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DO PRE- AND POST-GAME ANXIETY LEVELS AND VISUAL MEMORY CHANGE FOR CHESS PLAYERS?

Abstract

Introduction: Chess is an educational sport of the mind that involves different types of items and rules but is based on creative intelligence. Improvement of cognitive function can lead to improvement of performance and quality. Goals: The aim of this study was to investigate state-trait anxiety levels and visual memory scores before and after chess games, whether there was any change in those scores, and if that change was related to gender. Material and methods: Twenty elite chess athletes (10 males, 10 females) who were participating in the Turkish Chess Championship, aged between 18 and 30, enrolled in the study voluntarily. Demographic data were recorded. The athletes were tested randomly 30 minutes before a game and 60 minutes after the game. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Benton Visual Retention Test F form were administered. Results: Athletes’ ages were 24±8.1 years, heights were 173.2±9.1 cm, body weights were 66.6±22.7 kg, and they had been playing chess for 12.6±4.1 years. There was no demographical difference found between groups when groups were divided according to gender (p˃0.05). There was no statistically significant difference found between pre-game and post-game scores (p˃0.05). When gender factors were evaluated, it was found that female athletes had higher pre-game and post-game Benton Visual Retention Test and anxiety scores. Conclusions: However, those results were not statistically significant between female and male groups (p˃0.05). Male and female athletes’ pre- and post-game results showed no statistically significant differences (p˃0.05). To a certain extent, anxiety levels have beneficial effects for athletes, but it is important to determine the anxiety levels at which athletes start to perform badly. This level should be determined individually and must be controlled via behavior therapy, or medically, if needed. We think that training sessions performed for various anxious situations or different types of programs will improve athletes’ performances.
Ercan, S. (2020). Do pre- and post-game anxiety levels and visual
memory change for chess players?. Journal of Physical
Education and Human Movement, 2(1), 1-8.
1
Online ISSN: 2659-5699
DOI: 10.24310/JPEHMjpehm.v2i1.6625
DO PRE- AND POST-GAME ANXIETY LEVELS AND VISUAL
MEMORY CHANGE FOR CHESS PLAYERS?
¿CAMBIAN, PREVIA Y POSTERIORMENTE AL JUEGO, LOS NIVELES DE
ANSIEDAD Y MEMORIA VISUAL EN JUGADORES DE AJEDREZ?
Sabriye Ercan1
1 Suleyman Demirel University, Medicine Faculty, Sports Medicine Department, Isparta, Turkey.
sabriyeercan@gmail.com
ORCİD: 0000-0001-9500-698X
Detalles del artículo:
Número de palabras: 3.728; Tablas: 2; Figuras: 0; Referencias: 27
Recibido: julio; Aceptado: julio; Publicado: enero 2020
Conflicto de interés: El autor declara que no existen conflictos de interés.
Correspondencia del autor: Sabriye Ercan, sabriyeercan@gmail.com
Abstract
Introduction: Chess is an educational sport of the mind that involves different types of
items and rules but is based on creative intelligence. Improvement of cognitive function can
lead to improvement of performance and quality. Goals: The aim of this study was to
investigate state-trait anxiety levels and visual memory scores before and after chess games,
whether there was any change in those scores, and if that change was related to gender.
Material and methods: Twenty elite chess athletes (10 males, 10 females) who were
participating in the Turkish Chess Championship, aged between 18 and 30, enrolled in the study
voluntarily. Demographic data were recorded. The athletes were tested randomly 30 minutes
before a game and 60 minutes after the game. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Benton
Visual Retention Test F form were administered. Results: Athletes’ ages were 24±8.1 years,
heights were 173.2±9.1 cm, body weights were 66.6±22.7 kg, and they had been playing chess
for 12.6±4.1 years. There was no demographical difference found between groups when groups
were divided according to gender (p˃0.05). There was no statistically significant difference
found between pre-game and post-game scores (p˃0.05). When gender factors were evaluated,
it was found that female athletes had higher pre-game and post-game Benton Visual Retention
Test and anxiety scores. Conclusions: However, those results were not statistically significant
between female and male groups (p˃0.05). Male and female athletes’ pre- and post-game results
showed no statistically significant differences (p˃0.05). To a certain extent, anxiety levels have
beneficial effects for athletes, but it is important to determine the anxiety levels at which athletes
start to perform badly. This level should be determined individually and must be controlled via
behavior therapy, or medically, if needed. We think that training sessions performed for various
anxious situations or different types of programs will improve athletes’ performances.
Ercan, S. (2020). Do pre- and post-game anxiety levels and visual
memory change for chess players?. Journal of Physical
Education and Human Movement, 2(1), 1-8.
2
Online ISSN: 2659-5699
DOI: 10.24310/JPEHMjpehm.v2i1.6625
Key words: Chess, anxiety, visual memory.
Resumen
Introducción: El ajedrez es un deporte educativo de la mente que involucra diferentes
tipos de elementos y reglas, pero se basa en la inteligencia creativa. La mejora de la función
cognitiva puede conducir a una mejora del rendimiento y la calidad. Objetivos: El objetivo de
este estudio fue investigar los niveles de ansiedad como rasgo característico y la puntuación en
memoria visual antes y después de jugar al ajedrez, si hubo algún cambio en la puntuación y si
ese cambio estaba relacionado con el género. Material y métodos: Veinte atletas de ajedrez de
élite (10 hombres, 10 mujeres) que participaban en el Campeonato de Ajedrez de Turquía, con
edades comprendidas entre 18 y 30, se inscribieron voluntariamente en el estudio. Se registraron
datos demográficos. Los atletas fueron evaluados al azar 30 minutos antes de un juego y 60
minutos después del juego. Se administraron el State-Trait Anxiety Inventory y el cuestionario
F del Benton Visual Retention Test. Resultados: La edad de los atletas era de 24 ± 8.1 años, la
altura de 173.2 ± 9.1 cm, el peso corporal de 66.6 ± 22.7 kg y llevaban jugando al ajedrez
durante 12.6 ± 4.1 años. No se encontraron diferencias demográficas entre los grupos cuando
los grupos se dividieron según el género (p˃0.05). No se encontraron diferencias
estadísticamente significativas entre las puntuaciones previas y posteriores al juego (p˃0.05).
Cuando se evaluaron los factores de género, se descubrió que las atletas femeninas tenían una
puntuación más alta en el Benton Visual Retention Test antes y después del juego y en los
niveles de ansiedad. Conclusiones: Sin embargo, esos resultados no fueron estadísticamente
significativos entre el grupo de hombres y el de mujeres (p <0.05). Los resultados de los atletas
masculinos y femeninos antes y después del juego no mostraron diferencias estadísticamente
significativas (p <0.05). Hasta cierto punto, los niveles de ansiedad tienen efectos beneficiosos
para los atletas, pero es importante determinar los niveles de ansiedad en los que los atletas
comienzan a desempeñarse mal. Este nivel debe determinarse individualmente y debe
controlarse mediante terapia conductual, o médicamente, si fuese necesario. Creemos que el
entrenamiento con sesiones realizadas bajo diversas situaciones de ansiedad o diferentes tipos
de programas mejorarán el rendimiento de los atletas.
Palabras clave: ajedrez, ansiedad, memoria visual.
INTRODUCTION
Chess is an educational sport of the mind that involves different types of items and rules
but is based on creative intelligence. There is archaeological evidence that chess was played
4000 years ago in Egypt (Köksal, 2006). Various researchers have shown that playing chess
enhances cognitive functions, problem solving, mental flexibility, and short-term memory and
visual memory. Improving the cognitive functions may improve the performance and ability of
athletes. Especially for Olympic athletes, it is known that athletes undergo cognitive training
for anxiety during games and sporting events in addition to physical training (Garland and
Barry, 1991).
Athletes who participate in competitions at different levels face stress factors.
Physiological responses may vary according to the levels of the stress factors. For example,
when the psychophysiological responses of adolescent athletes to chess problems of different
difficulty levels were examined, stress responses and heart rate variability were found to
increase (Fuentes-García et al., 2019). It is further known that the change in physiological
Ercan, S. (2020). Do pre- and post-game anxiety levels and visual
memory change for chess players?. Journal of Physical
Education and Human Movement, 2(1), 1-8.
3
Online ISSN: 2659-5699
DOI: 10.24310/JPEHMjpehm.v2i1.6625
responses to similar stresses may vary depending on whether the athlete has a high or low
performance level (Fuentes-García et al., 2019).
Athletes who are between the ages of 13 and 24 years old particularly point out that they
have anxiety during games and competitions but not in their daily activities. To a certain level,
anxiety can be accepted as normal. However, athletes with high levels of anxiety affecting their
performances will need professional help (Coombes et al., 2009). There are pharmacological
and non-pharmacological methods to control anxiety that affects the performance of athletes.
Professional help is not required with pharmacological treatments. It is known that neuro-
biofeedback exercises, which are among the non-pharmacological methods, have positive
effects on reducing anxiety in elite female swimming athletes and thus contribute to mental
performance (Faridnia et al., 2012).
The anxiety symptoms observed in athletes cannot be diagnosed as specific anxiety
disorders according to the DSM-IV.
Sports-related anxiety can be defined as the tendency to respond with anxiety and
tension due to perceiving competition as a threat. Subtypes of sports-related performance
anxiety are state anxiety, trait anxiety, somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety, behavioral anxiety,
performance anxiety, facilitating anxiety, weakening anxiety, and pre-during-post-
game/competition anxiety (Coombes et al., 2009).
Many studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of anxiety on sports
performances of athletes (Oudejans and Pijpers, 2010; Cerit et al., 2013; Dönmez, 2013). The
best known theory is the so-called inverted U theory. According to this theory, anxiety has
beneficial effects on the performance of athletes to a certain extent. To obtain maximum
beneficial effect, optimal anxious situations are needed. However, anxiety above that level will
begin to harm the athlete and will affect the athlete’s physical, motor, and cognitive functions
adversely (Coombes et al., 2009). When the current literature is examined, it is seen that the
psychophysiological needs of chess players are not fully understood and cannot be met (Fuentes
et al., 2018).
The aim of this study was to investigate state-trait anxiety levels and visual memory
scores before and after games, whether there is a change in these levels, and whether that change
is related to gender among chess athletes.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Participants
Twenty elite chess players from the Turkish Chess Championship were enrolled in this
study (10 women, 10 men). Prior to the study, all participants were informed of all benefits and
risks of the study, and the study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
Procedures
The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Benton Visual Retention Test F
(BVRT) form were administered 30 minutes prior to games and 60 minutes after the games
(Başbuğ, 2009; Potvin et al, 2013).
Ercan, S. (2020). Do pre- and post-game anxiety levels and visual
memory change for chess players?. Journal of Physical
Education and Human Movement, 2(1), 1-8.
4
Online ISSN: 2659-5699
DOI: 10.24310/JPEHMjpehm.v2i1.6625
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Tests
The STAI was constructed by Spielberger et al. in 1970 to determine the anxiety levels
of subjects older than 14 years of age. The Turkish validity and reliability were established in
1983. Answers that can be given for questions of the State Anxiety Inventory are (1) not at all,
(2) somewhat, (3) moderate, and (4) very much so. Answers that can be given for the Trait
Anxiety Inventory are (1) almost never, (2) sometimes, (3) often, and (4) almost always. There
are two kinds of expressions in the scales: direct and reverse. Direct expressions show negative
emotions and reverse expressions show positive emotions. During evaluation of the results for
the latter expressions, 1-point answers are evaluated as 4 points and 4-point answers are
evaluated as 1 point. Four points for a direct expression show high anxiety. One point for a
reverse expression shows high anxiety, whereas 4 points show low anxiety for a reverse
expression. The State Anxiety Inventory test consists of 10 reverse expressions. Those are the
1st, 2nd, 5th, 8th, 10th, 11th, 15th, 16th, 19th, and 20th questions. The Trait Anxiety Inventory
test consists of 7 reverse expressions. Those are the 21st, 26th, 27th, 30th, 33rd, 36th, and 39th
questions. Reverse expressions’ total weighted points are subtracted from direct expressions’
total weighted points. These results are then summed with 50 values for the State Anxiety
Inventory and 35 values for the Trait Anxiety Inventory. Those results are the patients’ anxiety
scores. Results of the questionnaire range between 20 and 80 points.
A final score of 36 points or fewer reveals no anxiety, while a score of 37 to 42 shows
slight anxiety and 43 or above shows high anxiety. Subjects whose final score is 60 or above
60 need professional help and medical treatment (Çetinkaya et al., 2008).
Benton Visual Retention Test
The BVRT is an individually administered test for people who are 8 years of age or
older. The test was found to be reliable in normal populations. The test was designed with three
equivalent forms (C, D, and E forms) and multiple choice forms (F and G). The BVRT F form
was used in our study.
The administrator of the BVRT told participants the following: “I am going to show you
some cards that contain one or more figures. After this, I am going to show you 4 figures. I
want you to find the same one as the first figure that was shown.” The first card and its figure(s)
were shown to the subject for 10 seconds. Then the subject was asked to find the same figure
on the next card. Fifteen cards were shown to the subject, who was asked to find the same
figures.
Participants’ answers were noted and checked. A score of 14-15 points is high, 12-13
points is good, 11 points is medium, 10 points is low-medium, and a score of 9 points shows
visual memory at the borderline (Amieva et al., 2006).
Statistical Analysis
All data were analyzed with SPSS 22.0. A descriptive statistical method was used to
identify data. The kurtosis/skewness test was used to determine the normality of the data
distribution. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to detect intra-group differences, and the
Mann-Whitney U test was used to detect differences between groups. Statistical significance
was taken as p<0.05. The results are given as median ± standard error.
Ercan, S. (2020). Do pre- and post-game anxiety levels and visual
memory change for chess players?. Journal of Physical
Education and Human Movement, 2(1), 1-8.
5
Online ISSN: 2659-5699
DOI: 10.24310/JPEHMjpehm.v2i1.6625
RESULTS
Twenty subjects (10 males, 10 females) were enrolled in the study. Subjects’ ages were
24±8.1 years, heights were 173.2±9.1 cm, body weights were 66.6±22.7 kg, and they had been
playing chess for 12.6±4.1 years. No demographical difference was found between the groups
when participants were divided into groups according to gender (Table 1) (p˃0.05).
Table 1. Demographic data (median ± standard error)
Males (n=10)
Females (n=10)
p-value *
Age (years)
27.4±10
19.8±1.7
0.19
Height (cm)
177±10
168.5±5.8
0.11
Body weight (kg)
78.6±24.5
51.5±5.3
0.06
History of chess (years)
14.6±4.4
10±1.6
0.11
*Mann-Whitney U test.
State Anxiety Inventory scores were 47.9±15.8, Trait Anxiety Inventory scores were
44.6±7.4, and BVRT scores were 13.2±1.8 at 30 minutes before the games. The same tests were
done 60 minutes after the games. State Anxiety Inventory scores were 41.4±16.3, Trait Anxiety
Inventory scores were 42.8±9.6, and BVRT scores were 14.6±0.5 after the games. There were
no statistically significant differences found between pre- and post-game scores (p˃0.05). When
gender factors were evaluated, it was found that female athletes had higher pre-game and post-
game BRVT and anxiety scores. However, those results were not statistically significant
between the female and male groups (Table 2) (p˃0.05).
Table 2. Pre- and post-game visual memory and anxiety results (median ± standard error)
Pre-game
p-value **
Benton Visual Retention Test Scores
All participants (n=20)
13.2±1.8
0.26
Males (n=10)
12.8±2.6
0.32
Females (n=10)
13.8±0.5
0.10
p-value *
1.0
State Anxiety Inventory Scores
All participants (n=20)
47.9±15.8
0.29
Males (n=10)
39.3±11.4
1.0
Females (n=10)
56.5±16
0.14
p-value *
0.11
Trait Anxiety Inventory Scores
Ercan, S. (2020). Do pre- and post-game anxiety levels and visual
memory change for chess players?. Journal of Physical
Education and Human Movement, 2(1), 1-8.
6
Online ISSN: 2659-5699
DOI: 10.24310/JPEHMjpehm.v2i1.6625
All participants (n=20)
44.6±7.4
0.39
Males (n=10)
40±7.1
0.19
Females (n=10)
49.3±4.5
1.0
p-value *
0.11
* Mann-Whitney U test, ** Wilcoxon signed rank test.
DISCUSSION
As a result of our study, the pre- and post-game anxiety scores and BVRT scores of
chess athletes showed no differences. Additionally, those results showed no differences
according to gender.
In the literature, pre- and post-game anxiety scores have been evaluated in many studies.
However, this was not previously done for chess athletes. Hacıcaferoğlu et al. investigated
anxiety levels for participants in Turkish folk dance competitions. In that study, female athletes,
younger athletes, and athletes who started to participate in competitions later than other athletes
were found to have higher anxiety levels (2015). Dönmez’s study of basketball players showed
that both State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores were higher for female athletes than male
athletes. Scores were also found to be related to licensed years of sports participation. Players
with 0-3 licensed years had higher anxiety levels than those with 8-11 licensed years or more
than 12 licensed years (2013). Başaran et al. found no differences between female and male
athletes for trait anxiety scores; however, state anxiety scores were higher for male athletes than
female athletes. State and trait anxiety score levels also differed with sports branches and the
history of participation in that study (2009).
Civan et al. showed that state anxiety levels were higher for athletes who were
participating individually than in those participating on teams, but this was not related to age or
gender (2010). Karabulut et al. showed that anxiety levels for male football players of 13-15
years of age were high. This was related to some factors like having a highly educated father.
However, the age of the athlete and the athlete’s history of sports participation were not found
to be related to trait anxiety level (2013). Bingöl et al. found no relationships between gender,
age, sports participation history, or the which university at which the athlete was educated
(2012). Erbaş et al. showed no relationships of state anxiety levels with age, sports participation
history, time spent in games, or the status of elite male basketball players (2012).
Elite wrestling athletes’ state anxiety scores were higher before weighing than after
weighing. This was thought to be related to athletes concerns about reaching their weight
categories or not (Tazegül, 2016). Çoksevim et al. showed that STAI scores and Brief Symptom
Inventory Severity Index scores were higher before game evaluations than after game
evaluations. Their study found this to be related to excitement, pride, high levels of
concentration, and wanting to be a champion, which increased the mental performances of the
athletes (2008). Cerit et al. claimed that having higher pre-game anxiety scores had positive
effects for elite female basketball players on in-game performance (2013).
In the literature, there are limited studies investigating the effects of anxiety on athletes’
cognitive functions. Hadwin et al. showed no differences for children with high and low levels
of anxiety in terms of basic cognitive functions; however, children with higher anxiety levels
Ercan, S. (2020). Do pre- and post-game anxiety levels and visual
memory change for chess players?. Journal of Physical
Education and Human Movement, 2(1), 1-8.
7
Online ISSN: 2659-5699
DOI: 10.24310/JPEHMjpehm.v2i1.6625
took more time to perform their tasks (2005). Lapointe et al. showed that anxiety levels affected
the short-term memory and attention of their participants, who were 18-65 years old, and further
found that this was the result of anxiety on cognitive functions (2013). Potvin et al. studied
patients without dementia who were over 66 years of age, and low or medium anxiety levels
were found to improve verbal functions and general cognitive functions. Medium or high
anxiety levels also improved short-term visual memory among the patients with lower levels of
education (2013). Mutchnick et al. showed that anxiety scores were higher for subjects who
received cardiopulmonary bypass operations at younger ages. However, this was not shown to
have any relationship with cognitive functions (2012).
Nieuwenhuys and Oudejans showed that shooting performances were lower under
anxiety; however, 4 months of shooting exercises in anxious situations improved visual
attention and cognitive performances (2011). Oudejans and Pijpers found that dart players
exercising under low anxiety levels preserved their motor functions under high anxiety levels
(2010). Yurdakul et al. showed good visual memory and attention with 12 weeks of movement
education in 8-year-old children (2012).
CONCLUSIONS
To a certain extent, anxiety levels have beneficial effects for athletes. However, it is
important to determine the anxiety levels at which athletes start to perform badly. This level
should be determined individually and must be controlled via behavior therapy, or medically,
if needed.
In chess, visual memory is needed just like cognitive functions for success. For this
reason, training programs conducted for anxious situations will improve athletes’
performances.
Acknowledgment: I thank Dr. Hilmi Mustafa Demir for assistance with this article.
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... Sternberg explica que la inteligencia se organiza en 4 aspectos: habilidad para aprender y beneficiarse con la experiencia, habilidad para pensar o razonamiento abstracto, habilidad para adaptarse a situaciones de cambio e incertidumbre y habilidad para automotivarse y ejecutar rápidamente las tareas que son necesarias. Benton citado por Ercan nos dice que la vida intelectual se caracteriza por la posibilidad de establecer relaciones que están contenidas en las funciones de adquisición, conservación y elaboración intelectual (Ercan, 2020). ...
... Sternberg explica que la inteligencia se organiza en 4 aspectos: habilidad para aprender y beneficiarse con la experiencia, habilidad para pensar o razonamiento abstracto, habilidad para adaptarse a situaciones de cambio e incertidumbre y habilidad para automotivarse y ejecutar rápidamente las tareas que son necesarias. Benton citado por Ercan nos dice que la vida intelectual se caracteriza por la posibilidad de establecer relaciones que están contenidas en las funciones de adquisición, conservación y elaboración intelectual (Ercan, 2020). ...
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En el presente libro versa sobre la facultad creadora del hombre, la creatividad como aptitud, como proceso, y como producto. Desde esa perspectiva, se aportan seis principios Da Vincianos sobre a la creatividad. Posteriormente, se valoran los conceptos habilidad mental en el proceso creativo y operaciones mentales. Más adelante, se particulariza sobre la creatividad en los estudiantes de arquitectura, y se aluden elementos específicos de esa rama de la ciencia como son el espacio arquitectónico, la tipología de espacios, la inteligencia espacial, la percepción, y el modulor. Concluye con las etapas del proceso creativo, lo cognitivo en la creatividad, los métodos de diseño, así como la influencia de los conceptos en los procesos de diseño.
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Anxiety is one the significant factor which affects performance of athletes in a negative way. The purpose of this research is to compare elite wrestlers' state of anxiety before-after weighing. A state of anxiety inventory developed by Spielberg and adapted to Turkishby Ömer and Le Compte has been used in order to detect wrestlers' state of anxiety before-after weighing. SSPS 20 package software has been used while analyzing the data on this research. After it has been stated that datum has both an homogenous and normal distribution; it has been decided that parametric test method should be used in statistic analysis. In statistic analysis, diagnostic statistic and co-sample t test has been implemented. On the consequence of these analyses, the wrestlers' state of anxiety before weighing has been higher than the state of anxiety that wrestlers have after weighing.
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This study investigated the effect of individual differences in state anxiety on tasks tapping the central executive, phonological, and visuo‐spatial components of working memory (WM). It was designed to test Eysenck and Calvo’s processing efficiency theory (PET) which suggests that the phonological and executive components of WM may be important in understanding learning outcomes in anxiety. Typically‐developing children aged 9–10 years were split into high and low state anxiety groups. They performed three WM tasks – forward and backward digit span (assumed to measure phonological and central executive components of WM respectively) and a spatial working memory task (measuring the visuo‐spatial component of WM). Measurements of task accuracy were taken as an indicator of performance outcome or effectiveness. Time taken to complete tasks and a subjective rating of mental effort were taken as measurements of performance efficiency. No differences were found between high and low state anxiety groups in task accuracy for any measure. Children in the high state anxiety group, however, took longer to complete the backward digit span task and reported increased mental effort in the forward digit span task, indicating some effect of anxiety on measures of performance efficiency.
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The game of chess has been traditionally used to study basic cognitive processes. However, it has been poorly studied in adolescent chess players. The aim of the present study was to describe the psychophysiological response of adolescence, using electroencephalography (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) during problem-solving tasks. Thus, participants had to solve four chess problems with different level of difficulty (low and high). A total of 13 adolescent chess players (age: 15.45 [1.64] with a mean ELO score of 1403 [209.16]) participated in the study. EEG and HRV were recorded while participants solved the chess problems. Results indicated that HRV is reduced as well as EEG theta power spectrum increased during the high difficulty level. These results support the idea of HRV and EEG as useful tools to control stress or cognitive load during cognitive tasks even in adolescent. This characterization increases the knowledge about the psychophysiological response of adolescence to a cognitive task under time pressure.
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This study was carried out with in order to determine the pre-competition anxiety levels of sportsmen participating in the Turkish Folk Dance branch in terms of some variables. The population of the study, which was carried out using a general screening model, consisted of 253 sportsmen, participated with the local halay dance in the group competition, organized by the Turkish Folk Dance Federation in city of Malatya, and its sampling consisted of 187 sportsmen chosen from the population by a random method. State (instantaneous) Anxiety part of the State-Trait Continuous Anxiety Scale was used in the study. In analyzing the data, frequency, percentage, standard deviation, arithmetic mean, t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test were used in the study to find the source of the difference. As the result of the study, it has been determined that the overall arithmetic mean of the pre-competition instantaneous anxiety state felt by the sportsmen, statistically was 2.34. A statistically significant difference was found in the research in terms of pre-competition instantaneous anxiety state of feeling of the sportsmen, depending on the variables of gender, age and folk playing time. Nonetheless, depending on the gender, it was determined in the research, that the sportsmen of 20-22 and 17-19 age groups, in favour of the female athletes and according to the age variable, the sportsmen who played folk dances less than a year according to the dancing time variable, felt more pre-competition instantaneous anxiety compared to the sportsmen of other groups.
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The present study examined the relationship of extra-test anxiety to memory test performance among patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (N = 47) and back surgery (N = 24). These patients were chosen because they are often anxious before surgery and thus serve as a model of extra-test anxiety. This examination is important in neuropsychology because anxiety may serve as an extraneous factor compromising the validity of attention and memory scores. Anxiety level, determined from self-report and experimenter ratings, and memory performance, as measured by the Memory Assessment Scales and memory self-report, were assessed 1 to 2 days presurgery and approximately 6 weeks post surgery. The study further examined whether anxiety's influence on test performance is mediated by an impulsive cognitive style, as indicated by the Matching Familiar Figures Test. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed no significant change in state anxiety during the testing interval. MANOVA did reveal significant differences between the two surgery groups on anxiety, and younger patients demonstrated greater anxiety about their upcoming surgery. An examination of the intercorrelations of anxiety and memory scores revealed that they do not share variance and are essentially unrelated. Although the subjects were moderately anxious about the upcoming surgery, this did not apparently influence their performance on memory tests.
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Objective: To assess the relationship between state anxiety and performance on neuropsychological tests in older adults. Methods: Nine hundred fifty-five community-dwelling individuals without dementia age 66 and over were evaluated at home by a psychologist. State anxiety was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Y. Cognitive assessment included general cognitive functioning (Mini-Mental State Examination), verbal fluency (Isaacs Set Test), short-term visual memory (Benton's Visual Retention Test), speed of information processing/visuomotor coordination (Digit Symbol Coding), conceptual knowledge (Similarities), episodic memory (Verbal Paired Associates), and working memory (Digit Span forward/backward). Covariates included age, education, sex, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale), subjective health, subjective cognitive complaint, chronic diseases, functional abilities in basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and use of medication. Results: Adjustments for confounders substantially modified the relationship between state anxiety and cognitive performance. Multivariate analyses revealed positive effects of mild and moderate state anxiety for verbal fluency and general cognitive functioning, respectively. High and moderate anxiety also had beneficial influence on short-term visual memory performance in participants with low education level and on the speed of information/visuomotor coordination processing in participants using medications. Conclusions: These results suggest that when confounders are taken into account, state anxiety in older adults is not necessarily deleterious for cognitive performance and has no appreciable negative effect on many cognitive domains or can even be beneficial. Relationships between state anxiety and cognitive performances are complex because they are influenced by many factors and differ according to anxiety severity and cognitive domains.