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A Blockchain-Enabled CO2 Controlling Scheme with the Assistance of the Internet of Things

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Controlling greenhouse effect especially reducing carbon-di-oxide (CO2) gas emission rate is one of the biggest difficulties of the 21st Century. This paper comprehensively described the issues regarding the greenhouse effect and possible controlling mechanism of the Green House Effect to save the world. As excessive CO2 gas emission in the atmosphere is the main reason for the Green House Effect (GHE), a simple and secure system can restrain the CO2 gas emission rate in the Universe. Blockchain Technology is introduced to protect the data from third-party alteration and to make the system more robust against the threats (i.e., cyber threats and data integrity). This paper endeavors to introduce a new dimension of research about controlling the GHE by collecting data with sensors and transmit these data to the blockchain with the assistance of the internet of things.
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A Blockchain-Enabled CO₂ Controlling Scheme with the Assistance of the Internet of Things
저자
(Authors)
Md Masuduzzaman, Anik Islam, Soo Young Shin
출처
(Source)
한국통신학회 학술대회논문집 , 2020.2, 114-115(2 pages)
Proceedings of Symposium of the Korean Institute of communications and Information Sciences , 2020.2, 114-
115(2 pages)
발행처
(Publisher)
한국통신학회
Korea Institute Of Communication Sciences
URL http://www.dbpia.co.kr/journal/articleDetail?nodeId=NODE09346204
APA Style Md Masuduzzaman, Anik Islam, Soo Young Shin (2020). A Blockchain-Enabled CO₂ Controlling Scheme with
the Assistance of the Internet of Things. 한국통신학회 학술대회논문집, 114-115
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금오공과대학교
202.31.137.***
2020/06/25 15:07 (KST)
A Blockchain-Enabled CO2 Controlling Scheme with the Assistance of the
Internet of Things
Md Masuduzzaman, Anik Islam, and *Soo Young Shin
Department of IT Convergence Engineering,
Kumoh National Institute of Technology (KIT), Gumi, South Korea
Email: {masud.prince, anik.islam, *wdragon}@kumoh.ac.kr
Abstract
Controlling greenhouse effect especially reducing carbon-di-oxide (CO2) gas emission rate is one of the biggest
difficulties of the 21st Century. This paper comprehensively described the issues regarding the greenhouse effect
and possible controlling mechanism of the Green House Effect to save the world. As excessive CO2 gas emission in
the atmosphere is the main reason for the Green House Effect (GHE), a simple and secure system can restrain the
CO2 gas emission rate in the Universe. Blockchain Technology is introduced to protect the data from third-party
alteration and to make the system more robust against the threats (i.e., cyber threats and data integrity). This paper
endeavors to introduce a new dimension of research about controlling the GHE by collecting data with sensors and
transmit these data to the blockchain with the assistance of the internet of things.
. Introduction
Awareness about Green House Gases and its impact
is expanding everywhere throughout the world in
recent years. This acceleration in temperature was
produced by the outflow of carbon-based compound
from fossil fuels utilization [1]. Atmospheric CO2 levels
has been increased over 40% since the starting time of
the industrial revolution [2]. Vehicles are now one of
the main sources of producing CO2 gas in the
atmosphere. Researchers have been worked on
reducing CO2 gas in the different sectors using various
techniques. However, tracing is very difficult for
vehicle and also authenticity of the data is also another
issue. Moreover, collecting data faces cyber threats
like man-in-the-middle, ddos, etc. Blockchain has
recently drawn a lot of attention both in industry and
academic [3]-[6]. Blockchain supports features like
data immutability, secure communication, etc. [7].
Blockchain can be probable solution for the
aforementioned threats [8]. In this paper, blockchain
based CO2 gas controlling Scheme has been proposed
using the help of IoT.
. Proposed Methodology
Our system model is shown in Fig. 1. Firstly, every
user who use personal vehicle will register themselves
in the system with their personal information. Internet
of things (IoT) sensors is used to get CO2 reading. The
collected data will be sent to nearby mobile edge
computing server (MEC) to check that user has crossed
his limit or not and store it in a blockchain. Debit card
information is also necessary as the Mobile application
also supports the option of digital payment using digital
wallet of an individual user. Public key cryptosystem
can be introduced to identify the valid user. When the
user sends the information to the server, it needs to
encrypt the information using the public key of the
server and hash the message with users private key
which will proof his/her identity. The information will
be decrypted by the server using servers private key
and identify the user decrypting the hash using users
public key. Fixed amount of CO2 gas will be allocated
for each user to use in every month. When the amount
of usage CO2 gas has exceeded the limit, user need to
pay a certain amount of money to use his/her vehicle
again in that month or just wait for the next month when
his/her account will reset the value again. In user
registration phase, user information will be also stored
in the blockchain to match the hash whenever server
collect any data from client to ensure the authenticity.
Electrochemical sensor is used in this system to
check the usage of CO2 gas emission from a vehicle. An
Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) is used to convert
the analog sensor data to digital signal and a Raspberry
board is placed inside the vehicle to collect the data
from sensor and transfer this data to the MEC Server.
The working flow of data collection and transfer is
illustrated in Figure 2.
In every vehicle, the raspberry pi board will contain
the private key of the user. Again, the Raspberry pi is
Fig. 2. Sensor Data Collection & Transfer Process.
1.Fig. 1. System Design.
2020년도 한국통신학회 동계종합학술발표회
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금오공과대학교 | IP:202.31.137.*** | Accessed 2020/06/25 15:07(KST)
encrypted the CO2 gas usage information when it is sent
it to server using the private key of the user. The
server decrypts the information using the public key of
the user to identify and this public key cryptosystem is
provided the security of third-party interruption.
When server collects the data, it stores the data in
blockchain so that the any attacker/hacker will not be
able to temper the information. Even if the user wants
to temper the information, as the data will go
automatically to the server and store in blockchain,
he/she wont be able to do that.
Server will check the amount of usage CO2 gas for
a user that cross the limit or not. If it exceeds the limit,
the server will send message/notification to the users
contact number immediately. User will send the money
and notification to the server encrypted with servers
public key using his/her Digital Wallet.
The smart wallet accepts financial account
information given by the user when he registers himself
in the system. The smart wallet sends the financial
transection request to a smart wallet management
server using the private key of the user such that the
payment is authorized, and the payment transaction is
completed. They server will decrypt the message using
its private key and reset the value for the user.
III. Result Analysis
Experimental set up has been done as a proof of
concept. A raspberry pi 3 model b+ was used in this
experiment. An Intel (R) core (TM) i5-4590 CPU @
3.30GHz with 8 GB memory was considered as a MEC
Server. Fig. 3 represents the results that were obtained
from the experiment. Throughput has been calculated
when vehicle has transferred the data to server.
One of the key issues of this proposed methodology
is the data transfer rate between vehicle and server in
a secured environment. A python code was written to
transfer the data between client and server. Fig. 3
describes the time for transferring data from client to
server. X-axis represents the time in sec and Y-axis
represents the throughput in Kbps. From Fig. 3,
throughput decreases with the passing of time due to
anomalies (e.g., fading) in the channel.
IV. Conclusion and Future Works
Our propose system can make huge contribution for
reducing the CO2 gas and make the user more aware of
using the vehicles in a more convenient way. Even after
collecting the money from the user who use excessive
amount of CO2 gas using their vehicle, this money can
be spent in different sector like tree planting, saving
forest, farming etc. to contribute more in the aspect of
Green House Effect.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work was supported by Priority Research Centers
Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea
(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and
Technology (2018R1A6A1A03024003)
Reference
[1] Poojo T Latake, Poojo Pawar, Anil C.Ranveer "The
greenhouse effect and its impact on environment", IJIRCT.
2015; 3: 2454-5988.
[2] Md. Masuduzzaman, Istiak Ahmed, Allin Arzoo, and
Tanuka Sharmin, Energy Efficiency Analysis in Wired
Networking by Fine Grained Modification in Link State
Routing Protocol, International Journal of Information
Technology and Computer Science, Vol. 11, No 3, March
2019.
[3] A. Islam and S. Y. Shin, "BUS: A Blockchain-Enabled Data
Acquisition Scheme With the Assistance of UAV Swarm in
Internet of Things," in IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 103231-
103249, 2019. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2930774
[4] A. Islam and S. Y. Shin, "BUAV: A blockchain based
secure UAV-assisted data acquisition scheme in Internet
of Things," in Journal of Communications and Networks,
vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 491-502, Oct. 2019. doi:
10.1109/JCN.2019.000050
[5] A. Islam and S. Y. Shin, "BHMUS: Blockchain Based
Secure Outdoor Health Monitoring Scheme Using UAV in
Smart City," 2019 7th International Conference on
Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT),
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2019, pp. 1-6. doi:
10.1109/ICoICT.2019.8835373
[6] A. Islam, K. Sadia, M. Masuduzzaman and S. Y. Shin,
BUMAR: A Blockchain-Empowered UAV-Assisted Smart
Surveillance Architecture for Marine Areas, 2020
International Conference on Computing Advancements
(ICCA), 2020. doi: 10.1145/3377049.3377062
[7] A. Islam, M. B. Uddin, M. F. Kader and S. Y. Shin,
"Blockchain Based Secure Data Handover Scheme in Non-
Orthogonal Multiple Access," 2018 4th International
Conference on Wireless and Telematics (ICWT), Nusa Dua,
2018, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.1109/ICWT.2018.8527732
[8] A. Islam, M. F. Kader, and S. Y. Shin, BSSSQS: A
Blockchain-Based Smart and Secured Scheme for
Question Sharing in the Smart Education System, Journal
of information and communication convergence
engineering , vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 174184, Sep. 2019. doi:
10.6109/JICCE.2019.17.3.174
Fig. 3. Experiment for Throughput Analysis
2020년도 한국통신학회 동계종합학술발표회
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금오공과대학교 | IP:202.31.137.*** | Accessed 2020/06/25 15:07(KST)
... Blockchain is the recent technology which introduces to create a trusted network among the untrusted parties to provide data integrity [10]. A distributed ledger has been maintained by all the participants inside the network to avoid any unnecessary modification by the third-party [11]. It can ensure trust and security among the participants as different malicious attacker and equipment can be sent by the enemies in the military battlefield scenario [12]. ...
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