. They can be divided into two broader
categories: image and recruitment activities. The former aim at increasing the
awareness of candidates about employer brand, informing the job market about the
company and benefits coming from being its employee, presenting the company’s
competitive advantages and realising the principles of corporate social
responsibility. The latter – serve as the mean of reaching selected candidates and
making them apply for a job in the given company.
Both groups of activities are intertwined, but slightly different tools are used in
each case. The most useful tools which can be used in the process of creation of the
company image and examples of activities within the particular categories have been
gathered by the author in Table 1.
Table 1. Internal and external employer branding tools
employees’ opinions surveys, newsletters, brochures and
bulletins, Intranet, announcement boards, meetings with the
management board, communication with managers
competence management systems, integrated systems of
career planning, consulting, mentoring, coaching,
successors’ registry, positions mapping,
onboarding/induction days, effective placement,
induction trainings, job trainings, soft skills trainings, safety
trainings, language trainings
points systems, holding, company products/services
questionnaires (written, e-mail), exit interviews
periodical system of
self-evaluation, 180° evaluation, 360° evaluation, supervisor
pay- and non-pay
company shares, options, funding holidays, company car,
private medical care, free access to sports facilities, free
childcare, lunch coupons, mobile phone, retirement plans,
life insurance, accident insurance, stress reduction programs,
building employee-friendly environment, hygienic
motivators, work-life balance programs, pro-family solutions
teambuilding events, integration trips, meetings and parties
welcome book, award systems
internal CSR tools
personal policy, employee relations, talent management
programs, ensuring employment stability
SEO (search engine optimization), PPC (pay per click),
internships, open days, workshops/lectures, contests, job
fairs/career days, career sections, flash/FB games, videos/lip-
dubs, corporate presentations, students’ portals/forums,
newsletters, cooperation with companies in writing diploma
theses, ambassador programs, cultural events, sponsoring,
expertise, virtual job fairs, display ads
Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, GoldenLine, Linkedin, Nasza
Klasa, interal social portal
word of mouth
cooperation with opinion leaders, bloggers, forum members,
moderators, interactive agencies, monitoring Internet posts
recommendation systems, online tools, multiposting, career
page on the Internet, participation of employment agencies
external CSR tools
supporting local activities, employee volunteering, fair
recruitment, transparent information policy,
Source: authoring on the basis [Kozłowski 2012, pp. 52-140].
8. Correlation between Employer Brand and Organisational Performance
The positive correlation between employer brand and employee engagement has
been recognized by different academic studies. In 2007 Brain Heger conducted an
empirical study by using data from 614 respondents, to identify the relationship
between strong Employment Value Proposition (EVP), the core component of
employer brand, and respondents’ level of engagement. The study recognized that
employee engagement is largely influenced by an organisation’s EVP, in that EVP
attributes (elements appealing to employees) serve to motivate a firm’s workforce
[Heger 2007, pp. 121-132]. The survey by Corporate Leadership Council also found
that employees who perceive their organisations’ EVP to be less competitive than
that of other organisations are likely to disengage from their organisations by either
reducing contribution or leaving the organisation [Corporate Leadership Council
As long-standing research carried out by Wojtaszczyk and her colleagues shows
that dissatisfaction with EVP is one of the main reasons of low estimation of brand
image of an average Polish employer. On a scale from 1 to 5, employer brand was
estimated at 3,15, and its strength of interaction, measured by loyalty rate – at 3,24.
Respondents were also dissatisfied with working conditions, communications policy
and human resources management. Employees notice also the lack of respect and
appreciation, nepotism and cronyism, obsolete remuneration methods, disability of
using non-pay incentives to motivate to work and the lack of systematic feedback
concerning the result of job performance [Wojtaszczyk 2012, pp. 208-209].
Another empirical study of 113 companies across industry has recognized that in
companies with developed employer brand, employees are more actively engaged in
decision-making and management process [Kucherov, Zavyalova 2012, pp. 86-104].
Although empirical studies that discuss the straight relationship between employer
brand and organisational performance are few, some studies do suggest that
employer brand contributes to different elements of organisational performance, and
that it helps in strengthening companies’ sustainable competitive advantage [Martin
et al. 2005, pp. 76-88].
The following are some of the identified influences of employer brand on the
corporate performance related variables:
1. Employer Brand and Talent Acquisition. Many empirical studies emphasized
the positive impact of employer brand on the quality and quantity of applicant pools.
A study based on data of 99 sampled organisations testified the positive correlation
between employer brand and the number of applicant (.42), and the correlation
between employer brand and the quality of applicants (.28) [Collins, C. J., Han, J.
2004, pp. 685-717]. In addition, employer brand helps organisation to tap into
passive candidates more effectively, and hence helps to expand and improve
2. Employer Brand and Turnover Rate. Research suggests that employer brand
reduces turnover and increase employee loyalty. By comparing data from 113
companies across industries, the study found that the average turnover rate of the
organisations with employer brand is 10%, while overall turnover average is as high
as 16% [Kucherov, Zavyalova 2012, pp. 86-104].
3. Employer Brand and Compensation. Studies show that well-established
employer brand enables employer to attract talents at lower compensation level.
Candidates are more tolerant with organisations which have established employer
brands than those without. For example, the average acceptable compensation level
is recognized to be 859 euro for organisations with employer brands, and 1164 euros
for companies without employer brand; i.e., employer brand allows 26% economic
advantage in terms of labour cost [Kucherov, Zavyalova 2012, pp. 86-104].
4. Employer Brand and Commitment. Studies also suggest that employees’
attitude such as organisational identification, satisfaction and commitment are also
positively related to employer brand. When organisations effectively deliver on the
EVP, new employees arrive with higher levels of commitment (38% of employees
presented high level of commitment), compared with 9% commitment rate for
organisations with poor EVP delivery [Corporate Leadership Council 2006].
5. Employer Brand and Organisational Culture. Some scholars argue that
employer branding reinforces and changes organisational culture. A study by Xia
and Yang on Chinese market suggests that employer brand impacts organisational
culture and organisational exchange, in that as employer brand fulfils employees'
spiritual and material needs, employees reciprocate with higher motivation [Xia,
Organisations which intend to strengthen their brands as employers, should take
into consideration the following recommendations:
− improving internal communication, in order to inform existing and potential
workers about the organisation’s future plans,
− achieving excellence in human resources management solutions, especially in
recruitment, remuneration and evaluation,
− systematic monitoring the needs and expectations of existing key employees, in
order to retain the greatest talents,
− working on employment value proposition to adjust it to the expectations of the
It has to be emphasised that all the above-mentioned areas are equally important,
and the improvement should be introduced simultaneously [Wojtaszczyk 2012, p.
By carefully selecting attributes of employer brand, and aligning employer
brand with corporate strategy, employer brand can be a powerful tool for
organisations to address diverse challenges. It contributes to the alignment of
external and internal value perceptions on the organisation, improves workforce
strength, and brings various economic benefits for the employer. As different
components of employer have varied impact on factors of organisational
performance, organisations need to articulate the desired outcomes so to tailor their
employer brands to achieve effectiveness and efficiency.
As part of organisational culture responsible employers aim to create good
atmosphere at workplace, and their managers promote values predominant in the
company. Corporate culture in such organisations is easily recognizable, knowable
and matchable. Building and strengthening positive examples of corporate culture
requires the engagement of the board, managers, leaders and HR department.
Continuous support for communication, integrative and prosocietal activities results
from the assumption that culture – in spite of the lack of immediate financial or sales
results – in the perspective of long-term development brings tangible benefits to the
company, thus improves its performance and gives it a competitive edge.
The key to creating a successful employer brand is employee engagement. In
fact, it might be said that employer branding is turning in to employee branding as a
result of the social media explosion and the growth of the personal brand. Social
media opens access to all that is being said about an employer directly or indirectly.
It is crucial for each company to listen to what its employees are saying about it.
This can be influenced by constant monitoring the content of social media and
reacting appropriately. Striving to maintain a higher level of employee engagement
not only contributes toward short-term survival during economic volatility, but also
is a fundamental factor for longer-term business performance and better positioning
when market conditions become favourable.
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