ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Star anise ( Illicium verum ): Chemical compounds, antiviral properties, and clinical relevance

  • School of Pharmacy: The Neotia University
  • Gupta College of Technological Sciences, Asansol, India


Medicinal herbs are one of the imperative sources of drugs all over the world. Star anise (Illicium verum), an evergreen, medium‐sized tree with star‐shaped fruit, is an important herb with wide distribution throughout southwestern parts of the Asian continent. Besides its use as spice in culinary, star anise is one of the vital ingredients of the Chinese medicinal herbs and is widely known for its antiviral effects. It is also the source of the precursor molecule, shikimic acid, which is used in the manufacture of oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), an antiviral medication for influenza A and influenza B. Besides, several other molecules with numerous biological benefits including the antiviral effects have been reported from the same plant. Except the antiviral potential, star anise possesses a number of other potentials such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecticidal, secretolytic, antinociceptive, anti‐inflammatory, gastroprotective, sedative properties, expectorant and spasmolytic, and estrogenic effects. This review aimed to integrate the information on the customary attributes of the plant star anise with a specific prominence on its antiviral properties and the phytochemical constituents along with its clinical aptness.
Star anise (Illicium verum): Chemical compounds, antiviral
properties, and clinical relevance
Jayanta Kumar Patra
| Gitishree Das
| Sankhadip Bose
Sabyasachi Banerjee
| Chethala N. Vishnuprasad
Maria del Pilar Rodriguez-Torres
| Han-Seung Shin
Research Institute of Biotechnology &
Medical Converged Science, Dongguk
University-Seoul, Goyang-si 10326, Republic
of Korea
Department of Pharmacognosy, Bengal
School of Technology, Sugandha, Hooghly
712102, West Bengal, India
Department of Phytochemistry, Gupta
College of Technological Sciences, Asansol,
West Bengal, India
Centre for Ayurveda Biology and Holistic
Nutrition, The University of Trans-Disciplinary
Health Sciences and Technology (TDU),
Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Laboratorio de Ondas de Choque (LOCH),
Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología
Avanzada (CFATA), Universidad Nacional
Autónoma de México Campus UNAM Juriquilla
Boulevard Juriquilla no. 3001 Santiago de
Querétaro, Qro., C.P. 76230, Mexico
Department of Food Science &
Biotechnology, Dongguk University-Seoul,
Goyang-si 10326, Republic of Korea
Dr. Jayanta Kumar Patra, Research Institute of
Biotechnology & Medical Converged Science,
Dongguk University-Seoul, Goyang-si 10326,
Republic of Korea.
Medicinal herbs are one of the imperative sources of drugs all over the world. Star
anise (Illicium verum), an evergreen, medium-sized tree with star-shaped fruit, is an
important herb with wide distribution throughout southwestern parts of the Asian
continent. Besides its use as spice in culinary, star anise is one of the vital ingredients
of the Chinese medicinal herbs and is widely known for its antiviral effects. It is also
the source of the precursor molecule, shikimic acid, which is used in the manufacture
of oseltamivir (Tamiflu
), an antiviral medication for influenza A and influenza
B. Besides, several other molecules with numerous biological benefits including the
antiviral effects have been reported from the same plant. Except the antiviral
potential, star anise possesses a number of other potentials such as antioxidant, anti-
microbial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecticidal, secretolytic, antinociceptive, anti-
inflammatory, gastroprotective, sedative properties, expectorant and spasmolytic,
and estrogenic effects. This review aimed to integrate the information on the cus-
tomary attributes of the plant star anise with a specific prominence on its antiviral
properties and the phytochemical constituents along with its clinical aptness.
antiviral, Illicium verum, oseltamivir, shikimic acid, star anise, Tamiflu
Plants are a vital part of the ancient system of medicine for treating
numerous infectious and non-infectious diseases across the globe.
The rich repository of bioactive compounds such as phenols, terpe-
noids, alkaloids, and so forth make them an important source of drug
(Sasidharan, Chen, Saravanan, Sundram, & Latha, 2011). Generally,
the use of herbal remedies for treating various disease conditions is
more common in rural places where the accessibility to the foods
and also medical services is limited (Bukar, Dayom, & Uguru, 2016).
People usually consume plants in different forms, namely, infusions,
spices, and medicinal smoke. Also, some of the plants are used as
seasoning substances to add flavor to the foods provide health bene-
fits (Bagchi & Srivastava, 2003).
Star anise (SA: Illicium verum Hook. f.), better known as Chinese
SA, belongs to the Magnoliaceae family and is an aromatic plant. It
has a star shape, and its fruit is a very important element as a spice in
the Oriental cuisine. It is a highly regarded medicinal plant with a num-
ber of medicinal properties in the countries like China and Vietnam
(Figure 1), and it is a commonly used spice. Several biologically impor-
tant phytochemicals have been reported from SA. It also possesses
antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant properties (George, 2012).
Jayanta Kumar Patra and Gitishree Das are combined first author.
Received: 14 October 2019 Revised: 25 December 2019 Accepted: 1 January 2020
DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6614
Phytotherapy Research. 2020;120. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1
Apart from the Chinese uses, the fruits are also referred in ayurveda,
traditional Indian system of medicine, as useful in dyspepsia, flatu-
lence, spasmodic colonalgia, dysentery, cough, asthma, rheumarthritis,
facial paralysis, and so forth. Additionally, the essential oils from SA
are composed of prenylated C
compounds, lignans, sesquiter-
penes, and flavonoids, each with different types of compounds which
are also important with respect to its vast medicinal properties.
Among all of them, the anethole compounds are responsible for its
characteristic taste. Besides, compounds like α-pinene, β-pinene,
myrcene, α-phellandrene limonene, γ-terpineol, linalool, α-terpineol,
estragole, trans-anethole, α-cubebene carryophyllene oxide, and
α-humulene present in the essential oil of SA are also reported to
have contained a number of biological activities (Aly, Sabry,
Shaheen, & Hathout, 2016; Luís et al., 2019; Wang, Hu, Huang, & Qin,
2011). In addition, a number of procedures have been established for
the extraction of the bioactive compounds from this plant species,
and, among which, the hydro-distillation, steam distillation, solvent
extraction, supercritical fluid CO
extraction, hydro-distillation-
headspace solvent microextraction, and microwave-assisted extrac-
tion process are the most common ones (Rocha & Candido Tietbohl,
2016). SA has attracted the scientific community due to the presence
of a specific compound called the shikimic acid that acts as a chemical
precursor in the manufactor of oseltamivir (Tamiflu
), an avian flu
drug (Ohira, Torii, Aida, Watanabe, & Smith Jr, 2009; Xu et al., 2017).
The aim of this review is to present the general characteristics, chemi-
cal properties, and antiviral properties of I.verum (SA) along with a
future perspective on its usage.
SA is the ripe, dried fruit of I.verum. Its whorl is formed by six to eight,
one-seeded, boat-shaped, woody, wrinkled, ridged, reddish-brown fol-
licles whose inner structure is characterized by a smooth, lustrous,
and light-brown texture (Zhang, Ji, & Yu, 2018). Its seed is light brown
and ovoid in shape. SA has been used for long in Chinese cuisine as a
spice, but it is not only limited to China but also to Vietnam and India
for the preparation of broths and meat. SA is part of the popular five-
spice powder mix. It contains SA, cassia, clove, fennel, and Sichuan
pepper in equal parts. Besides, it has been a part of the alcoholic bev-
erages such as pastis and absinthes, together with its uses in teas, fruit
compotes, and jams in the Western countries. The inclusion of anise
as a part of a healthy diet could have benefits as in the prevention of
disease in combination with other food types, for example, other
plants, fruits, and vegetables.
The I.verum, which belongs to the division Magnoliophyta, class Mag-
noliopsida, order Austrobaileyales, and family Illiciaceae, is a modest
semblance herb of around 8 to 15 m in height and 30 cm thick with
flat-out, felicitous trunks and emphatic, bald-headed branchlets
(Chouksey, Sharma, & Pawar, 2010). The normal existence of the herb
is 80100 years. The bark is white to bright gray. Its 612 cm tall
leaves are simple, leathery, alternate, plenary, bright, bald-headed,
generally packed in groups toward the finish of the branches
(Chouksey et al., 2010). The flowers bloom huge and are androgynous,
11.5 cm in diameter, white-pink to red or greenish-yellow, axillary,
and single (Chouksey et al., 2010). The fruit looks like capsule, but the
entirety is star formed, radiating 5 to 10-pointed pontoon-molded
segments about eight on average. Every arm of the fruit looks like a
seed pod. The fruits have thick skin and are rust shaded with their
dimension up to 3 cm long (Chouksey et al., 2010). The fruits were
picked since it gets ripen when the essential oil is at its maximum. The
seeds are sparkling brown or ruddy with high oil content (Chouksey
et al., 2010; Fritz, Ölzant, & Länger, 2008; Prajapati, Purohit,
Sharma, & T, K., 2006). In the ayurvedic system of medicine, it is com-
monly used in the rasa: katu, Guna: Lakhu, Teekshna, Virya: Ushra,
Vipaka: Katu (Chouksey et al., 2010).
Fruits comprise a greater number of alkaloids, essential oil, and tannins
(9% to 10%), containing both cis- and trans-anethole (85% to 90%),
limone, α-pinene, safrol, β-phellandrene, α-terpineol, and farnesol
(Chouksey et al., 2010; Dzamic et al., 2009; Tuan & Ilangantileket,
1997). Some little number of nitrogenous components and 14 hydrocar-
bon components along with 22 oxygenated hydrocarbon derivatives are
there like ρ-allylanisole, anisylacetone, anisaldehyde, ρ-cumicaldehyde,
ρ-allylpen, palmitic acid, linoleic acid (14 methoxyphenyl)-prop-2-one
FIGURE 1 Medicinal potential of star anise
TABLE 1 Chemical constituents of star anise
Chemical constituents Structure Applications References
Cis-anethole Antimicrobial, antifungal, anthelmintic,
antioxidant, antinociceptive, gastroprotective,
anti-inflammatory, sedative activity and
insecticidal activities, spasmolytic effect on
contracted smooth muscles, secretolytic and
expectorant effects, estrogenic effects, and
reproductive toxicity
(Chouksey et al., 2010; Marinov & Valcheva-
Kuzmanova, 2015)
α-Pinene Gastroprotective effect, selective anti-
inflammatory and anticatabolic effects,
antinociceptive, antimicrobial activities
(Chouksey et al., 2010; de Almeida Pinheiro et al.,
2015; Him, Ozbek, Turel, & Oner, 2008; Rufino
et al., 2014; Silva et al., 2012)
α-Phellandrene Antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory action,
mast cell stabilization, antinociceptive effect,
antifungal activities
(Chouksey et al., 2010; _
Is¸can et al., 2012; Lima
et al., 2012; Siqueira et al., 2016; J.-h. Zhang,
Sun, Chen, Zeng, & Wang, 2017)
Limonene Botanical insecticide, spasmolytic, antitumor,
anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities.
(Andrade & de Sousa, 2013; Chouksey et al.,
2010; de Sousa, Mesquita, de Araújo Ribeiro, &
de Lima, 2015)
ρ-Cymene Anxiolytic, antioxidant, anticancer,
antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and
antimicrobial effects
(Chouksey et al., 2010; Marchese et al., 2017)
Linalool Local anesthetic activity, antimicrobial activity,
anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive,
antihyperalgesic activities
(Chouksey et al., 2010; Peana, Moretti,
Watson, & Preedy, 2008)
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Chemical constituents Structure Applications References
Terpinen-4-ol Antimicrobial effect, anti-inflammatory, and
antioxidant acitivities
(Chouksey et al., 2010; Mondello, De Bernardis,
Girolamo, Cassone, & Salvatore, 2006)
α-Terpineol Antioxidant, antiulcer, anticancer,
antihypertensive, antinociceptive.;
anticonvulsant activities
(Chouksey et al., 2010; Khaleel, Tabanca, &
Buchbauer, 2018)
Shikimic acid Antioxidant, anticoagulant, antithrombotic,
antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic
(Chouksey et al., 2010; Estevez, & A., & J Estevez,
R., 2012)
Estragole/methyl chavicol/ρ-allylanisole CNS depressant, antioxidant activity,
antimicrobial, anesthetic, and modulation of
the immune responses.
(Chouksey et al., 2010; Wiirzler, Silva-Filho,
Aguiar, Cavalcante, & Cuman, 2016)
Anisyl acetone Antioxidant and antibacterial activities. (Chouksey et al., 2010; Yang et al., 2012)
ρ-Anisaldehyde Antifungal effect, antibacterial, anti-HIV,
anticancer, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory,
tuberclostatic, antimalarial activities
(Chouksey et al., 2010; Mbah et al., 2017)
β-Caryophyllene Anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic,
antimicrobial, antioxidative and analgesic
(Chouksey et al., 2010; Fidyt, Fiedorowicz,
Strządała, & Szumny, 2016)
Foeniculin Insecticides (Chouksey et al., 2010; Garneau et al., 2000)
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Chemical constituents Structure Applications References
Linoleic acid Antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory, acne
reductive, skin-lightening and moisture
retentive property, cardiovascular-protective,
anticancer, neuro-protective, anti-osteoporotic,
and antioxidative effects
(Chouksey et al., 2010; Dilika, Bremner, & Meyer,
2000; Kim, Nam, Kim, Hayes, & Lee, 2014)
Palmitic acid Anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant,
hypocholesterolemic, nematicide, pesticide,
antiandrogenic flavor, haemolytic, 5-alpha
reductase inhibitor
(Aparna et al., 2012; Chouksey et al., 2010;
Kumar, Kumaravel, & Lalitha, 2010)
Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester Antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, nematicide,
pesticide, antiandrogenic, haemolytic activities.
(Balamurugan, Evanjaline, Parthipan, & Mohan,
2017; Chouksey et al., 2010)
δ-3-Carene Anti-inflammatory, antihistamine, antifungal
activity, antibacterial, sedative and expectorant
(Ocete, Risco, Zarzuelo, & Jimenez, 1989; Singh,
Maurya, DeLampasona, & Catalan, 2006)
α-Terpinene Antioxidant (Rudbäck et al., 2012; Singh et al., 2006)
1,8-cineole / eucalyptol Antinociceptive property, vasodilator,
bronchodilator, anti-inflammatory activity,
hepatoprotective, gastroprotective,
antibacterial, antimycotic and antitumorogenic
(Bhowal & Gopal, 2015; Singh et al., 2006)
γ-Terpinene Antimicrobial, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory
(Singh et al., 2006; Soukoulis & Hirsch, 2004)
Trans-linalool oxide Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity (Luís, Duarte, Pereira, & Domingues, 2017; Singh
et al., 2006)
Terpinolene Anticancer, antibacterial, antioxidant,
antifungal and sedative properties
(Aydin, Türkez, & Tas¸demir, 2013; Eftekhar,
Yousefzadi, Azizian, Sonboli, & Salehi, 2005;
Grassmann, Hippeli, Spitzenberger, & Elstner,
2005; Ito & Ito, 2011; Singh et al., 2006)
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Chemical constituents Structure Applications References
Terpinen-1-ol Antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, cytotoxic,
anticancer activities
(Shapira, Pleban, Kazanov, Tirosh, & Arber, 2016;
Singh et al., 2006)
Borneol Analgesic, anesthetic, sedative, anxiolytic
(Granger, Campbell, & Johnston, 2005; Singh
et al., 2006)
α-Copaene Antimicrobial activity, anti-proliferative,
antioxidant, anti-genotoxic and cytotoxic
(Martins et al., 2015; Singh et al., 2006; Turkez,
Togar, Tatar, Geyıkoglu, & Hacımuftuoglu,
Trans-α-Bergamotene Cytotoxic activity (Monajemi, Oryan, Haeri-Roohani, Ghannadi, &
Jafarian, 2010; Singh et al., 2006)
Δ-Cadinene Anticancer activity (Hui, Zhao, & Zhao, 2015; Singh et al., 2006)
1,4-cineole Fumigant insecticide and CNS depressant (Singh et al., 2006)
γ-Terpineol Flavoring ingredient
β-Terpineol Flavoring ingredient
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Chemical constituents Structure Applications References
Acetaldehyde In the production of sedatives and tranquilizers,
flavoring agents
Methyl p-anisate Flavoring agent
Trans-β-Farnesene Scent preparation.
4-Methoxypropiophenone Fragrance agent
m-Methoxy mandelic acid Not reported
t-Muurolol Antifungal activity
Margaric acid Antiproliferative activity
Phenol Oral analgesic, antiviral, antifungal activities (Wei et al., 2014)
Benzoic acid Antifungal activity
4-Ethyl benzaldehyde Flavoring ingredient
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Chemical constituents Structure Applications References
Benzyl alcohol Local anesthetic, antimicrobial, insect repellent,
flavoring agents.
4-Methoxy benzoic acid / p-anisic acid Antimicrobial activity
4-Methoxy benzaldehyde oxime Not reported
O-Nitrobenzoic acid Not reported
β-Copaene Antimicrobial activity (Sinha, 2019; Wei et al., 2014)
Longifolene Antifungal, anti-termite activities, flavoring agent,
natural autoxidation
(Mukai, Takahashi, & Ashitani, 2017, Mukai,
Takahashi, & Ashitani, 2018, Wei et al., 2014)
Bisabolene Anticonvulsant activity, flavoring agent (Orellana-Paucar et al., 2012; Wei et al., 2014)
ρ-Hydroxybenzoic acid Antiestrogenic, antimutagenic, antimicrobial,
antialgal, anti-platelet aggregating, antioxidant.
Nematicidal, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory,
antiviral activities
(Manuja, Sachdeva, Jain, & Chaudhary, 2013; Wei
et al., 2014)
β-Humulene Anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, antioxidant,
anticarcinogenic and local anesthetic activities
(Legault & Pichette, 2007; Wei et al., 2014)
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Chemical constituents Structure Applications References
3-Hydroxybenzoic acid Anti-stress, anxiolytic and antidepressant,
antimicrobial agents
(Khan, Chatterjee, & Kumar, 2015; Kumar et al.,
2010; Wei et al., 2014)
3,6-Dimethyl-4H-furo[3,2-C]pyran-4-one Not reported (Wei et al., 2014)
3-Hydroxy-1,2-benzisoxazole Not reported
4-Methoxy cinnamaldehyde Flavoring agent
4-Ethyl-α-methyl benzyl alcohol Not reported
Cis-3,5-dimethoxy-β-methyl-β-nitrostyrene Not reported
Hydrazine carboxylic acid,2-methyl-
3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal ester
Not reported (Yan et al., 2002)
9-Methyl-9H-fluorene Organometallic reagent (Bowen, Aavula, & Mash, 2002;
Wei et al., 2014)
Not reported (Huang et al., 2013)
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Chemical constituents Structure Applications References
2,2-Diisobutyl-1,3-benzodioxole Not reported (Wei et al., 2014)
Bendazol Hypotensive, vasodilator, antispasmodic action,
anti-parasitic activities
Trans-2-Ethoxy-β-methyl- β-nitrostyrene Not reported
N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylbenzamide Not reported
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester
/ methyl linoleate
Flavoring ingredient
Phenol-3-[2-(2-phenylethyl)amino]ethyl Not reported (Huang et al., 2013; Wei et al., 2014)
Spiro[4.5]dec-1-ene Not reported (Yan et al., 2002)
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Chemical constituents Structure Applications References
α-Farnesene Flavoring ingredient
2-Methyl-3-phenylpropanal Not reported
Phenyl ethanolamine Cardiovascular activity
Surfynol 102 Surfactant
Acetic acid geranyl ester Flavoring ingredient
p-Allylphenol/Chavicol Odorant
Hexyloleate Not reported
2-(2-Aminopropoxy)-3-methyl benzeneethanol Not reported
Bicyclo 2.2.1 heptane-2,3-dione,6-(acetyloxy)-
1,5,5-trimethyl, endo
Not reported
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Chemical constituents Structure Applications References
Acethydrazide Antibiotic, cytotoxic activities
Not reported (Huang et al., 2013)
Not reported
Nopol Flavoring ingredient
γ-Elemene Antitumor (S. Wang et al., 2012; Yan et al., 2002)
3-Undecene Not reported
Germacrene D Antibacterial property, cytotoxicity, olfactory
receptor neuron activator.
(Essien et al., 2016; Yan et al., 2002)
Trans-Nerolidol Flavoring agent, antineoplastic, leishmanicidal,
anti- parasitic, and antifungal activities
(Arruda, D'Alexandri, Katzin, & Uliana, 2005; S.-J.
Lee et al., 2007; Yan et al., 2002)
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Chemical constituents Structure Applications References
Geranyl isobutyrate Flavoring agent
Veranisatin A Analgesic activity (Nakamura, Okuyama, & Yamazaki, 1996)
Veranisatin B Analgesic activity
ρ-Cumic aldehyde Not reported
and foeniculin (Wang, Jiang, & Wen, 2007; Yamada, Takada,
Nakamura, & Hirata, 1965; Yan, J.-h., Xiao, X.-x., & Huang, K.-l., 2002).
The new phenylpropanoid glucosides, such as seco-cycloartane; alkyl
glucosides, 3,4-seco(242)-cycloartane-4(28),24(diene)3,26-dioic acid, and
phenylpropanoid 26- methyl ester of nigranoic acid, were also recog-
nized from dichloromethane leaves extract of I. verum (Lee, Li, Lee,
Song, & Son, 2003; Sy & Brown, 1998).
Another study of phytochemical assessment claims that the
I. verum fruit contains β-pinene, β-sitosterol, a-phellandrene, p-
cymene, β-myrcene, limonene, car-3-ene, cineol, 4(10)-thujene, linal-
ool, and 4-terpineol (Asolkar, Kakkar, & Chakre, 1992; Rashid &
Zuberi, 2016; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993). The presence of safrole, as
well as hydroquinone ethyl ether, was also detected. The fatty acid
mix contains myristic, stearic, and linoleic acids (Asolkar et al., 1992;
Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993). It also contains copaene, anisketone,
sesquicitronellene, caryophyllene, farnesene, methyl-3-methoxy-ben-
zoate, methyl isoeugenol, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, nerolidol, and m-
methoxy-a-benzyl benzene acetic acid (Asolkar et al., 1992; Rashid &
Zuberi, 2016; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993). A number of bioactive com-
pounds found in the I.verum are listed in Table 1, many of which are
reported by Chouksey et al. (2010).
4.1 |Isolation of volatile oils
The volatile oils isolated from I.verum by hydro-distillation process
are α-pinene, sabinene, limonene, δ-3-carene, α-phellandrcene,
1,8-cineole, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, linalool, β-caryophyllene,
estragole, α-terpineol, cis-anethole, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde
(Bernard, Perineau, Delmas, & Gaset, 1989), terpinen-4-ol,
α-terpinene (Rudbäck, Bergström, Börje, Nilsson, & Karlberg, 2012),
terpinolene (Amanzadeh, Ashrafi, & Mohammadi, 2006), terpinen-
1-ol, borneol (Chen et al., 2014), α-copaene (Martins et al., 2015),
δ-cadinene (Pérez-López, Cirio, Rivas-Galindo, Aranda, & de Torres,
2011), 4-methoxypropiophenone, β-copaene, bisabolene (Aslam,
Ahmad, & Raja, 2017), O-nitrobenzoic acid, α-farnesene, germacrene
D (Özek et al., 2018), trans-nerolidol (Sriti Eljazi et al., 2018), geranyl
isobutyrate (Wangchuk, Keller, Pyne, Taweechotipatr, &
Kamchonwongpaisan, 2013), chavicol (Charles & Simon, 1990), and
ρ-cumic aldehyde.
4.2 |Isolation of shikimic acid
From ethanolic extract of SA, the solvent was removed by the help of
a rotary flash evaporator under reduced pressure. The residue was
again dissolved in water and heated up to 80C. Five drops of
3740% formaldehyde solution was mixed to the warm solution and
cooled. A glass filter funnel was used to remove the precipitate which
contains a layer of celite to obtain a clear orange solution. Again it is
passed through an anion exchanger (Amberlite IRA-400) to collect the
yellow eluent and acetic acid. Then, the acetic acid was eliminated by
high vacuum rotary evaporator that afforded an orange-colored solid.
It was then dispersed in methanol and heated. To afford a solid mass,
filtration and subsequent elimination of the methanol was continued.
In the next step, the solid mass was recrystallized to get a bright white
crystalline solid called shikimic acid (Payne & Edmonds, 2005).
4.3 |Isolation of anisyl acetone
Isolation of anisyl acetone was performed by GC/MS analysis using
helium (He) as carrier gas (Meier, Kohlenberg, & Braun, 2003).
4.4 |Isolation of foeniculin
The isolation of foeniculin is done by using high-performance
counter-current chromatography (HPCCC), notably, high-speed
counter-current chromatography is considered, from essential oils of
SA, whose presence was confirmed by GCMS analysis (Skalicka-
Woźniak, Walasek, Ludwiczuk, & Głowniak, 2013).
4.5 |Isolation of linoleic acid
The isolation of linoleic acid is done by treating the extract of the mixed
acids with sufficient urea to reduce the content of saturated and oleic
acids in the initial liquids to about 5%; then go for low-temperature crys-
tallization from acetone at 75C then gives a precipitate enriched in
linoleic acid (Gunstone, McLaughlan, Scrimgeour, & Watson, 1976).
4.6 |Isolation of palmitic acid
Directly, n-hexane is mixed to the crude methanolic extract with vig-
orous stirring; it was then filtered and while the residue was permitted
to dry and the same technique was repeated with ethyl acetate, n-
butanol, and lastly the residue acquired is methanol fraction. Ethyl
acetate, methanol, n-hexane, and n-butanol fractions acquired were
concentrated in hot air sterilizing chamber. Column chromatography
was then performed using petroleum benzene as mobile phase
followed by 9:1 ratio of petroleum benzene and ethyl acetate as elut-
ing solvent. The eluents were reviewed by TLC using methanol and
chloroform at 1:9 ratio. The isolated colorless powder was then ana-
lyzed with UVVis, IR,
H NMR and
C NMR spectroscopies for
appropriate characterization of palmitic acid (Bulama, Dangoggo,
Halilu, Tsaf, & Hassan, 2014).
4.7 |Isolation of hexadecanoic acid methyl ester
Methanolic extract was fractionated using flash column chromatography
using mixtures of hexane and ethyl acetate. Oil was acquired with hexane
inethylacetate.GCMS and spectroscopic analyses confirm the hex-
adecanoic acid methyl ester presence (Ajoku, Okwute, & Okogun, 2015).
4.8 |Isolation of methyl linoleate
It was extracted with n-hexane, then quantified by HPTLC and applied
directly to flash chromatography using hexane:acetone (40:60) in
order to isolate methyl linoleate as pale-yellow viscous oil (Jubie,
Dhanabal, & Chaitanya, 2015).
SA is rich in flavonoids, alkaloids, tri-terpenoids, saponins, tannins, and
anthraquinones along with a repository of reducing sugars, amino
acids, and proteins. Several biologically important phytochemicals
reported from SA have shown to have antiviral effects and were stud-
ied against several viral pathogens. Shikimic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxy-
1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid), a natural organic compound and an
important intermediate in the biosynthesis of various phytochemicals,
is one of the most widely studied molecules from SA in the context of
its antiviral effects. It is the key intermediate of the shikimic acid path-
way and has gained relevance as a substrate for the chemical synthe-
sis of the drug oseltamivir phosphate (OSP), known commercially as
Tamiflu (Candeias, Assoah, & Simeonov, 2018). This drug is an
efficient inhibitor of the surface protein neuraminidase (NA) enzyme
of the seasonal influenza virus types A and B, avian influenza virus
H5N1, and human influenza virus H1N1 (Bradley, 2005). Although SA
pods were one of the main sources of shikimic acid, the yield was only
up to 17% (dry basis content) and was not sufficient to meet the high
demand for the OSP drug to manage the major influenza outbreaks.
As an alternate, advancements in biotechnology had helped in design-
ing innovative strategies of synthesizing shikimic acid using genetically
modified Escherichia coli (Bilal et al., 2018; Martínez, Bolívar, &
Escalante, 2015).
While shikimic acid is the most important bioactive from SA, stud-
ies have reported several other molecules as well with prominent ant-
iviral effects. In a study wherein two new compounds, illiverin A and
tashironin A, reported from the roots of I.verum along with seven
other known compounds, namely, 4-allyl-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-1,-
6-methylenedioxybenzene-3-ol; illicinole, 3-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedi-
oxyallyl-benzene; ()-illicinone-A; 4-allyl-4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-
1,2-methylenedioxycyclohexa-2,6-dien-5-one; 3,4-seco-(24 Z)-cycloart-4
(28),24-diene-3,26-dioic acid; and 26-methyl ester and tashironin, showed
that compounds ()-illicinone-A and 26-methyl ester possessed moderate
anti-HIV activity with EC50 values of 16.0 and 5.1 μM, respectively (Song
et al., 2007). Similarly, studies carried out with essential oils from SA also
showed interesting results with respect to its antiviral effects. Studies
TABLE 2 Various compounds reported from other species from the genus Illicium with antiviral effects
number Species Compound Activity against References
Hepatitis B (J. Liu et al., 2016)
2 2S-hydroxyl-jiadifenolide, jiadifenlactone acid,
Jiadifenolide, 2-oxo-3,4-dehydroxyneomajucin,
2-oxoneomajucin, neomajucin, majucin, (2S)-
hydroxyneomajucin, (2R)-2-hydroxyneomajucin
and (1R,2S)-1,2-epoxyneomajucin
Expression of HBeAg
and HBsAg
(J.-F. Liu et al.,
spirooliganone B
Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3)
Coxsackie virus B3 and influenza virus
A (H3N2)
(Lü et al., 2015;
Ma et al., 2013)
4Illicium henryi 10-Benzoyl-cycloparvifloralone HBV surface antigen
(HBsAg) secretion and
HBVe antigen (HBeAg) secretion
(Ji-Feng et al.,
5 Sesquiterpene lactones, henrylactones AE(15),
together with ten known compounds:
Cycloparvifloralone (6), tashironin (7), tashironin
A (8), neoanisatin (9), anisatin (10), anislactone B
(11), 7-O-acetylanislactone B (12), merrillianolide
(13), cyclomerrillianolide (14) and pseudomajucin
Anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) (J.-F. Liu et al.,
6()-Dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol tashironin Both HBsAg and HBeAg
HBV surface antigen
(HBsAg) secretion
(J.-F. Liu et al.,
J. F. Liu et al.,
7Illicium majus Majusanic acids E
Majusanic acids F
4-Epi-dehydroabietic acid
Majusanic acids B
Majusanic acid D
Coxsackie B3 virus (Y.-D. Wang et al.,
carried out with the anise oil along with two other essential oils (dwarf-pine
oil and chamomile oil) against different types of thymidine-kinase such as
thymidine-kinase-positive (aciclovir-sensitive) and thymidine-kinase-
negative (aciclovir-resistant) herpes simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1) showed
that all these essential oils have antiviral activity against the aciclovir-
sensitive HSV strain KOS and aciclovir-resistant clinical HSV isolates as
well as aciclovir-resistant strain Angelotti, through interrupting the adsorp-
tion of herpes viruses. This is different from the mode of action of aciclovir,
which is effective after attachment inside the infected cells. The report
indicated that these oils are capable of exerting a direct effect on HSV and
might be useful in the treatment of drug-resistant viruses (Christine Koch
et al., 2008). Astani, Reichling, and Schnitzler (2011) evaluated the antiviral
activity of SA essential oil against HSV-1 under in vitro condition. Likewise,
another study of anise essential oils on herpes simplex virus Type 2 (HSV-
2), carried out on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay, showed an
inhibition with IC
value of 0.016% (Koch, Reichling, Schneele, &
Schnitzler, 2008). Compounds like anethole, 4-methoxy-benzaldehyde,
2-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-n-methyl-acetamide, cyclohexyl-ben-
zene, 1-(1-methylethenyl)-3-(1-methylethyl)-benzene, eucalyptol, γ-sitos-
terol, and so forth were also reported from SA with various bioactivities
(Peng et al., 2016). Similarly, there are various other compounds which
have been reported from other species from the genus Illicium which have
potential antiviral effect (Table 2). Ma et al. (2013) have reported isolation
of two novel antiviral compounds spirooliganones A and B, from the roots
of Illicium oligandrum. And among the two, the spirooliganone B was
highly effective against the coxsackie virus B3 and influenza virus A
(H3N2) with IC
values of 3.705.05 μM than the spirooliganone A com-
pound by a biosynthetic pathway which includes a hetero-DielsAlder
reaction process of the epimers (Ma et al., 2013). Similarly et al. (2015)
has also isolated the oligandrin and oligandric acid from the roots of
I. oligandrum and tested its promising antiviral activity against the
coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3), influenza virus A/Hanfang/359/95 (H3N2),
and influenza virus A/FM/1/47 (H1N1) (Lü et al., 2015). Liu et al. (2010)
have isolated five new sesquiterpene lactones, henrylactones AE
along with 10 other known compounds from the stems and roots of
Illicium henryi and tested them for their antihepatitis B virus (HBV)
activities. Among them, tashironin compound exhibited significantly
high activity inhibiting the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion
and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) secretion using HBV transfected Hep
G2.2.15 cell line (J.-F. Liu et al., 2010). Liu et al. (2016), isolated two
compounds from the fruits of Illicium jiadifengpi,namely,
3,4-dehydroneomajucin and 1,2,3,4-tetradehydroneomajucin, with
potent antihepatitis B virus activities on the Hep G2.2.15 cell line.
Wang et al. (2013) have isolated around 13 compounds from the
roots of Illicium majus and have tested their antiviral potential against
the Coxsackie B3 virus.
A number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have been undertaken
to develop the antiviral drug using the shikimic acid isolated from
the Illicium anisatum, or SA (Bradley, 2005). These drugs have been
approved and commercialized in the name of Tamiflu (Bradley,
2005). The mixture of shikimic acid and quercetin has been reported
to be tested against the bird flu in China and Taiwan (Boota,
Rehman, Mushtaq, & Kazerooni, 2018). Besides, there are reports
that the essential oil from the SA and its isolated compounds
exhibited promising antiviral activity against the HSV-1 in the viral
suspension tests (Astani et al., 2011). There are more studies which
have been devoted to the development of drugs against herpes
(7401H HSV1; Allahverdiyev et al., 2013), along with products such
as vaginal gels to fight Candida species, although more significant
studies need to be achieved in order to step into the clinical trial
phases (Gafit¸{t\hskip-0.7ex\char "B8}anu et al., 2016) for these
pharmaceutical formulations. Apart from these, a number of com-
pounds have been isolated from different species of the genus
Illicium and have been tested against different types of viruses
which is summarized in Table 2.
SA (I.verum) is one of the important plant species which is a reposi-
tory of various types of bioactive molecules. Besides using it as a culi-
nary ingredient, various traditional medicines have reported about the
diverse applications of this plant in managing numerous disease condi-
tions. Nevertheless, the plant is most often commended for its ant-
iviral effects because of the oseltamivir (Tamiflu), which has been
commercially available as a treatment for flu. Besides, it would also be
more impactful to study the immunomodulatory and other virus resis-
tance mechanism that the body exerts against a number of viruses.
Such studies are important because the resistance to viral infections
need not be always through a direct inhibition of virus, but it can also
be through enhancing the body's resistance to the infections. In the
future research work, it is necessary to identify more active com-
pounds and their derivatives from this plant species for their potential
clinical trials for the evaluation of the applicable thwack of I. verum
against numerous human diseases. In this review, the antiviral effects
of SA have been indicated together with the botanical description,
number of phytoconstituents present, and isolation procedure of the
Authors are grateful to their respective institutions for support.
Authors declare no conflict of interest with the manuscript.
Jayanta Kumar Patra
Sankhadip Bose
Sabyasachi Banerjee
Maria del Pilar Rodriguez-Torres
Ajoku, G., Okwute, S., & Okogun, J. (2015). Isolation of hexadecanoic acid
methyl ester and 1, 1, 2-ethanetricarboxylic acid-1-hydroxy-1,
1-dimethyl ester from the calyx of green Hibiscus sabdariffa (Linn). Nat
Prod Chem Res,3(2), 169174.
Allahverdiyev, A. M., Bagirova, M., Yaman, S., Koc, R. C., Abamor, E. S.,
Ates, S. C., Oztel, O. N. (2013). Development of new antiherpetic
drugs based on plant compounds. In Fighting multidrug resistance with
herbal extracts, essential oils and their components (pp. 245259).
United States of America: Elsevier.
Aly, S. E., Sabry, B. A., Shaheen, M. S., & Hathout, A. S. (2016). Assessment
of antimycotoxigenic and antioxidant activity of star anise (Illicium
verum) in vitro. J Saudi Soc Agri Sci,15(1), 2027.
Amanzadeh, Y., Ashrafi, M., & Mohammadi, F. (2006). New elaborated
technique for isolation and purification of limonene from orange oil.
Iran J Pharm Res,2(2), 8790.
Andrade, L., & de Sousa, D. (2013). A review on anti-inflammatory activity
of monoterpenes. Molecules,18(1), 12271254.
Aparna, V., Dileep, K. V., Mandal, P. K., Karthe, P., Sadasivan, C., &
Haridas, M. (2012). Anti-inflammatory property of n-hexadecanoic
acid: Structural evidence and kinetic assessment. Chemical Biology &
Drug Design,80(3), 434439.
Arruda, D. C., D'Alexandri, F. L., Katzin, A. M., & Uliana, S. R. (2005).
Antileishmanial activity of the terpene nerolidol. Antimicrobial Agents
and Chemotherapy,49(5), 16791687.
Aslam, M. S., Ahmad, M. S., & Raja, S. A. (2017). Solventless extraction of
essential oil. In H. E.-D. M. Saleh & M. Koller (Eds.), Green Chemistry:
IntechOpen, Croatia.
Asolkar, L., Kakkar, K., & Chakre, O. (1992). Glossary of Indian medicinal
plants with active principles. CSIR, New Delhi,1, 187.
Astani, A., Reichling, J., & Schnitzler, P. (2011). Screening for antiviral activ-
ities of isolated compounds from essential oils. Evidence-Based comple-
mentary and alternative medicine, 2011; Article ID 253643; https://doi.
Aydin, E., Türkez, H., & Tas¸demir, S¸. (2013). Anticancer and antioxidant
properties of terpinolene in rat brain cells. Archives of Industrial
Hygiene and Toxicology,64(3), 415424.
Bagchi, G. D., & Srivastava, G. N. (2003). Spices and flavoring (flavouring)
crops | fruits and seeds. In B. Caballero (Ed.), Encyclopedia of food sci-
ences and nutrition (Second ed., pp. 54655477). Oxford: Academic
Balamurugan, A., Evanjaline, M., Parthipan, B., & Mohan, V. (2017). GC-MS
analysis of bioactive compounds from the ethanol extract of leaves of
Neibuhria apetala Dunn. International Research Journal of Pharmacy,8,
Bernard, T., Perineau, F., Delmas, M., & Gaset, A. (1989). Extraction of
essential oils by refining of plant materials. II. Processing of products
in the dry state: Illicium verum Hooker (fruit) and Cinnamomum
zeylanicum Nees (bark). Flavor and Fragrance Journal,4(2), 8590.
Bhowal, M., & Gopal, M. (2015). Eucalyptol: Safety and pharmacological
profile. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences,5, 125131.
Bilal, M., Wang, S., Iqbal, H. M., Zhao, Y., Hu, H., Wang, W., & Zhang, X.
(2018). Metabolic engineering strategies for enhanced shikimate bio-
synthesis: Current scenario and future developments. Applied Microbi-
ology and Biotechnology,102(18), 77597773.
Boota, T., Rehman, R., Mushtaq, A., & Kazerooni, E. G. (2018). Star anise: A
review on benefits, biological activities and potential uses. Interna-
tional Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Sciences,14, 110114.
Bowen, M. E., Aavula, B. R., & Mash, E. A. (2002). Use of 9-methylfluorene
as an indicator in the titration of common group IA and group IIA
organometallic reagents. The Journal of Organic Chemistry,67(25),
Bradley, D. (2005). Star role for bacteria in controlling flu pandemic? In
Star role for bacteria in controlling flu pandemic? In: Nature Publishing
Bukar, B. B., Dayom, D. W., & Uguru, M. (2016). The growing economic
importance of medicinal plants and the need for developing countries
to harness from it: A mini review. IOSR J Phar,6(5), 4242.
Bulama, J., Dangoggo, S., Halilu, M., Tsaf, A., & Hassan, S. (2014). Isolation
and characterization of palmitic acid from ethyl acetate extract of root
bark of Terminalia glaucescens.Chem Mater Res,6, 140143.
Candeias, N. R., Assoah, B., & Simeonov, S. P. (2018). Production and syn-
thetic modifications of shikimic acid. Chemical Reviews,118(20),
Charles, D. J., & Simon, J. E. (1990). Comparison of extraction methods for
the rapid determination of essential oil content and composition of
basil. J Am Soc Hortic Sci,115(3), 458462.
Chen, X. Y., Zhao, X. N., Zeng, H. F., Xie, J. H., Chen, X. L., Liang, Y. Z.,
Lai, X. P. (2014). Natural borneol recycling from Cinnamomum camphor
chvar. Borneol oil residue by fractional distillation and recrystallization.
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research,13(9), 14631470.
Chouksey, D., Sharma, P., & Pawar, R. (2010). Biological activities and
chemical constituents of Illicium verum hook fruits (Chinese star anise).
Der Pharmacia Sinica,1(3), 110.
de Almeida Pinheiro, M., Magalh~
aes, R. M., Torres, D. M., Cavalcante, R. C.,
Mota, F. S. X., Coelho, E. M. A. O., Cardoso, J. H. L. (2015).
Gastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with anti-
ulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species.
Pharmacognosy Magazine,11(41), 123.
de Sousa, D. P., Mesquita, R. F., de Araújo Ribeiro, L. A., & de Lima, J. T.
(2015). Spasmolytic activity of carvone and limonene enantiomers.
Natural product communications,10(11), 18931896.
Dilika, F., Bremner, P., & Meyer, J. (2000). Antibacterial activity of linoleic
and oleic acids isolated from Helichrysum pedunculatum: A plant used
during circumcision rites. Fitoterapia,71(4), 450452.
Dzamic, A., Sokovic, M., Ristic, M. S., Grijic-Jovanovic, S., Vukojevic, J., &
Marin, P. D. (2009). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of
Illicium verum and Eugenia caryophyllata essential oils. Chemistry of Nat-
ural Compounds,45(2), 259261.
Eftekhar, F., Yousefzadi, M., Azizian, D., Sonboli, A., & Salehi, P. (2005).
Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Diplotaenia
damavandica.Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C,60(1112), 821825.
Essien, E. E., Newby, J. M., Walker, T. M., Ogunwande, I. A.,
Setzer, W. N., & Ekundayo, O. (2016). Essential oil constituents, anti-
cancer and antimicrobial activity of Ficus mucoso and Casuarina
equisetifolia leaves. American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Prod-
ucts,4(1), 0106.
Estevez, A. M., & Estevez, R. J. (2012). A short overview on the medicinal
chemistry of ()-shikimic acid. Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry,12
(14), 14431454.
Fidyt, K., Fiedorowicz, A., Strządała, L., & Szumny, A. (2016).
β-Caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxideNatural compounds of
anticancer and analgesic properties. Cancer Medicine,5(10),
Fritz, E., Ölzant, S., & Länger, R. (2008). Illicium verum Hook. f. and Illicium
anisatum L.: Anatomical characters and their value for differentiation.
Scientia Pharmaceutica,76(1), 6576.
Gafit¸{t\hskip-0.7ex\char "B8}anu, C. A., Filip, D., Cern
atescu, C.,
anescu, C., Danu, M., Pâslaru, E., Macocinschi, D. (2016). Formula-
tion and evaluation of anise-based bioadhesive vaginal gels. Biomedi-
cine & Pharmacotherapy,83, 485495.
Garneau, F.-X., Pichette, A., Gagnon, H., Jean, F.-I., Addae-Mensah, I.,
Osei-Safu, D., Koumaglo, K. H. (2000). (E)-and (Z)-Foeniculin, con-
stituents of the leaf oil of a new chemovariety of Clausena anisata.
Journal of Essential Oil Research,12(6), 757762.
George, C. K. (2012). 24 - Star anise. In K. V. Peter (Ed.), Handbook of herbs
and spices (Second ed., pp. 487503). Cambridge, England: Woodhead
Granger, R. E., Campbell, E. L., & Johnston, G. A. (2005). (+)-and ()-bor-
neol: Efficacious positive modulators of GABA action at human recom-
binant α1β2γ2L GABAA receptors. Biochemical Pharmacology,69(7),
Grassmann, J., Hippeli, S., Spitzenberger, R., & Elstner, E. (2005). The
monoterpene terpinolene from the oil of Pinus mugo L. in concert with
α-tocopherol and β-carotene effectively prevents oxidation of LDL.
Phytomedicine,12(67), 416423.
Gunstone, F. D., McLaughlan, J., Scrimgeour, C. M., & Watson, A. P.
(1976). Improved procedures for the isolation of pure oleic, linoleic,
and linolenic acids or their methyl esters from natural sources. Journal
of the Science of Food and Agriculture,27(7), 675680.
Him, A., Ozbek, H., Turel, I., & Oner, A. C. (2008). Antinociceptive activity
of alpha-pinene and fenchone. Pharmacology,3, 363369.
Huang, J., Lu, X.-Q., Zhang, C., Lu, J., Li, G.-Y., Lin, R.-C., & Wang, J.-H.
(2013). Anti-inflammatory ligustilides from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.
Hui, L.-M., Zhao, G.-D., & Zhao, J.-J. (2015). δ-Cadinene inhibits the
growth of ovarian cancer cells via caspase-dependent apoptosis and
cell cycle arrest. International journal of clinical and experimental pathol-
ogy,6(8), 6046.
Is¸can, G., Kırımer, N., Demirci, F., Demirci, B., Noma, Y., & Bas¸er, K. H. C.
(2012). Biotransformation of ()-(R)-α-phellandrene: Antimicrobial
activity of its major metabolite. Chemistry & Biodiversity,9(8),
Ito, K., & Ito, M. (2011). Sedative effects of vapor inhalation of the essen-
tial oil of Microtoena patchoulii and its related compounds. Journal of
Natural Medicines,65(2), 336343.
Ji-Feng, L., Hui-Juan, L., Zhang, J.-M., Li-Xia, W., Ya-Feng, W., Meng-
Qi, L., Zhang, Y.-B. (2014). A new sesquiterpene lactone from the
fruits of Illicium henryi.Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines,12(6),
Jubie, S., Dhanabal, S., & Chaitanya, M. (2015). Isolation of methyl gamma
linolenate from spirulina platensis using flash chromatography and its
apoptosis inducing effect. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medi-
cine,15(1), 263.
Khaleel, C., Tabanca, N., & Buchbauer, G. (2018). α-Terpineol, a natural
monoterpene: A review of its biological properties. Open Chemistry,16
(1), 349361.
Khan, S., Chatterjee, S., & Kumar, V. (2015). Potential anti-stress, anxiolytic
and antidepressant like activities of mono-hydroxybenzoic acids and aspi-
rin in rodents: A comparative study. Austin J Pharmacol Ther,3(3), 1073.
Kim, K.-B., Nam, Y. A., Kim, H. S., Hayes, A. W., & Lee, B.-M. (2014).
α-Linolenic acid: Nutraceutical, pharmacological and toxicological eval-
uation. Food and Chemical Toxicology,70, 163178.
Koch, C., Reichling, J., Schneele, J., & Schnitzler, P. (2008). Inhibitory effect
of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2. Phytomedicine,15
(12), 7178.
Kumar, P. P., Kumaravel, S., & Lalitha, C. (2010). Screening of antioxidant
activity, total phenolics and GC-MS study of Vitex negundo.African
Journal of Biochemistry Research,4(7), 191195.
Lee, S.-J., Han, J.-I., Lee, G.-S., Park, M.-J., Choi, I.-G., Na, K.-J., & Jeung, E.-
B. (2007). Antifungal effect of eugenol and nerolidol against Micro-
sporum gypseum in a guinea pig model. Biological and Pharmaceutical
Bulletin,30(1), 184188.
Lee, S.-W., Li, G., Lee, K.-S., Song, D.-K., & Son, J.-K. (2003). A new
phenylpropanoid glucoside from the fruits of Illicium verum.Archives of
Pharmacal Research,26(8), 591593.
Legault, J., & Pichette, A. (2007). Potentiating effect of β-caryophyllene on
anticancer activity of α-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology,59(12), 16431647.
Lima, D. F., Brand~
ao, M. S., Moura, J. B., Leit~
ao, J. M., Carvalho, F. A.,
Miúra, L. M., Almeida, F. R. (2012). Antinociceptive activity of the
monoterpene α-phellandrene in rodents: Possible mechanisms of
action. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology,64(2), 283292.
Liu, J., Liu, F., Zhang, N., Wang, Y., Yang, L., Bi, Y., Liu, M. (2016). Two
new sesquiterpene lactones from the fruits of Illicium jiadifengpi.Natu-
ral Product Research,30(3), 322326.
Liu, J. F., Jiang, Z. Y., Geng, C. A., Zhang, Q., Shi, Y., Ma, Y. B., Chen, J. J.
(2011). Two new lignans and anti-HBV constituents from Illicium hen-
ryi.Chemistry & Biodiversity,8(4), 692698.
Liu, J.-F., Jiang, Z.-Y., Zhang, Q., Shi, Y., Ma, Y.-B., Xie, M.-J., Chen, J.-J.
(2010). Henrylactones AE and anti-HBV constituents from Illicium
henryi.Planta Medica,76(02), 152158.
Liu, J.-F., Wang, L., Wang, Y.-F., Song, X., Yang, L.-J., & Zhang, Y.-B. (2015).
Sesquiterpenes from the fruits of Illicium jiadifengpi and their anti-
hepatitis B virus activities. Fitoterapia,104,4144.
Lü, H.-N., Ma, S.-G., Liu, Y.-B., Qu, J., Li, Y., Xu, S., Yu, S.-S. (2015). Ses-
quiterpenes from the roots of Illicium oligandrum.Journal of Asian Nat-
ural Products Research,17(5), 430438.
Luís, Â., Duarte, A., Pereira, L., & Domingues, F. (2017). Chemical profiling
and evaluation of antioxidant and anti-microbial properties of selected
commercial essential oils: A comparative study. Medicine,4(2), 36.
Luís, Â., Sousa, S., Wackerlig, J., Dobusch, D., Duarte, A. P., Pereira, L., &
Domingues, F. (2019). Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. F.) essential oil:
Antioxidant properties and antibacterial activity against Acinetobacter
baumannii.Flavor Frag J,34(4), 260270.
Ma, S.-G., Gao, R.-M., Li, Y.-H., Jiang, J.-D., Gong, N.-B., Li, L., Qu, J.
(2013). Antiviral spirooliganones A and B with unprecedented skele-
tons from the roots of Illicium oligandrum.Organic Letters,15(17),
Manuja, R., Sachdeva, S., Jain, A., & Chaudhary, J. (2013). A comprehensive
review on biological activities of p-hydroxy benzoic acid and its deriva-
tives. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res,22, 109115.
Marchese, A., Arciola, C., Barbieri, R., Silva, A., Nabavi, S., Tsetegho
Sokeng, A., Daglia, M. (2017). Update on monoterpenes as antimi-
crobial agents: A particular focus on p-cymene. Materials,10(8), 947.
Marinov, V., & Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S. (2015). Review on the pharmaco-
logical activities of anethole. Scripta Sci Pharma,2(2), 1419.
Martínez, J. A., Bolívar, F., & Escalante, A. (2015). Shikimic acid production
in Escherichia coli: From classical metabolic engineering strategies to
omics applied to improve its production. Frontiers in Bioengineering and
Biotechnology,3, 145.
Martins, C. D. M., Nascimento, E. A. D., de Morais, S. A., de Oliveira, A.,
Chang, R., Cunha, L., Rodrigues, P. V. (2015). Chemical constituents
and evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Kielmeyera
coriacea Mart. & Zucc. essential oils. Evid Based Complement Alternat
Med,2015; Article ID 842047; 19.
Mbah, J. A., Ayimele, G. A., Kodjio, N., Yong, J. N., Nfor, E. N., &
Gatsing, D. (2017). Synthesis, molecular structure and antibacterial
activity of 1-(4-methoxybenzaldehyde)-4-methylthiosemicarbazone.
International Journal of Organic Chemistry,7(03), 229239.
Meier, M., Kohlenberg, B., & Braun, N. A. (2003). Isolation of anisyl
acetone from agarwood oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research,15(1),
Monajemi, R., Oryan, S., Haeri-Roohani, A., Ghannadi, A., & Jafarian, A.
(2010). Cytotoxic effects of essential oils of some Iranian citrus peels.
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research,4(3), 183187.
Mondello, F., De Bernardis, F., Girolamo, A., Cassone, A., & Salvatore, G.
(2006). In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component
of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree) oil against azole-susceptible
and-resistant human pathogenic Candida species. BMC Infectious Dis-
eases,6(1), 158.
Mukai, A., Takahashi, K., & Ashitani, T. (2017). Natural autoxidation of
longifolene and anti-termite activities of the products. Journal of Wood
Science,63(4), 360368.
Mukai, A., Takahashi, K., & Ashitani, T. (2018). Antifungal activity of
longifolene and its autoxidation products. European Journal of Wood
and Wood Products,76(3), 10791082.
Nakamura, T., Okuyama, E., & Yamazaki, M. (1996). Neurotropic compo-
nents from star anise: Illicium verum Hook. Fil. Chemical and Pharma-
ceutical Bulletin,44(10), 19081914.
Ocete, M., Risco, S., Zarzuelo, A., & Jimenez, J. (1989). Pharmacological
activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: Anti-
inflammatory activity and effects on isolated rat uteri. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology,25(3), 305313.
Ohira, H., Torii, N., Aida, T. M., Watanabe, M., & Smith, R. L., Jr. (2009).
Rapid separation of shikimic acid from Chinese star anise (Illicium
verum Hook. F.) with hot water extraction. Separation and Purification
Technology,69(1), 102108.
Orellana-Paucar, A. M., Serruys, A.-S. K., Afrikanova, T., Maes, J., De
Borggraeve, W., Alen, J., de Witte, P. A. (2012). Anticonvulsant
activity of bisabolene sesquiterpenoids of Curcuma longa in zebrafish
and mouse seizure models. Epilepsy & Behavior,24(1), 1422.
Özek, G., Bedir, E., Tabanca, N., Ali, A., Khan, I. A., Duran, A., Özek, T.
(2018). Isolation of eudesmane type sesquiterpene ketone from
Prangos heyniae H. Duman & MF Watson essential oil and
mosquitocidal activity of the essential oils. Open Chemistry,16(1),
Payne, R., & Edmonds, M. (2005). Isolation of shikimic acid from star ani-
seed. Journal of Chemical Education,82(4), 599600.
Peana, A. T., Moretti, M. D., Watson, R., & Preedy, V. (2008). Linalool in
essential plant oils: Pharmacological effects. Botanical Medicine in Clini-
cal Practice,10(55), 716724.
Peng, W., Lin, Z., Wang, L., Chang, J., Gu, F., & Zhu, X. (2016). Molecular
characteristics of Illicium verum extractives to activate acquired
immune response. Saudi J Biol Sci,23(3), 348352.
Pérez-López, A., Cirio, A. T., Rivas-Galindo, V. M., Aranda, R. S., & de
Torres, N. W. (2011). Activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae of the
essential oil and δ-cadinene isolated from Schinus molle fruit. Journal of
Essential Oil Research,23(5), 2528.
Prajapati, N. D., Purohit, S. S., & Sharma, A. K. (2006). A handbook of medic-
inal plants: A complete source book. Jodhpur (India): Agrobios.
Rashid, M. A., & Zuberi, R. H. (2016). Pharmacognostical studies for stand-
ardisation of a medicinal spice, the fruit of Illicium verum Hook. F.
PharmaTutor,4(8), 3641.
Rastogi, R., & Mehrotra, B. (1993). Compendium of Indian medicinal plants,
Central Drug Research Institute Lucknow. Publications and Information
Directorate. 1th ed. CSIR: New Delhi, 444.
Rocha, L., & Candido Tietbohl, L. A. (2016). Chapter 85 - star anise (Illicium
verum Hook) oils. In V. R. Preedy (Ed.), Essential oils in food preservation,
flavor and safety (pp. 751756). San Diego: Academic Press.
Rudbäck, J., Bergström, M. A., Börje, A., Nilsson, U., & Karlberg, A.-T.
(2012). α-Terpinene, an antioxidant in tea tree oil, autoxidizes rapidly
to skin allergens on air exposure. Chemical Research in Toxicology,25
(3), 713721.
Rufino, A. T., Ribeiro, M., Judas, F., Salgueiro, L. g., Lopes, M. C.,
Cavaleiro, C., & Mendes, A. F. (2014). Anti-inflammatory and
chondroprotective activity of (+)-α-pinene: Structural and enantio-
meric selectivity. Journal of Natural Products,77(2), 264269.
Sasidharan, S., Chen, Y., Saravanan, D., Sundram, K., & Latha, L. Y. (2011).
Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from
plants' extracts. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alter-
native Medicines,8(1), 110.
Shapira, S., Pleban, S., Kazanov, D., Tirosh, P., & Arber, N. (2016). Ter-
pinen-4-ol: A novel and promising therapeutic agent for human gastro-
intestinal cancers. PLoS One,11(6), e0156540.
da Silva, A. C. R., Lopes, P. M., de Azevedo, M. M. B., Costa, D. C. M.,
Alviano, C. S., & Alviano, D. S. (2012). Biological activities of a-pinene
and β-pinene enantiomers. Molecules,17(6), 63056316.
Singh, G., Maurya, S., DeLampasona, M., & Catalan, C. (2006). Chemical
constituents, antimicrobial investigations and antioxidative potential
of volatile oil and acetone extract of star anise fruits. Journal of the Sci-
ence of Food and Agriculture,86(1), 111121.
Sinha, D. (2019). A review on phytochemical, ethnobotanical, pharmacologi-
cal, and antimicrobial importance of Cedrus deodara (Roxb. Ex D. Don)
G. Don. International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP),13(01), 112.
Siqueira, H. D. A. S., Neto, B. S., Sousa, D. P., Gomes, B. S., da Silva, F. V.,
Cunha, F. V., Wong, D. V. (2016). α-Phellandrene, a cyclic monoter-
pene, attenuates inflammatory response through neutrophil migration
inhibition and mast cell degranulation. Life Sciences,160,2733.
Skalicka-Woźniak, K., Walasek, M., Ludwiczuk, A., & Głowniak, K. (2013).
Isolation of terpenoids from Pimpinella anisum essential oil by high-
performance counter-current chromatography. Journal of Separation
Science,36(16), 26112614.
Song, W.-Y., Ma, Y.-B., Bai, X., Zhang, X.-M., Gu, Q., Zheng, Y.-T.,
Chen, J.-J. (2007). Two new compounds and anti-HIV active constitu-
ents from Illicium verum.Planta Medica,73(04), 372375.
Soukoulis, S., & Hirsch, R. (2004). The effects of a tea tree oil-containing
gel on plaque and chronic gingivitis. Australian Dental Journal,49(2),
Sriti Eljazi, J., Selmi, S., Zarroug, Y., Wesleti, I., Aouini, B., Jallouli, S., &
Limam, F. (2018). Essential oil composition, phenolic compound, and
antioxidant potential of Inula viscosa as affected by extraction process.
International Journal of Food Properties,21(1), 23092319.
Sy, L.-K., & Brown, G. D. (1998). A seco-cycloartane from Illicium verum.
Phytochemistry,48(7), 11691171.
Tuan, D. Q., & Ilangantileket, S. G. (1997). Liquid CO
extraction of essen-
tial oil from star anise fruits (Illicium verum H.). Journal of Food Engineer-
ing,31(1), 4757.
Turkez, H., Togar, B., Tatar, A., Geyıkoglu, F., & Hacımuftuoglu, A. (2014).
Cytotoxic and cytogenetic effects of α-copaene on rat neuron and
N2a neuroblastoma cell lines. Biologia,69(7), 936942.
Wang, G.-W., Hu, W.-T., Huang, B.-K., & Qin, L.-P. (2011). Illicium verum:A
review on its botany, traditional use, chemistry and pharmacology.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology,136(1), 1020.
Wang, Q., Jiang, L., & Wen, Q. (2007). Effect of three extraction methods
on the volatile component of Illicium verum Hook. F. analyzed by GC-
MS. Wuhan University,12(3), 529534.
Wang, S., Zhao, Z., Yun-ting, S., Zeng, Z., Zhan, X., Li, C., & Xie, T. (2012). A
review of medicinal plant species with elemene in China. African Jour-
nal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology,6(44), 30323040.
Wang, Y.-D., Zhang, G.-J., Qu, J., Li, Y.-H., Jiang, J.-D., Liu, Y.-B., Yu, S.-S.
(2013). Diterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Illicium
majus.Journal of Natural Products,76(10), 19761983.
Wangchuk, P., Keller, P. A., Pyne, S. G., Taweechotipatr, M., &
Kamchonwongpaisan, S. (2013). GC/GC-MS analysis, isolation and
identification of bioactive essential oil components from the Bhuta-
nese medicinal plant, Pleurospermum amabile.Nat Prod Commun,8(9),
Wei, L., Hua, R., Li, M., Huang, Y., Li, S., He, Y., & Shen, Z. (2014). Chemical
composition and biological activity of star anise Illicium verum extracts
against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais adults. Journal of Insect Science,14
(1), 80.
Wiirzler, L. A. M., Silva-Filho, S. E., Aguiar, R. P., Cavalcante, H. A. O., &
Cuman, R. K. N. (2016). Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of
estragole by modulation of eicosanoids production. International Jour-
nal of Pharma and Chemical Research,2(1), 713.
Xu, S., Hossain, M. M., Lau, B. B., To, T. Q, Rawal, A., & Aldous, L. (2017).
Total quantification and extraction of shikimic acid from star anise
(llicium verum) using solid-state NMR and cellulose-dissolving aqueous
hydroxide solutions. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy,5, 115121.
Yamada, K., Takada, S., Nakamura, S., & Hirata, Y. (1965). The structure of
noranisatin, an oxidation product of anisatin. Tetrahedron Letters,6
(52), 47854794.
Yan, J.-H., Xiao, X.-X., & Huang, K.-L. (2002). Component analysis of vola-
tile oil from Illicium verum Hook. F. J Cent South Univ T,9(3), 173176.
Yang, C.-H., Chang, F.-R., Chang, H.-W., Wang, S.-M., Hsieh, M.-C., &
Chuang, L.-Y. (2012). Investigation of the antioxidant activity of
Illicium verum extracts. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research,6(2),
Zhang, J.-H., Sun, H.-L., Chen, S.-Y., Zeng, L., & Wang, T.-t. (2017).
Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-phellandrene and non-
anal against Penicillium cyclopium.Botanical Studies,58(1), 13.
Zhang, Y., Ji, H., & Yu, J. (2018). Aromatic constituents and their changes
of Illicium verum processed by different heating methods. Industrial
Crops and Products,118, 362366.
How to cite this article: Patra JK, Das G, Bose S, et al. Star
anise (Illicium verum): Chemical compounds, antiviral
properties, and clinical relevance. Phytotherapy Research.
... The variations in the amounts of chemical compounds of I. verum EO can be explained by the climatic conditions, cultivation period, extraction method, and storage process of the EO [35,36]. I. verum is an important medicinal plant characterized by diverse biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties [37]. This plant is also used as a spice in the food industry [38]. ...
Full-text available
Illicium verum, or star anise, has many uses ranging from culinary to religious. It has been used in the food industry since ancient times. The main purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition, antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-quorum sensing activities of the essential oil (EO) obtained via hydro-distillation of the aerial parts of Illicium verum. Twenty-four components were identified representing 92.55% of the analyzed essential oil. (E)-anethole (83.68%), limonene (3.19%), and α-pinene (0.71%) were the main constituents of I. verum EO. The results show that the obtained EO was effective against eight bacterial strains to different degrees. Concerning the antibiofilm activity, trans-anethole was more effective against biofilm formation than the essential oil when tested using sub-inhibitory concentrations. The results of anti-swarming activity tested against P. aeruginosa PAO1 revealed that I. verum EO possesses more potent inhibitory effects on the swarming behavior of PAO1 when compared to trans-anethole, with the percentage reaching 38% at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. The ADME profiling of the identified phytocompounds confirmed their important pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness properties. The in silico study using a molecular docking approach revealed a high binding score between the identified compounds with known target enzymes involved in antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing (QS) activities. Overall, the obtained results suggest I. verum EO to be a potentially good antimicrobial agent to prevent food contamination with foodborne pathogenic bacteria.
... On the other hand, desmopressin treatment prevented chronic hyponatremia by preventing excessive urinary water losses, therefore hyponatremia or a drop in serum sodium did not occur in desmopressin-treated rats because desmopressin and hypertonic saline correct severe hyponatremia [22]. Desmopressin reduces the rate of change of plasma sodium and corrects hyponatremia [23,24]. Additionally, shikimic acid increased the mRNA expression of keratinocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the hair follicles [25]. ...
Full-text available
Background Diarrhea is the increase of excretion of human water content and an imbalance in the physiologic processes of the small and large intestine while shikimic acid is an important biochemical metabolite in plants. This study aims to study the anti-diarrheal activity of shikimic acid through restoring kidney function, antioxidant activity, inflammatory markers, sodium/potassium-ATPase activity, apoptosis genes, and histology of the kidney in SD rats fed lactose diet to induce diarrhea. Results Thirty-six male SD rats (150 ± 10 g, 12 weeks old) were divided into 2 equal groups (18 rats/group) as follows: normal and diarrheal rats. Normal rats were divided into 3 equal groups of 6 rats each: the control, shikimic acid, and desmopressin drug groups. Diarrheal rats were also divided into 3 equal groups of 6 rats each: diarrheal , diarrheal rats + shikimic acid, and diarrheal rats + desmopressin drug groups. Shikimic acid restored serum urea and creatinine, urinary volume, kidney weight, sodium, potassium, and chloride balance in serum and urine. The acid returned the antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, malondialdehyde, NADPH oxidase activity, conjugated dienes, and oxidative index) activity and the inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10) to values approaching the control values. Shikimic acid also restored the sodium/potassium-ATPase activity, the apoptosis genes p 53 and bcl-2, and the histology of kidney tissue in diarrheal rats to be near the control group. Conclusions Shikimic acid rescues diarrhea and its complications through restoring kidney function, serum and urinary electrolytes, antioxidant activity, inflammatory markers, sodium/potassium-ATPase activity, the apoptosis genes, and the histology of the kidney in diarrheal rats to approach the control one.
... Shikimic acid (SA) is a monomeric compound extracted from the Chinese herb star anise, naturally occurring in the dried, ripe fruit of the magnolia plant star anise, etc. Anise, produced in China and Vietnam, is a small oriental tree of the magnolia family that bears fruits with a pungent, liquorice-like flavour and is a traditional condiment in oriental cooking and the main spice in liqueurs such as French green aniseed wine and aniseed liqueur. It is also generally used to add flavour to sweets, aniseed and tobacco (Patra et al., 2020;Shi et al., 2021;Rodriguez Cerro et al., 2022). SA, a monomeric compound derived from anise, has been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological effects. ...
Full-text available
Numerous studies have shown that neuroinflammation is involved in the process of neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), for example, and that inhibiting neuroinflammation help improve PD. Shikimic acid (SA) has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities in numerous diseases. However, its effect and mechanism in PD remain unclear. In this experiment, we found that SA inhibits production of pro-inflammatory mediators and ROS in LPS-induced BV2 cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that SA suppresses neuro-inflammation by activating the AKT/Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. Further in vivo study, we confirmed that SA ameliorated the neurological damage and behavioral deficits caused by LPS injection in mice. In summary, these study highlighted the beneficial role of SA as a novel therapy with potential PD drug by targeting neuro-inflammation.
... Chemical analyses have shown that fruits contain significant amounts of terpenes, alkaloids, essential oils, and tannins. The most abundant phenolic compounds are phenylpropanoids cis-and trans-anethole (85-95%), estragole, anisylacetone, ρ-anisaldehyde, foeniculin, and others [177]. Additionally, it is a valuable source of shikimic acid which is an essential intermediate for the synthesis of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu ® ) [172]. ...
Full-text available
Skin cancer is a condition characterized by the abnormal growth of skin cells, primarily caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or artificial sources like tanning beds. Different types of skin cancer include melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Despite the advancements in targeted therapies, there is still a need for a safer, highly efficient approach to preventing and treating cutaneous malignancies. Spices have a rich history dating back thousands of years and are renowned for their ability to enhance the flavor, taste, and color of food. Derived from various plant parts like seeds, fruits, bark, roots, or flowers, spices are important culinary ingredients. However, their value extends beyond the culinary realm. Some spices contain bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds, which are known for their significant biological effects. These compounds have attracted attention in scientific research due to their potential health benefits, including their possible role in disease prevention and treatment, such as cancer. This review focuses on examining the potential of spice-derived phenolic compounds as preventive or therapeutic agents for managing skin cancers. By compiling and analyzing the available knowledge, this review aims to provide insights that can guide future research in identifying new anticancer phytochemicals and uncovering additional mechanisms for combating skin cancer.
This comprehensive reference explores medicinal plants, phytomedicines, and traditional herbal remedies as potential sources for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. It features 9 chapters authored and edited by renowned experts. The book specifically highlights the promising drug discovery opportunities grounded in bioactive compounds from medicinal plants and herbal medicines, offering insights into combatting SARS-CoV-2 infections and respiratory complications. Key Highlights: Drug Discovery Potential: Explores the vast potential of medicinal plants, phytomedicine, and traditional remedies against COVID-19, shedding light on groundbreaking drug discovery avenues. Cutting-Edge Insights: Provides up-to-date insights into the use of medicinal plants, herbal drugs, and traditional medicines in the fight against COVID-19. Natural Immune Boosters: Details the use of indigenous herbs, spices, functional foods, and herbal drugs for boosting immunity and preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections. Drug Repurposing: Highlights innovative drug repurposing strategies using phytomedicine-derived bioactive compounds and phytochemical databases for COVID-19 drug development. Additional features of the book include a reader-friendly introduction to each topic and a list of references for advanced readers. This timely reference is an informative resource for a broad range of readers interested in strategies to control COVID-19, including postgraduate researchers, and pharmaceutical R&D experts. It also serves as a handbook for professionals in clinical and herbal medicine.
Full-text available
The objective of this work is to better understand the use of plants and herbal products for medicinal purposes in Portuguese households, namely which plants are most used and which health conditions are most targeted. It also seeks to evaluate the attitudes and habits related to this use, its role in their health management, the sources of information used and the frequency of consultation with professionals specialized in the area. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire. A total of 210 responses were obtained. 78% of the respondents were female. 71.9% of the respondents had a university degree. 41.4% reported having salary above € 1000 and 27.1% above € 2000. The mean age in the sample was 50.8 years. More than 50% of the respondents reported using medicinal plants in the flu and cough, to aid digestion and to aid sleep. The plants with more respondents were eucalyptus and peppermint (in respiratory conditions), lemon balm (in digestive and nervous conditions), chamomile (in respiratory, digestive and skin conditions), linden (in respiratory and nervous conditions), rosemary (for digestive, circulatory and nervous diseases) and arnica (for joint and skin diseases). The most common form of use was infusion (87.6%), followed by essential oils (51.0%), tablets or similar forms (48.1%) and external forms (46.7%). The most frequent places of acquisition of medicinal plants were the stores of natural products (71.4%). 31.4% of the respondents put medicinal plants as the first option in their health management, and 30.5% said they used them together with conventional medicines. The main sources of information for decisions on this topic mentioned by the sample were family knowledge (54.8%), consultations with naturopaths and similar (41.9%), counseling with friends (37.1%), specialized means in natural health (35.2%) and generalist means (34.3%). 23.8% of the respondents said they make consultations with phytotherapy professionals or naturopaths, while 23.3% said they do it only in severe cases. This study found a substantial use of medicinal plants in Portugal, especially for the mildest health conditions and with the safest plants. The evaluation of the answers in the face of scientific knowledge about the properties of plants points to a mostly correct use. However, the issues of adverse reactions, contraindications and drug interactions were not addressed in this study. We recognize that a reasonably detailed web questionnaire is answered mainly by the people with the most interest in the subject, and therefore the sample obtained may not be representative of the general Portuguese population. Bearing in mind that fact, this study will still provide useful information the most used plants and target conditions, as well as on the usage patterns of the people who use them the most.
Full-text available
Cistus albidus L. (Cistaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been used therapeutically since ancient times in the Mediterranean basin for its important pharmacological properties. The ability of C. albidus to produce large quantities of a wide range of natural metabolites makes it an attractive source of raw material. The main constituents with bioactive functions that exert pharmacological effects are terpenes and polyphenols, with more than 200 identified compounds. The purpose of this review is to offer a detailed account of the botanical, ethnological, phytochemical, and pharmacological characteristics of C. albidus with the aim of encouraging additional pharmaceutical investigations into the potential therapeutic benefits of this medicinal plant. This review was carried out using organized searches of the available literature up to July 2023. A detailed analysis of C. albidus confirms its traditional use as a medicinal plant. The outcome of several studies suggests a deeper involvement of certain polyphenols and terpenes in multiple mechanisms such as inflammation and pain, with a potential application focus on neurodegenerative diseases and disorders. Other diseases such as prostate cancer and leukemia have already been researched with promising results for this plant, for which no intoxication has been reported in humans.
Full-text available
Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal microorganisms and cytotoxic properties. EOs of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS). The EO from leaves is rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The three major compounds identified were germacrene-D (24.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.5%), and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%). The inner bark EO is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and the major components are alpha-copaene (14.9%) and alpha-(E)-bergamotene (13.0%). The outer bark EO is composed mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and long-chain alkanes, and the major components are alphaeudesmol (4.2%) and nonacosane (5.8%). The wood EO is mainly composed of long-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and the major components are nonacosane (9.7%) and palmitic acid (16.2%).The inner bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC of 50 𝜇g mL−1). The outer bark and wood EOs showed MICs of 100 𝜇g mL−1 for all aerobic microorganisms tested. The EOs presented low toxicity to Vero cells. These results suggest that K. coriacea, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest.
Full-text available
The Illicium verum (star anise) has long been used in traditional medicine and food industry with the actions of preventing cold, and relieving pain. Sometimes, it gets contaminated with highly poisonous Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum L.) which contains toxic sesquiterpenes. Traditional uses of Illicium verum are evidenced from south and west Asia, where it has been consumed for a number of disorders. Several bioactive constituents such as sesquiterpenes, phenylpropanoids, lignans, flavonoids and other compounds have been recognized from Illecium verum. The pharmacology studies demonstrated that its active compounds possess broad range of pharmacological uses, especially in cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, sedative and antimicrobial activities. In addition, it is the chief source of anticancer agent (shikimic acid). Current review highlights the information relating to the botany, conventional uses, phyto-chemistry and pharmacology together with the toxicology of Illicium verum.
Full-text available
Cedrus deodara (Roxb. Ex D. Don) G. Don is a conifer that grows in the Himalayan regions of India, Pakistan, and Nepal. The plant is an evergreen tree belonging to the family Pinaceae and forms extensive forest along the Himalayan Mountain. The plant is traditionally used by people for thatching, sheltering, furniture making, fuelwood, and medicinal purposes. The plant is rich in flavonoids and terpenoids such as deodarin, cedrusone A, myricetin, 2R, 3R-dihydromyricetin, quercetin, 2R, 3R-γ-amorphene. Research has been carried out to explore the pharmacological and antimicrobial activities of various parts of the plants with promising outcome. Extensive literature survey was made and the information in relation to C. deodara was pooled from scientific research papers through electronic search tools available in the internet. This review paper is an attempt to highlight the ethnobotanical, pharmacological, and antimicrobial importance of C. deodara along with its wide array of chemical constituent. The plant can be a potent and cheap source of raw materials, leading to drug development for the benefit of the population of India and adjoining countries.
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare the essential oil composition of Inula viscosa leaves by hydrodistillation (HDE), ultrasonic (UDE) and solvent (SE) extractions followed by hydrodistillation. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents and their antioxidant effects were studied by different solvent of extraction: ethanol (ET), ethyl acetate (EA), methanol (ME) and aqueous (AE). The principal compounds for HDE were: 2-hexenal (3.70%), caryophyllene oxide (3.11%), γ-selinene (3.09%), 3-hexen-1-ol (2.00%), eugenol (1.70%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.34%), while for UDE were: γ-selinene (5.68%), caryophyllene oxide (4.87%), trans-caryophyllene (1.99%) and nerolidol (1.74%). The oil obtained by SE was shown to contain tridecane (3.89%), dodecane (3.08%), trans-caryophyllene (2.94%), caryophyllene oxide (2.56%) and nerolidol (2.53%). Significant changes on phenolic contents were found between the different solvent of extraction. ME and AE extracts led to the highest total polyphenol (PHL) and flavonoid (FL) amounts. The anti-radical activity and reducing power were maximal in AE and ME extract. HPLC examination established that the ferulic acid as major phenolic acid in ME and AE fractions, whereas luteolin was the main compound of EA and ET fractions.
Full-text available
Shikimic acid is an important intermediate for the manufacture of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) and many other pharmaceutical compounds. Much of its existing supply is obtained from the seeds of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum). Nevertheless, plants cannot supply a stable source of affordable shikimate along with laborious and cost-expensive extraction and purification process. Microbial biosynthesis of shikimate through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches represents a sustainable, cost-efficient, and environmentally friendly route than plant-based methods. Metabolic engineering allows elevated shikimate production titer by inactivating the competing pathways, increasing intracellular level of key precursors, and overexpressing rate-limiting enzymes. The development of synthetic and systems biology-based novel technologies have revealed a new roadmap for the construction of high shikimate-producing strains. This review elaborates the enhanced biosynthesis of shikimate by utilizing an array of traditional metabolic engineering along with novel advanced technologies. The first part of the review is focused on the mechanistic pathway for shikimate production, use of recombinant and engineered strains, improving metabolic flux through the shikimate pathway, chemically inducible chromosomal evolution, and bioprocess engineering strategies. The second part discusses a variety of industrially pertinent compounds derived from shikimate with special reference to aromatic amino acids and phenazine compound, and main engineering strategies for their production in diverse bacterial strains. Towards the end, the work is wrapped up with concluding remarks and future considerations.
This book, which contains 99 chapters, focuses on the growing body of knowledge on the role of various dietary plants in reducing disease. Most of the expert reviews define and support the actions of bioflavonoids, antioxidants and similar materials that are part of dietary vegetables, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals. The book's chapters have various general groupings. Some herbal remedies are being developed based upon historic and cultural uses of certain plants and their constituents in disease prevention and health promotion. Discussions of Japanese, African, Korean and South American plants and their extracts help understanding of their potential roles in health as well as historical evidence for their usefulness. Since the goal of this book is to get experts to explore the ways nutraceutical supplements or foods and herbal medicines prevent disease and cancer or promote health, a major section focuses on many plants and health promotion. These include health concerns such as glucose lowering, bone mineral changes, cramps, cognitive function, osteoarthritis, sleep, skin health, weight reduction, eye protection and many others. The conclusions and recommendations from the various chapters will provide a basis for change as well as application of new extracts and botanicals in preventing cancers and health promotion.
The increased resistance of pathogenic bacteria to multiple antimicrobial agents is becoming a significant public health threat. For many pathogenic bacteria there are already limited or no effective antimicrobials available to treat the infections caused by them. Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram‐negative, biofilm‐forming, nonmotile coccobacillus and a major human pathogen causing hospital‐acquired infections, such as ventilator‐associated pneumonia, bacteraemia, meningitis, and urinary tract and wound infections. There is therefore a clear need to discover new compounds and strategies to overcome widespread antimicrobial resistance, with a focus on A. baumannii strains. Star anise (Illicium verum Hook. f.) has been widely used as an ingredient in traditional Chinese cooking, as a flavouring agent, and as a medicine for over 3000 years; however, the essential oil (EO) isolated from star anise has not been further characterized in terms of its bioactivities and potential applications. In this work, a screening of the biological properties of star anise EO together with its chemical characterization were performed. Special attention was given to the impact of this EO in the formation of biofilms by A. baumannii. It was demonstrated that star anise EO is able to scavenge free radicals, to inhibit lipid peroxidation, and to inhibit protein denaturation, which is associated with its antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties. Moreover, the effects of the EO on the planktonic and biofilm cells of A. baumannii, inhibiting the formation of biofilms, dispersing preformed biofilms, and decreasing the capacity of the bacterial cells to adhere to polystyrene, together with its ability to inhibit quorum sensing, were also demonstrated.
Shikimic acid is a natural product of industrial importance utilized as a precursor of the antiviral Tamiflu. It is nowadays produced in multihundred ton amounts from the extraction of star anise ( Illicium verum) or by fermentation processes. Apart from the production of Tamiflu, shikimic acid has gathered particular notoriety as its useful carbon backbone and inherent chirality provide extensive use as a versatile chiral precursor in organic synthesis. This review provides an overview of the main synthetic and microbial methods for production of shikimic acid and highlights selected methods for isolation from available plant sources. Furthermore, we have attempted to demonstrate the synthetic utility of shikimic acid by covering the most important synthetic modifications and related applications, namely, synthesis of Tamiflu and derivatives, synthetic manipulations of the main functional groups, and its use as biorenewable material and in total synthesis. Given its rich chemistry and availability, shikimic acid is undoubtedly a promising platform molecule for further exploration. Therefore, in the end, we outline some challenges and promising future directions.
The aromatic constituents and their changes of Illicium verum during different heating processes and the practical applications were investigated in this study. Results of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS), gas chromatography olfactometry (GC–O) and corresponding sensory assessment showed that trans-anethole was the most representative and important component of aromatic volatiles in Illicium verum, which would cover up the scents of other ingredients. Furthermore, these results implied that the volatilization of trans-anethole reached the maximum at 100 °C during direct heating process and at 160 °C during frying heating process, which showed high similarity in sensory evaluation. The present study would provide the theory base for maximum utilizing the flavor of Illicium verum in food processing.