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Fungi Load and prevalence of Aspergillus species in Meat Markets and Abattoirs in Ibadan, Oyo State


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Meat contamination in abattoirs and meat markets has been associated with several factors. Of major concern is contamination due to pathogenic microbes present in food processing environments. This study investigated fungal contamination in meat markets and abattoir environments. Four meat markets (Olunloyo, Oja Oba, Olorunsogo, and Olodo) and three abattoirs (Olorunsogo, Akinyele, and University of Ibadan) in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, were assessed for prevalence of Aspergillus species. Fungi counts were determined by Pour-plate method at 10-5 dilution on Sucrose-Potato Dextrose Agar, supplemented with streptomycin, and incubated at 26ºC for 5 days. Culture and enumeration of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger from table scrapings (n = 260) and swabs (n=100) of abattoir environment were done using standard microbiological methods. The mean value for the total fungal count (TFC) was 4.46 ± 0.24 log CFUml-1. There were significant differences in the total fungal counts among locations, with Olunloyo market having the highest fungal load (4.73 ± 0.64 log CFUml-1), and the lowest total fungal count was at the University of Ibadan abattoir (4.14 ± 1.29 log CFUml-1). A. niger (30.18 %) was the most frequently isolated fungi, while the least was A. fumigatus (1.0 %). Prevalence of A. flavus was 14.79 %. Other fungi species were A. tamarii, A. terreus, Fusarium compacticum, F. oxysporum, F. proliferum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and P. oxalicum. The study revealed a compromise in food safety in meat producing areas of Ibadan and hence, a need to enhance hygienic standards to improve food safety in these locations.
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Ogundijo and
Meat contamination in abattoirs and meat markets has been associated with several factors.
major concern is contamination due to pathogenic microbes present in food
environments. This study investigated fungal contamination in meat markets and
environments. Four meat markets (Olunloyo, Oja Oba, Olorunsogo, and Olodo) and
abattoirs (Olorunsogo, Akinyele, and University of Ibadan) in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria,
assessed for prevalence of Aspergillus species. Fungi counts were determined by
method at 10-5 dilution on Sucrose-Potato Dextrose Agar, supplemented with streptomycin,
incubated at 26ºC for 5 days. Culture and enumeration of Aspergillusflavus and
from table scrapings (n = 260) and swabs (n=100) of abattoir environment were done
standard microbiological methods. The mean value for the total fungal count (TFC) was 4.46 ±
0.24 log CFUml-1. There were significant differences in the total fungal counts among
with Olunloyo market having the highest fungal load (4.73 ± 0.64 log CFUml-1), and the
total fungal count was at the University of Ibadan abattoir (4.14 ± 1.29 log CFUml-1). A.
(30.18 %) was the most frequently isolated fungi, while the least was A. fumigatus (1.0
Prevalence of A. flavus was 14.79 %. Other fungi species wereA. tamarii, A. terreus,
compacticum,F. oxysporum, F. proliferum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and P. oxalicum.
study revealed a compromise in food safety in meat producing areas of Ibadan and hence, a
to enhance hygienic standards to improve food safety in these
Fungi Load and prevalence of Aspergillus species in Meat Markets
and Abattoirs in Ibadan, Oyo State
Ogundijo, O. A. and Adetunji, V. O.*
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine,
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Key words: Aspergillus spp., Contamination, Abattoir, Food safety, Ibadan.
Meat contamination in abattoirs and meat
stalls could result from contaminated water,
unhygienic practices like poor handling, use
of contaminated tables to display meat meant
for sale and the use of contaminated knives in
cutting operations. Contamination of meat and
meat products occurs when raw meat is
exposed or makes contact with pathogenic
microbes which are ubiquitous in nature
(Edema et al., 2005). The Food and
Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World
Health Organization (WHO) state that illness
due to contaminated food is perhaps the most
widespread health problem in the
contemporary world and an important cause of
reduced economic productivity (Edema et al.,
Serious consequences relating to
public safety can arise from lack of hygiene
and sanitation in abattoirs and meat stalls
(Fasanmi et al., 2010) which can be of
adverse effect on public health. Aspergillus
species are ubiquitous,saprophytic fungi
that play a significant role in global
carbon and nitrogen recycling (Pitt, 1994;
Haines, 1995).They are commonly found in
air, water, soil, plant debris, rotten
vegetation, manure, sawdust litter, bagasse
litter, and animal feed, on animals and in
indoor air environments (Pattron, 2006;
Bennett et al., 2010). These fungi species
have been found to be pathogenic in
Ibadan Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 14(1), 2018
humans, being opportunistic in nature. A.
fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, A. niger,
and A. nidulans have all been implicated in
human and animal infections (Denning,
1998; Morgan et al., 2005). A. flavus has
been found to cause upper respiratory tract
infections faster than any other Aspergillus
species (Kennedy et al., 1997; Panda et al.,
1998). They also cause a broad spectrum of
diseases, ranging from hypersensitive reactions
to invasive infections associated with angio-
invasion (Anand and Tiwary, 2010). Studies to
specifically assess the environmental impact of
this organism are limited when compared to
the interest of researchers in other
microorganisms. This study aimed at
determining the Fungi counts and the
prevalence of Aspergillus spp. on meat tables
and abattoirs in Ibadan, Oyo state.
Materials and Methods
Study location and sample size
This study was carried out in six locations
of five different Local Government areas
(LGA) in Ibadan, located at 7° 23' N,55'
E, with an average temperature of 23.94
and relative humidity of 74.55 %., Oyo
State, Nigeria. The selected study areas
were; Olunloyo market (Ona Ara LGA),
Oja Oba market (Ibadan South-West LGA),
Olorunsogo market (Ona Ara LGA), Olodo
market (Lagelu LGA), Akinyele slaughter
house (Akinyele LGA) and University of
Ibadan abattoir (Ibadan North LGA). Total
number of samples collected was 360
samples consisting of meat table scrapings
(n = 260) and swabs from slaughter slabs
and walls of abattoirs (n = 100).The studied
areas and samples were selected using the
random sampling technique.
Sample collection and processing
Samples of table scrapings were collected
from Olunloyo (n = 70), Oja Oba (n = 60),
Olorunsogo (n = 80), and Olodo (n = 50),
while swabs from slaughter slabs and walls
were taken from Olorunsogo (n = 20),
Akinyele (n = 40), and University of Ibadan
(n = 40). Samples of table scrapings were
collected using sterile universal bottles and
swabs were taken with sterile swab sticks.
Collected samples were placed in 9 mls of
peptone water, placed in ice packs and
transported to the laboratory for processing
within 12 hours of collection. The samples
were analysed at the Microbiology laboratory
of the Institute for Agricultural and Research
Training, Moor, Apata, Ibadan.
A ten-fold serial dilution to a factor of
five (10-5) of 1 ml of the collected samples
were prepared using 9 mls of physiological
saline solution in test tubes. Using the Pour-
plate method, 1 ml of the serially diluted
samples were cultured in 10 mls of
Sucrose-Potato Dextrose Agar
supplemented with streptomycin to prevent
other microbial growth, and incubated at 26
°C for five days. Fungal counts for each of
the plates were done using a colony counter
and pure colonies were sub-cultured in
Sabouraud dextrose agar for identification.
Fungal isolation and identification
The identification of fungal specieswas
based on gross colony morphology, colour and
on microscopic features.Distinct colonies were
stained on glass slides using Lactophenol
cotton blue for proper examination with the aid
of a photomicroscope as described by Singh et
al. (1991). This was carried out in the
Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, University
of Ibadan, Ibadan.
Statistical analysis
One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
was performed on the data and standard
deviations for the locations and organisms
were calculated. Significantly different means
were separated using Duncan Multiple Range
Test (p<0.05%) (Obi, 1990).
The identification of all cultured organisms
was based on their macroscopic and
microscopic features on Sabouraud
dextrose agar (Plates 1 and 2) and
Ogundijo and Adetunji
photomicroscope (Plate 3 and 4). A. niger (Plate 2). At ×400 magnification, the
was identified by its blackish-brown colour,
which was cream-yellow to yellow on the conidial head of A. niger was globose, with
globose to elliptical, rough, and dark brown
reverse side of the plate on Sabouraud to black conidia (Plate 3a). For A. flavus,
dextrose agar (Plate 2), while A. flavus was the conidial head was radiating, which
identified with its characteristic yellowish- became loosely columnar with time (Plates
green to green colour which was cream- 3b and 4) (Singh et al., 1991).
yellow on the reverse side of the plate
Plate 1. Mixed cultures showing Penicillium oxalicum (left) and Fusarium oxysporum
(right)on Sucrose-Potato dextrose agar (Aspect Ratio: 4: 3).
Plate 2. Pure culture
plates showing A. niger (A)and
A. flavus (B) on Sabouraud
Dextrose agar (Aspect Ratio: 4: 3).
Plate 3. The globose conidial head of A. niger (A) 40 magnification) and radiating
conidial head of A. flavus (B) (×400 magnification), using Lactophenol cotton
blue staining technique.
Ibadan Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 14(1), 2018
Plate 4. The radiating conidial heads of A. flavus, with sub-globose, rough and yellowish-
green conidia (×400 magnification).
A total of ten (10) fungal organisms were (18%) and the least was found in UI
isolated and identified. The isolates include; abattoir (13.6 %) (Table 2). A. niger, A.
Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A.
tamarii,A. terreus, Fusarium compacticum, F. flavus and F. oxisporum where the highest
contaminating fungi. The mean total fungal
oxysporum,F. proliferum, Penicillium count (TFC) was 4.46 ± 0.24 (Table 3). The
chrysogenum,and P. oxalicum (Table 1). The
most frequently encountered Fungi was A. total fungal load for Olunloyo market (4.73
± 0.64) was found to be the highest, and the
niger (30 %), followed by F. oxisporumwhile lowest total fungal count was at the
the least frequently encountered in this study
was A. fumigatus (1 %) (Table 1).
Olodo market (18.9 %) had the highest
fungal contamination,followed by Oja oba
University of Ibadan (UI) abattoir (4.14 +
Table 1. Percentage Occurrence of different fungal species
Percentage Occurrence (%)
Aspergillus niger
Aspergillus flavus
Aspergillus fumigatus
Aspergillus terreus
Fusarium oxysporum
Fusarium compacticum
Penicillium oxalicum
Penicillium chrysogenum
Fusarium proliferum
Aspergillus tamari
Ogundijo and Adetunji
Table 2.Occurence of each fungal organism in the different study locations
Oja Oba
Table 3. Fungal loads for sampled locations.
Study locations Location Type Sample size
Total fungal count +SD
(Log cfuml
UI slaughter house Abattoir 40 4.14 ± 1.29
Olunloyo market Meat Market 70 4.73 ± 0.64
Oja Oba market Meat Market 60 4.38 ± 1.20
Olorunsogo market Abattoir/Meat Market 100 4.55 ± 0.88
Akinyele slaughter house Abattoir 40 4.26 ± 1.18
Olodo market Meat Market 50 4.68 ± 0.18
Mean (Log cfuml-1) 4.46 ± 0.24
n = 360
The mean total fungal counts for the study
locations of 4.46 logCFUml-1 as reported
in this study exceeded the FAO/WHO
standard limit of 2.0 logCFUml-1 for total
microbial count offood products and water
(FAO/WHO, 2000). Penicillium oxalicum,
A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. tamari
among other isolates were also reported by
Ehigiator et al. (2014), which were isolated
from shrimps in local meat shops in Benin,
except for A. fumigatus. This may be due to
the difference in the nature of samples
collected. Penicillium oxalicum was
similarly isolated in the work of Fasanmi et
al. (2010) and Ehigiator et al. (2014).
Fasanmi et al. (2010) also reported the
identification of Saccharromyces spp.
which was absent for this study due to the
initial precaution taken to prevent yeast
contamination of the cultured plates. A.
flavus, A. fumigatus and A. terreus as
reported in this study were not observed in
the study of Fasanmi et al. (2010). This
could be due to the difference in the studied
locations and sample size (50 samples as
Ibadan Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 14(1), 2018
compared to 360 samples for this study).
According to Anand and Tiwary (2010),
Aspergillus flavus is the second leading cause
of invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis. The
isolation of A. fumigatus and A. flavus in
food processing areas of Olunloyo meat
market, Olodo meat market and Akinyele
slaughter house poses public health risk to
the consumers and meat sellers if proactive
measures are not put into place as
Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp.
as isolated from this study also confirmed
the ubiquitousness of fungi species through
similar isolation of these fungal organisms
together with Cladosporium spp. and yeasts
from both kitchen and other facilities in
school environment as carried out by
Shelton et al. (2002) and Lignell, (2008).
Bryden, (2007) identified Aspergillus,
Fusarium and Penicillium species as
mycotoxin producers, while Hymery et al.,
(2014) further defined them as food
spoilage fungi. Various species of
Fusarium have been known to produce
mycotoxins, which have osteogenous action
and significantly toxic to the reproductive
system of animals and humans, according
to Milicevic et al., (2010). The most
important of these mycotoxin-producers are
Aspergillus species as they are responsible
for the production of aflatoxins (Bennet and
Klich, 2003). A. flavus has been identified
as the most potent producer of aflatoxins
with mutagenic, hepatotoxic, and
carcinogenic properties (Zhang et al., 2012)
which have been confirmed to have
detrimental effects on both humans and
animals (Barret, 2000). Mohamed (2010)
also described the economic importance of
mycotoxins in animal production.
Therefore, the presence of A. flavus and
Fusarium species from meat-processing
areas in this study poses a threat to public
health, as supported by Pitt, (2000) and
Hymery et al. (2014), in meat markets and
slaughter houses in Ibadan.
According to Abdullahi et al. (2006),
unhygienic practices in abattoirs around the
meat markets are associated with potential
health risk to consumers due to the
presence of pathogens in meat and
environmental contamination. Also, lack or
inadequate veterinary inspection as
observed in most of the abattoirs and meat
markets visited, supplemented with lack of
potable water, proper waste disposal
facilities, and sanitary inspectors, is now
becoming a normal trend in many
slaughterhouses in Nigeria (Okoli et al.,
2006). These factors may contribute to the
high fungal contamination observed in this
study. Increased level of fungal
contamination in food processing
environment is expected in time as a result
of the biofilm forming abilities of
Aspergillus organisms as reported by
Ogundijo and Adetunji (2017).
Conclusion and Recommendation
There is strong compromise in food safety
with fungal contamination in the meat
processing areas covered in this study.
More research focus should be driven
towards preventing an outbreak or
emergence of fungal zoonoses in the
studied locations and other related areas.
Thisis attainable by ensuring that strict
hygiene and sanitation measures be put in
place in meat markets and abattoirs, in
order to ensure cleanliness and safety of
meat tables and slaughter slabs
respectively, to ensure meats and meat
products are safe and wholesome for
Ogundijo and Adetunji
This work was sponsored in part by the
2010 Senate Research Grant (SRG) of the
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... However, there is little or no information on food safety risks of meat retailing in North-central region (the largest part) of Nigeria. Available reports are mostly from South-western part of the country (Fasanmi et al., 2018;Ogundijo & Adetunji, 2018). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the food safety risks associated with meat retailing at butchery outlets in Minna, north-central Nigeria. ...
Increase in the occurrence of foodborne pathogens and attendant diseases from street-vended meat across developing countries is a cause for global concern. High vulnerability of meat to microbial spoilage and deterioration, especially, put the health-safety of stakeholders along the chain at serious risk. This study evaluated the food safety risk factors associated with retail meat through the assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices of food safety by meat handlers (MH), and microbial safety of retailed meat in North-Central Nigeria. The study was conducted among 148 MH across five locations. Semi-structured questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice questions, and microbiological examination of retail meat samples and contact surfaces were employed. Meat handlers' food safety practice differed significantly (p < 0.05) with knowledge and attitude. Level of education, professional training and experience in the business had significantly (p < 0.05) positive influence on food safety practice. Meat handlers’ self-reported practices of wearing protective clothing during operation and cleaning tools after each use differed significantly (p < 0.05) with observed practices. Some microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus niger and A. flavus) of significant health importance were isolated from the meat samples and contact surfaces. Total viable count for contact surfaces (hand, knife and tabletop, respectively) were 1.54 × 10⁴, 2.26 × 10⁴ and 2.06 × 10⁴ CFU/mL, and 1.38 × 10⁴ CFU/g for meat cut. Cross contamination by processing tools, unhygienic practices and environmental factors were the probable causes of high microbial load in meat cut and contact surfaces.
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The bacteria and fungi load of shrimps from various meat shops in Benin metropolis were studied. The highest bacteria count 4.27 x 106cfu/ml was obtained from Meat shop MS2 while the lowest bacteria count 1.60 x 106 cfu/ml was obtained from Meat shop MS3. The highest fungi count 2.20x 106 cfu/ml was obtained from Meat shop MS2 while the lowest fungi count 1.20 x 106 cfu/ml was obtained from Meat shop MS1. In all the meat shops bacterial count were higher than fungi count. Shrimp samples from Meat shop MS2 had the highest total viable count 6.47 x 106 cfu/ml while the lowest count 3.03x106cfu/ml was obtained from Meat shop MS3. However, statistical analysis revealed no significant difference (P>0.05) between the total viable bacteria and fungi count of raw processed shrimps from the different meat shops.The most frequently isolated bacteria from shrimp samples from all the meat shops were identified as Proteus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Escherichia coli, Staphlococcus aureus, Bacillus sp3(6%) followed by Micrococcus sp, Streptococcus sp, Enterobacter sp, Staphylococcus epidermidis 2(4%) respectively. While the most frequently isolated fungi from shrimp sample from all the meat shops were identified as Aspergillus flavus ,Mucorsp, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium italicum, Neurospora sp, Cladosporium sp 3(6%). This was followed byPenicillium oxalicum, Rhodotorula sp, Yeast 2(4%), and Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus tamari, Trichoderma sp 1(2%) respectively. The study revealed that the microbial load of raw frozen shrimps offered for sale in Benin metropolis exceeded the acceptable standard limit for frozen shrimps recommended by FAO/WHO and also the micro-organisms identified in this study could pose high health risk concern.
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Aspergillus organisms have biofilm-forming abilities which make their control with some routine food-contact sanitizers or antifungal agents, more complicated. Studies on biofilm forming abilities of Aspergillus spp and its control are limited. This study was designed to investigate biofilm development by isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger from meat tables in meat markets and abattoirs in Ibadan. Also, variations in cultural conditions, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and sodium hypochlorite were assessed as measures for their control. Laboratory stock cultures of A. flavus and A. niger from abattoir environment were cultured by pour-plate method at 105 dilution on Sucrose-Potato dextrose agar, supplemented with streptomycin, and incubated at 26oC for five days, and organisms were enumerated using pre-described standard microbiological methods. The influence of two sugars (sucrose and fructose), at 0.2% and 0.4% concentrations; sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at 0.05% and 0.5% concentrations, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG at 108 and 104 concentrations were investigated on biofilm development by A. niger (n=2) and A. flavus (n=2) isolates, using Crystal Violet Binding Assay. Biofilm development using overnight grown culture was done in 96-well micro-titer plates, while the biofilm mass was determined by measuring the absorbance at 600 nm. An un-inoculated broth served as control. The experiment was done in at least three replicates. Data were analysed using ANOVA at α0.05. A. flavus (0.10±0.02) significantly produced a higher biofilm mass than A. niger (0.09±0.01). There was significant increase in biofilm mass with the addition of sucrose and fructose, with more biofilm mass (0.14±0.08 for sucrose and 0.11±0.03 for fructose) observed at 0.2% concentration. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG significantly decreased biofilm mass of A. flavus (0.07±0.01) and A. niger (0.06±0.00) when compared to the inoculated broth culture without lactic acid bacteria (0.09±0.01). There was a significant reduction in biofilm mass with both 0.05% and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, with the highest reduction seen with 0.5% concentration at 24 hr. A significant decrease in biofilm mass was observed for A. niger (106) with 0.5% concentration of NaOCl at 24 hr (0.07±0.01) when compared to control (0.09±0.01). Similar results were obtained across species at 24 and 72 hr of incubation. A lower biofilm mass was also formed at 11oC (0.07±0.01) when compared with 28oC (0.10±0.01). Sodium hypochlorite suppressed biofilm development, thus showing potentials for eliminating Aspergillus biofilms from meat tables in commercial markets, while Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG may be employed as an additive in meat and meat products processing.
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Tables used to display meat for sale in nine different markets in Ibadan Metropolis were microbiologically examined for their implication on meat hygiene. Twenty seven strains of bacteria and eight strains of fungi were isolated and identified. They were identified on the basis of metabolic and physiological features while simple crystal violet staining was used for observing cell size and shape. The samples were placed on trypticase-soya –agar (TSA), for trophic bacteria and Sabouraud-glucose-agar (SGA) supplemented with chloramphenicol for fungi. Petri dishes were incubated at 37ºC for 48 -72 h while the cultures were observed daily under a stereoscopic microscope for presence of bacterial colonies and or fungal mycelium. The mean value of bacterial count was 2.78 × 10 5 CFU/ml while that of the fungal count was 0.72 × 10 5 CFU/ml with a significant difference (p < 0.05). There was also a strong positive correlation between the sizes of the markets and the microbial load encountered in the samples. This was attributed to poor hygiene level resulting from inadequate facilities. The findings of this study indicate that meat hygiene is being compromised in the city, a situation that calls for public health concern.
Cited By (since 1996):42, Export Date: 18 October 2014
Some hazards associated with the entire production process of tsire (a local kebab) were identified in three production centres. Microbiological analyses showed tsire to have highest aerobic plate count of log106.27; B. cereus count was highest at log103.30cfu/g; Clostridium perfringens count was highest at log102.92cfu/g; Staphylococcal count was highest at log103.96cfu/g; Coliform count was highest at log104.08cfu/g; yeast and mould count was highest at log102.49cfu/g. The proximate analysis showed tsire to averagely have 11.87% moisture, 31.77% protein, 23.16% fat and 2.43% salt. The critical appraisal of the production process indicated potential hazards in the raw meat, environmental contamination as well as post-process handling contamination from humans and the environment. The nature of microorganisms associated with tsire production as shown by this study calls for worry from the public health standpoint. In the light of this, efforts should be made by public health services with regard to improving its production in order to reduce the associated hazards.
Recent outbreaks of Aspergillosis in chickens on farms throughout Trinidad have left the chicken consuming population shocked and frightened. At present there exists very little published information available to the population on Aspergillosis and its effect on health and food safety. The present paper examines some of the fundamental questions associated with the pathogenesis of Aspergillus, health implications and recommendation for public health food safety. It is hoped through education and access to information on Aspergillus will serve to alleviate fears about Aspergillus and to empower farmers and the chicken consuming population about methods of reducing, preventing and eliminating Aspergillus, thereby restoring confidence through the adoption of good agriculture practices, safe food handling practices, good sanitation practices and good hygienic practices when rearing, handling, processing, preparing, storing and transporting poultry.
Recognizing the high incidence of paranasal sinus mycoses in north India, we analysed retrospectively the clinical, mycological and management aspects of 178 patients with proven disease attending our institute. On the basis of clinical, radiological, histopathological and mycological findings, the patients could be categorized into those with allergic (8), non-invasive (92) and invasive (78) disease types. Bony erosion without mucosal invasion by fungi was seen in 16 patients with non-invasive disease. Young men from rural areas were the most commonly affected. Rhinorrhoea with nasal polyposis (45.8%) and proptosis (46.4%) was the most common presentation. Concurrent involvement of the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses was common in these patients, whereas isolated sphenoid and frontal sinuses were involved in the invasive variety only. Orbital and intracranial extensions were detected in 100% and 13.2%, respectively, of patients with the invasive type of disease. Aspergillus flavus (79.7%) was the most common isolate. Surgical debridement and sinus ventilation were adequate for the effective management of the non-invasive disease. However, adjuvant medical therapy was included in treatment of the semi-invasive and invasive varieties of the disease. Itraconazole was found to be most useful in prevention of recurrence in the invasive type, Mortality was highest (33.3%) among patients with zygomycotic infection. Invasive fungal granuloma with orbital and intracranial invasion is a distinct entity in terms of its clinical course and treatment compared with noninvasive fungal sinusitis, and it needs to be treated aggressively with surgical excision and postoperative itraconazole.