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Abstract

Many ranchers who practice rotational grazing have experienced economic and ecological benefits. However, the adoption rate of rotational grazing has stagnated. To identify major challenges faced by non-adopters of rotational grazing as well as factors that affect the perceptions about different challenges, we conducted a mail survey of 4250 eligible ranchers in North Dakota, South Dakota and Texas, USA. Key categories of information obtained included basic ranch information, rotational grazing adoption status, and related information. Among 875 respondents, 40.4% identified themselves as non-adopters and perceived labor and water source constraints as the two major challenges, followed by high initial investment costs. This indicates the need for technical support and educational programs to address producers' concerns in addition to the monetary support from government subsidy programs. Findings from logistic regression analyses further indicate that landowners with higher quality soil, relatively more grassland (in both acres and percentage) and more owned land, generally perceive lower barriers to choosing rotational grazing practices and, therefore, may be a suitable target group for more effective outreach efforts and public fund investments to enhance the adoption of beneficial rotational grazing practices.

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... Forage productivity and the environmental benefits from rotational grazing have been found to increase as the frequency at which cattle are rotated between paddocks increases (Teague and Barnes, 2017;Mosier et al., 2021). However, higher-frequency rotational grazing requires a greater investment in labor, capital, and management (Smith et al., 2011;Rayburn, 2014). 1 Researchers have investigated cattle producer use of rotational grazing across various regions of the US (Kim, Gillespie, and Paudel, 2008;Mooney, Bolinson, and Barham, 2019;Lambert et al., 2014Lambert et al., , 2020Wang et al., 2020). Kim, Gillespie, and Paudel (2008) found that 48% of Louisiana beef cattle producers adopted rotational grazing. ...
... Lambert et al. (2014) reported that 61% of cattle producers in a Southeastern US watershed rotated cattle. Wang et al. (2020) found that while 83% of the cattle operators in the Great Plains practiced rotational grazing, the start-up and managerial costs of the practice where key reasons why remaining producers had not adopted it. The next three largest impedances to rotational grazing adoption were increased labor requirements, producer unfamiliarity with rotational grazing systems, and limited access to water. ...
... Adopters of rotational grazing should expect annual costs of production to increase by $30 to $70 per acre due to increased infrastructure (Undersander et al., 2002) and labor costs (Gillespie, Kim, and Paudel, 2007;Gillespie et al., 2008). Producer unfamiliarity with rotational grazing systems is a nonpecuniary barrier to its adoption (Wang et al., 2020). ...
Article
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This study determines which factors are associated with the use of rotational grazing and the frequency with which Tennessee producers rotate cattle during the summer months. Survey data were used to estimate an ordered response model with sample selection. Most respondents used rotational grazing, and the most frequent rotational schedule was rotating cattle one to two times per month. Factors including labor, capital, knowledge, and water availability influenced the use of rotational grazing and the frequency of rotating cattle. The insights from this study can inform the development of incentives to promote more intensive use of rotational grazing.
... AMP grazing has been shown to be a promising regenerative grazing strategy (Teague et al., 2013;Savory and Butterfield, 2016;Wang et al., 2020) and avoids overgrazing and overstocking by incorporating management adjustments to respond to changing weather conditions and Table 8 Ground cover (%) from paired AMP and CG farms in the immediate vicinity of soil sampling points (Significance at p < 0.05). Fig. 3. Mean carbon stocks for AMP and CG pairs to a depth of 1 m (Significant differences among AMP and CG at each farm pair (p < 0.05). ...
... AMP grazing via word of mouth with the ranching community appears to be increasing in rancher adoption as the awareness of the benefits of AMP such as measured in this study become understood. Currently, although 78% of surveyed ranchers were familiar with the concept, 40% identified themselves as non-adopters (Clifford, 2020;Wang et al., 2020). ...
Article
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We examine Adaptive Multi-Paddock (AMP) grazed with short grazing events and planned recovery periods and paired ranches using Conventional Continuous Grazing (CG) at low stock density on vegetation, water infiltration, and soil carbon across SE USA. Increased vegetation standing biomass and plant species dominance-diversity were measured in AMP grazed ranches. Invasive perennial plant species richness and abundance increased with AMP grazing in the south, while in the north they increased on CG grazed ranches. Percent bare ground was significantly greater in CG at the Alabama and Mississippi sites, no different at the Kentucky and mid-Alabama sites, and greater on AMP at the Tennessee pair. On average, surface water infiltration was higher on AMP than paired CG ranches. Averaged over all locations, soil organic carbon stocks to a depth of 1 m were over 13% greater on AMP than CG ranches, and standing crop biomass was >300% higher on AMP ranches. AMP grazing supported substantially higher livestock stocking levels while providing significant improvements in vegetation, soil carbon, and water infiltration functions. AMP grazing also significantly increased available forage nutrition for key constituents, and increased soil carbon to provide significant resource and economic benefits for improving ecological health, resilience, and durability of the family ranch.
... Few studies have looked at the rotational grazing behaviour of herders in the socio-economic field, especially in China. In the existing literature, some research has discussed the influencing factors of herders' rotational grazing behaviour, such as psychological factors (Hyland et al., 2018), overgrazing, short growing season duration, frequent droughts, and relatively high cost (Han, 2018;Wang et al., 2020b;Zheng, 2018), but all studies were based on the assumption that herders are "Rational-Economic men." In the above case, herders were mostly regarded as isolated decision-making units and, under certain conditions, they can make independent decisions to maximise benefits. ...
... Contextual interaction improves the likelihood of adopting rotational grazing on the part of herders through the ecological demonstration effect, but it fails to influence rotational grazing through the economic demonstration effect. This observation is consistent with the study of Wang et al. (2020b); their research showed that higher investments prevent ranchers from adopting rotational grazing technology in the United States. Our research demonstrates that rotational grazing does not reduce the livestock raising cost of herders, and thus, rotational grazing fails to disclose an economic demonstration effect. ...
Article
Given the relative inefficiency of China's grassland utilisation compared to that of developed countries, this study analyses the social interaction effect of rotational grazing and its mechanisms of influence on the individual rotational grazing behaviour of herders from the perspective of social economics. In doing so, we conducted an empirical evaluation with micro survey data from 820 herders in Inner Mongolia and the Gansu pastoral areas. The results generally indicate that there is a positive social interaction effect of rotational grazing on the behaviour of herders. Specifically, social interaction affects herders’ rotational grazing behaviour via two channels: endogenous interaction and contextual interaction. Endogenous interaction increases the likelihood of rotational grazing being adopted through the information acquisition and experience communication mechanisms. Contextual interaction improves the likelihood of rotational grazing being adopted through the ecological demonstration effect. In addition, the social interaction effect on rotational grazing is heterogeneous due to differences in natural capital and the human capital of herders, and this effect is stronger in herders with more grassland plots, lower education levels, and a higher animal husbandry labour force. Finally, this study also discovered that rotational grazing improves herders’ evaluation of grassland ecology; this corresponds to the conclusions of grazing experiments. The policy implications of these findings regarding the sustainable use of grassland are as follows: first, rotational grazing can be considered to be an incentive item that should be included in China's Subsidy and Incentive System for Grassland Conservation (SISGC) in order to promote the sustainable use of grasslands. Second, policy incentives can generate a social multiplier effect through the social interaction effect of rotational grazing, which amplifies the effect of the policy, promotes the formation of a rotational grazing system, and improves the overall grazing method. Finally, this policy can prioritise pastoral areas with severe grassland fragmentation and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood for herders.
... AMP grazing has been shown to be a promising regenerative grazing strategy (Teague et al., 2013;Savory and Butterfield, 2016;Wang et al., 2020) and avoids overgrazing and overstocking by incorporating management adjustments to respond to changing weather conditions and Table 8 Ground cover (%) from paired AMP and CG farms in the immediate vicinity of soil sampling points (Significance at p < 0.05). Fig. 3. Mean carbon stocks for AMP and CG pairs to a depth of 1 m (Significant differences among AMP and CG at each farm pair (p < 0.05). ...
... AMP grazing via word of mouth with the ranching community appears to be increasing in rancher adoption as the awareness of the benefits of AMP such as measured in this study become understood. Currently, although 78% of surveyed ranchers were familiar with the concept, 40% identified themselves as non-adopters (Clifford, 2020;Wang et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Grassland soils are a large reservoir of soil carbon (C) at risk of loss due to overgrazing in conventional grazing systems. By promoting regenerative grazing management practices that aim to increase soil C storage and soil health, grasslands have the potential to help alleviate rising atmospheric CO2 as well as sustain grass productivity across a vast area of land. Previous research has shown that rotational grazing, specifically adaptive multi-paddock (AMP) grazing that utilizes short-duration rotational grazing at high stocking densities, can increase soil C stocks in grassland ecosystems, but the extent and mechanisms are unknown. We conducted a large-scale on-farm study on five “across the fence” pairs of AMP and conventional grazing (CG) grasslands covering a spectrum of southeast United States grazing lands. We quantified soil C and nitrogen (N) stocks, their isotopic and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy signatures as well as their distribution among soil organic matter (SOM) physical fractions characterized by contrasting mechanisms of formation and persistence in soils. Our findings show that the AMP grazing sites had on average 13% (i.e., 9 Mg C ha⁻¹) more soil C and 9% (i.e., 1 Mg N ha⁻¹) more soil N compared to the CG sites over a 1 m depth. Additionally, the stocks’ difference was mostly in the mineral-associated organic matter fraction in the A-horizon, suggesting long-term persistence of soil C in AMP grazing farms. The higher N stocks and lower ¹⁵N abundance of AMP soils also point to higher N retention in these systems. These findings provide evidence that AMP grazing is a management strategy to sequester C in the soil and retain N in the system, thus contributing to climate change mitigation.
... Ranchers are adopting rotational grazing that ranges from intense mob grazing to conventional pasture rotations. A recent survey showed that 60% of U.S. ranchers use some form of rotational grazing [59]. Recent discussions in 2022 with ranchers in southern Missouri indicated that about half the ranchers in the area used some form of rotational grazing. ...
Article
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Many people believe that animal agriculture should be phased out and replaced with vegetarian substitutes. The livestock industry has also been attacked because it uses vast amounts of land. People forget that grazing cattle or sheep can be raised on land that is either too arid or too rough for raising crops. At least 20% of the habitable land on Earth is not suitable for crops. Rotational grazing systems can be used to improve both soil health and vegetation diversity on arid land. Grazing livestock are also being successfully used to graze cover crops on prime farmland. Soil health is improved when grazing on a cover crop is rotated with conventional cash crops, such as corn or soybeans. It also reduces the need for buying fertilizer. Grazing animals, such as cattle, sheep, goats, or bison, should be used as part of a sustainable system that will improve the land, help sequester carbon, and reduce animal welfare issues.
... Örneğin, bitkisel gıda üretiminin etkisi büyüyen bölge, tarım uygulamaları, işleme ve ulaşım gibi birçok faktöre bağlıdır (Lonnie 2020). Benzer şekilde, hayvanlardan gıda üretimi çok faktörlüdür ve hayvan beslenmesinin, üreme yönetiminin, genetik değerlerin (üreme değeri) veya dönüşümlü otlatmanın iyileştirilmesinin et üretiminin çevresel etkisinde önemli iyileştirmelere yol açabileceği belirtilmektedir (Wang 2020, Lonnie 2020. Bitkisel ve hayvansal proteinler arasında karşılaştırma yapıldığında, muhtemelen sığır eti tüm hayvansal gıdalar arasında en yüksek ayak izine sahip olduğu için, karşılaştırma aracı olarak sığır eti kullanılmaktadır (Poore 2018, Lonnie 2020. ...
Conference Paper
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Öz: Güncel sürdürülebilir beslenme rehberleri, hayvansal ürünlerin tüketiminin azaltılmasını ve daha çok bitkisel kaynaklı bir beslenmeye geçişi önermektedir. Hayvansal protein kaynakları bitkisel olanlara kıyasla birkaç kat daha yüksek çevresel etkiye sahiptir. Et, su ürünleri, yumurta ve süt gibi hayvansal protein kaynaklarının üretimi için bitkisel protein kaynaklarına kıyasla daha fazla su ve tarım arazisi kullanılmakta ve daha fazla emisyon oluşmaktadır. Üretimlerinde daha yüksek düzeyde sera gazı emisyonu veya daha geniş arazi gerektiren hayvansal protein kaynaklarını içeren diyetler, tüm nedenlere bağlı mortalite, spesifik mortalite ve kanserin daha yüksek oranları ile ilişkilidir. Ancak, hayvansal proteinlerin sınırlandırılarak bitkisel protein kaynaklarına yönelmenin yeterli ve kaliteli protein sağlayamayabileceği endişesi bulunmaktadır. Yaşlılarda ve yüksek beden kütle indeksi olan yetişkinlerde protein ihtiyacının karşılanamayabileceği düşünülse de çoğu yetişkin için bitkisel protein kaynakları ile yeterli miktarda protein sağlanabilir. Bitkisel proteinler bazı aminoasitleri hayvansal proteinlere kıyasla daha düşük miktarlarda içermesine rağmen, aminoasit kalıpları açısından tamamlayıcı bitkisel proteinlerin (örneğin tahıl ve bakliyatın birlikte tüketimi) kullanılmasıyla aminoasit skoru arttırılabilir. Ayrıca, bezelye gibi bitkisel protein kaynaklarına bazı probiyotik L. paracasei suşlarının (LP-DG plus LPC S01) takviyesi, serum esansiyel aminoasit konsantrasyonunu yükseltebilir. Islatma, pişirme, kavurma veya fermente etme gibi besin hazırlama stratejileri ile bakliyat gibi bitkisel besinlerden anti-besin öğesi faktörleri kısmen ortadan kaldırılarak proteinlerin biyoyararlanımı arttırılabilir. Beslenme açısından önemi düşünüldüğünde, hayvansal protein kaynaklarının tamamen kaldırılmasından ziyade azaltılarak bitkisel protein kaynaklarının beslenme tarzına daha fazla dahil edilmesi, çevreye ve doğal kaynaklara daha az zarar vererek sürdürülebilir beslenmeye katkı sağlarken, daha az sağlık riski ile ilişkili olmakla birlikte istenen protein faydalarını da sağlayabilecektir.
... Modeling simulations of hydrology at the ranch and watershed scales indicated that AMP could reduce surface runoff and stream flood flows, and increase infiltration for water conservation and flood risk reduction (Park et al. 2017). Currently, about 40% of surveyed ranches identified themselves as non-adopters (Wang et al. 2020), and 78% indicated they are familiar with the concept (Clifford 2020). Ranchers' adoption of AMP grazing is increasing as the awareness of the benefits of AMP has become more widely understood. ...
Article
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ContextIn rangelands, alterations to vegetation from grazing have potentially significant consequences for a wide variety of ecosystem structure and function.Objectives This study measured the herbivory effects of adaptive multi-paddock grazing (AMP) and continuous grazing (CG) practices on spatial patterns of vegetation, plant community species composition, and productivity in neighboring ranches in Mississippi, USA.Methods Assessments included on ground-measurements and remote sensing analyses using fine-scale aerial photographs and satellite images.ResultsThe results indicated that the spatial patterns of the classified seven vegetation species groups and biomass production were different between AMP and CG. Bahiagrass dominated the plant species in both ranches, with ~ 83% and 58% of the CG and AMP ranch vegetation cover. The AMP ranch landscape was fragmented, more diverse at a fine spatial scale, and consisted of smaller, more similar patch sizes for all seven species. A patchy mosaic of all the species was found, but no species were abundant adequately to interconnect throughout the entire landscape. In contrast, patch sizes on the CG ranch were more aggregated, with one dominant species clumped into larger compact patches. Vegetation production in the AMP ranch was higher and clustered into large patches: Hot and Cold Spots with an apparent spatial trend and configuration. In contrast, in the CG ranch, relatively smaller Spots were interspersed with no apparent spatial trend.Conclusions The findings imply a potential change in the landscape pattern of grazing land in the Southern U.S. associated with adoption of AMP grazing.
... Consumptive uses do not detract from the number or the quality of bison on public lands (Tensen 2016). In contrast, evidence-based grazing, habitat, and land management practices that emphasize other ecosystem services (i.e., supporting, regulating, and cultural) build more robust and productive ecosystems (Kareiva and Marvier 2012, Kareiva and Fuller 2017, Wang et al. 2020, that is, provisional services enhance rather than detract from other ecosystem services (Foley et al. 2005). Moreover, Barboza and Martin (2020) illustrated that overlaying concept maps of the components of private and public sectors of bison management fully complement each other, further supporting formalization of the bison coalition; in short, production and conservation are inextricable. ...
Thesis
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Body size of animals is plastic and dependent on environmental conditions that are changing globally. In this dissertation, I explore environmental traits as they relate to and drive body size change of North American bison (Bison bison) along the Great Plains. I examined 1) 40,000 years of body size change in the fossil record, 2) five decades of long-term ecological dataset of body size change at one location and one decade of body size differences among 19 locations along the Great Plains, 3) seasonal heat flux and growth rates of bison along the Great Plains, and 4) bison managers’ vulnerabilities to environmental change. In the fossil record, I estimated body mass from a foot bone, the calcaneum, in 849 specimens that range over the 40,000 years and related that body and bone size to global temperature—reconstructed from the Greenland ice sheet. The rate of mass loss was 41 ± 10 kg per 1°C increase of global temperature. In the decadal dataset, I estimated asymptotic body mass of 19 herds from 6,400 observations of individual bison to relate body mass to average temperature and drought over the last five decades. Drought decreased asymptotic mass by ˗16 kg whereas temperature decreased mass between -1 and ˗115 kg, depending on location. I measured the seasonal effect of ambient heat load on growth of 700 Bison from 19 herds along the Great Plains from Saskatchewan (52 °N) to Texas (30 °N). Bison are better able to grow over summer when environmental heat loads are low. As seasons become warmer, reduction of body mass will likely alter reproduction to reduce annual growth of herds, the production of breed stock, and meat in the bison industry. I surveyed 132 bison managers from North America that represent private, public, and NGO sectors to measure their perceptions, practices, attitudes, and values related to environmental change. I found that private and public/NGO sectors differed in adaptive capacity and thus the score for vulnerability. The private sector was less vulnerable than the public/NGO sector because the private sector had greater access to information exchange, external revenue, and grazing leases.
... Fig. 2 demonstrates the number of respondents from the sampled counties in North Dakota, South Dakota and Texas. More detailed description about the survey and survey region can be found in Wang et al. (2020). ...
Article
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Compared to conventional tillage-based crop production, grass-based agriculture can support substantially more ecosystem benefits. Moreover, management intensive grazing (MIG) has the capacity to enhance grassland resilience, thereby enhancing the profitability of grass-based agriculture. The research reported here is based on a survey of 4,500 producers in the Great Plains of USA, which aimed to study the role of grazing intensity on producers’ land use decisions. We received 875 completed questionnaires, representing a 20.6% response rate of 4,250 eligible sample. Results from multivariate ordered probit modeling analysis indicated that, compared to continuous grazing (CG) users, MIG users were 11% more likely to have expanded their grassland area in the past and 13% more likely to convert cropland to grassland in the next 10 years. Other factors, including higher cattle sales, greater liability ratio, poorer land quality and regional factors, were found to significantly influence producers’ intentions to purchase and lease more grassland. However, these factors were not significantly associated with the intention to convert marginal land to grassland. Therefore, the adoption of MIG appears to be a key factor for restoring marginal croplands to permanent grassland cover to enhance the environmental benefits across the Great Plains from the social perspective.
... For instance, unsustainably sourced cocoa beans can generate a higher carbon footprint than a serving of lowimpact beef (Poore & Nemecek 2018). Similarly, the production of food from animals is multifactorial and evidence indicates that improving animal nutrition, reproductive management, genetic merit (breeding value) or rotational grazing can result in substantial improvements in the environmental impact of meat production (White et al. 2015;Wang et al. 2020). Lastly, when comparisons are made between plant and animal proteins, beef is often used as the comparator, presumably because beef tends to have the highest footprint of all animal foods (Poore & Nemecek 2018;. ...
Article
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Sustainable diets are proposed as a means to improve public health and food security and to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. Guidance around sustainable diets includes a reduction of animal products in order to move towards a more plant-based diet, meaning that plant-originated foods are a predominant, but not the sole component of a diet. The main principles of a sustainable diet (as provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization) are to consume a variety of unprocessed or minimally processed foods, mainly as wholegrains, pulses, fruits and vegetables, with moderate amounts of eggs, dairy, poultry and fish and modest amounts of ruminant meat, which are consistent with the current UK healthy eating recommendations (e.g. Eatwell Guide). The aim of this review was twofold: (i) to discuss public health challenges associated with consumers' knowledge regarding protein sustainability, healthier protein sources and protein requirements, and (ii) to review potential approaches to facilitate the shift towards a more sustainable diet. Consumers would benefit from receiving clear guidance around how much protein is needed to meet their daily requirements. The public health message directed to a consumer could highlight that desired health outcomes, such as muscle protein synthesis and weight control, can be achieved with both sources of protein (i.e. animal and plant-based), and that what is more important is the nature of the 'protein package'. Health promotion and education around the benefits of plant-based protein could be one of the strategies encouraging the wider population to consider a shift towards a predominantly plant-based diet.
Article
Rotational grazing has the potential to provide environmental and economic benefits; however, the adoption rate is about 30% in the United States. We develop a model to examine peer networking and grazing practice decisions, and how subsidies affect decisions in the presence of peer effects. We apply a simultaneous‐equations model to address endogeneity issues with peer effects that are measured as either the number of adopters a rancher knows or the extent of adoption in a rancher's neighborhood. Empirical analysis provides evidence of significant peer effects on rotational grazing adoption. Incentive policies have multiplier effects on adoption through peer networking.
Article
CONTEXT Simulation tools are increasingly used to inform grazing management decisions by assessing livestock performance, as well as environmental and economic impacts. Ability to represent the grazing of multiple pastures (i.e., paddocks) that differ in soil, hydrology, vegetation, and management is critical for reliable grazing management decision support. OBJECTIVE The main objectives of this study were to: 1) modify APEX (Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender) for sub-daily grazing, cow-calf weight gain, and supplemental hay, and 2) evaluate the APEX modifications in terms of simulating biomass, calf weight gain, economic impacts of alternative cow-calf grazing management strategies. METHODS APEX was modified to enhance its ability to simulate alternative grazing management strategies by including sub-daily grazing among multiple paddocks, supplemental hay estimation, and optional simulation of cow-calf weight gain based either on energy or total digestible nutrients (TDN). Simulation results were evaluated against a 5-year experimental data set from Central Texas comparing multi-paddock rotational grazing and conventional continuous grazing. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION The modified APEX model adequately simulated the responses of vegetation biomass (coefficient of determination, R² = 0.60–0.70), hay consumption (R² = 0.94–0.95), calf weaning weight (R² = 0.52–0.65), costs (R² = 0.98), and profits (R² = 0.89) to the two grazing treatments across years. Simulations with the energy-based weight gain algorithm showed more pronounced effects on above-ground biomass, whereas the TDN-based algorithm had a more pronounced weight gain response to forage intake and hay quality. No significant differences (p > 0.05) in biomass and calf weaning weight were observed between treatments across the years for measured data and for energy-based APEX simulation; however, the TDN-based algorithm simulated lower calf weaning weight in multi-paddock rotational grazing than in continuous grazing. Measured and simulated data also showed similar profits between the two grazing treatments, but total cost and gross return per ha were greater for continuous grazing. SIGNIFICANCE The model enhancements for sub-daily grazing, cow-calf weight gain, and supplemental hay improved the potential utility of APEX for assessing environmental and economic impacts of alternative grazing strategies at ranch scale.
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Background Outreach events such as trainings, demonstrations, and workshops are important opportunities for encouraging private land operators to adopt voluntary conservation practices. However, the ability to understand the effectiveness of such events at influencing conservation behavior is confounded by the likelihood that attendees are already interested in conservation and may already be adopters. Understanding characteristics of events that draw non-adopters can aid in designing events and messaging that are better able to reach beyond those already interested in conservation. Methods For this study, we interviewed 101 operators of private agricultural lands in Maryland, USA, and used descriptive statistics and qualitative comparative analysis to investigate differences between the kinds of outreach events that adopters and non-adopters attended. Results Our results suggested that non-adopters, as compared to adopters, attended events that provided production-relevant information and were logistically easy to attend. Further, non-adopters were more selective when reading advertisements, generally preferring simplicity. Future research and outreach can build on these findings by experimentally testing the effectiveness of messages that are simple and relevant to farmers’ production priorities.
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Sustainable forest management is a universally desired goal to provide ecological, economic, and social benefits. Sustaining forest benefits across the landscape in Arkansas depends on nonindustrial private forest landowners (NIPF) who own 58% of forestland in the state. Forest certification is an effective “market based” mechanism for improving forest management to achieve sustainability. A mixture of mail and online surveys collected data on Arkansas NIPF landowners' demographic and forestland characteristics, ownership motivations, and attitudes regarding perceived benefits and drawbacks of forest certification. A binary logistic regression model revealed that age, gender, education, timber harvest intentions, motivations for owning forestland, and perspectives regarding the potential benefits of forest certification influenced landowners' awareness and interests in forest certification. These findings provide insight into NIPF landowners' attitudes in participating in a forest certification program. The findings are useful for developing outreach and education programs promoting NIPF landowners' participation in forest certification in Arkansas and other southern states.
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Experimental findings on rotational grazing (RG) trials have generally differed from producer observations of RG outcomes on commercial scale ranches. Factors such as small plot size, short duration trials and relatively rigid grazing management that lacks responsiveness to the dynamic and complex social-ecological systems in grazing trials could all contribute to this disparity in outcomes. These differences call for a better understanding of producer perceptions of RG benefits. To fill this knowledge gap, we surveyed 4500 producers from the Northern and Southern Great Plains of the USA. Among the 875 respondents, 40.5% reported that they used continuous grazing (CG), 52.7% implemented RG management in an extensive manner, while 6.8% adopted management intensive grazing. Compared with CG users, adopters of RG in its extensive and intensive form reported an average annual increase of grazing season by 7.6 and 39.3 days, respectively. When controlling for producer demographics, ranch management goals and other rancher characteristics, we found soil and climate heterogeneity significantly affected the perceived relative benefits of RG vs CG strategies. Therefore, instead of focusing on whether RG outperforms CG per se , future research could focus on comparison of RG benefits under different management intensity levels and identifying soil and climate conditions where RG benefits are more noticeable.
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Increased traditional dairy sheep production in the Basque Country of northern Spain could substantially affect pasture soils. This type of agricultural land performs vital functions and provides essential ecosystem services. Regenerative farming practices such as rotational grazing with prolonged resting periods are designed to improve farmland soil health, while profitably delivering high-quality farm products. The aim of this study was to determine the mid-term effect of rotational grazing on soil ecosystem services and evaluate their synergies and trade-offs. A 4.5-ha experimental pasture was divided into two sections: one subjected to regenerative rotational grazing and the other to conventional rotational grazing. A flock of 135 Latxa breed dairy ewes was evenly distributed over the two areas during six consecutive years. On the conventional rotational grazing section, the sheep were allowed to feed for 6-10 d followed by a 15-d rest period. On the regenerative rotational grazing section, the sheep were allowed to feed for 1-2 d followed by a 24-d rest period. Vegetation and soil were then sampled according to a grid design. Springtime grass production was estimated by cutting the vegetation, topsoil carbon storage was determined through elemental analysis of soil organic carbon, nutrient cycling was calculated by measuring the activity of six enzymes (β-glucosidase, β-glucosaminidase, sulfatase, acid phosphatase, L-alanine aminopeptidase, and L-leucine aminopeptidase), water flow regulation was calculated using a simplified water retention index, and biodiversity was determined via 16S rRNA metabarcoding of soil prokaryotes. Regenerative rotational grazing achieved 30% higher springtime grass production and 3.6% higher topsoil carbon storage than conventional rotational grazing. The other parameters did not differ significantly between the grazing regimes. Regenerative rotational grazing reduced relative data dispersion for all ecosystem services, possibly because it supported comparatively homogeneous pasture use by livestock and avoided the negative consequences of overgrazing and undergrazing. Thus, regenerative rotational grazing might effectively improve certain soil ecosystem services without causing trade-offs to others.
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The relevance of broad-spectrum advocacy of rotational grazing is often questioned because many research data do not support the practice, yet it is supported by on-ranch level indicators, ranch-level research, and government agencies that provide technical assistance to private landowners and managers. It is theorized that whole-ranch systems differ from experimental plots because of the use of adaptive management. The purpose of our study was to understand the perceptions of ranchers on impacts of ranch-scale multipaddock grazing, especially as it relates to rangeland sustainability in six North Central Texas counties. Sustainability was identified by three indices: land health sustainability, economic sustainability, and social sustainability. Four categories of grazing systems were identified: continuous, 2 − 4 paddocks, 4 − 8 paddocks, and 8 or more paddocks. Data were collected using a self-assessment mail survey. Analysis of respondent data indicated that increasing the number of paddocks may improve land health sustainability indicators on commercial ranches in North Central Texas, especially when respondents use eight or more paddocks.
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Soil erosion is a significant problem in the Ethiopian highlands. The objective of this study was to investigate how farmers perceive the severity of soil erosion in the Upper Blue Nile Basin. The study is based on a detailed survey of 300 households and 1010 plots owned by these households in three watersheds. Descriptive statistics and a partial proportional odds model were applied to analyze factors that affected farmers’ perceived soil erosion severity at the plot-level. Results showed that variables such as plot distance from the residence, plot shape and position on hill slopes affected farmers’ perceptions of soil erosion severity, as well as the amount of rainfall during the growing season. Farmer interaction with extension service agents also affected farmers’ perception of soil erosion severity. Despite their expected importance, education and number of livestock owned had no effect on the farmers’ perception of soil erosion. The results indicate that farmers’ perceptions generally match empirical and theoretical findings on soil erosion determinants; thus, farmers should be considered as important partners not only to counter soil erosion, but also to obtain local expertise on soil erosion severity and restoration of degraded land.
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When outcome variables are ordinal rather than continuous, the ordered logit model, aka the proportional odds model (ologit/po), is a popular analytical method. However, generalized ordered logit/partial proportional odds models (gologit/ppo) are often a superior alternative. Gologit/ppo models can be less restrictive than proportional odds models and more parsimonious than methods that ignore the ordering of categories altogether. However, the use of gologit/ppo models has itself been problematic or at least sub-optimal. Researchers typically note that such models fit better but fail to explain why the ordered logit model was inadequate or the substantive insights gained by using the gologit alternative. This paper uses both hypothetical examples and data from the 2012 European Social Survey to address these shortcomings.
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Comparisons are made concerning labor required and profitability associated with continuous grazing at three stocking rates and rotational grazing at a high stocking rate in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A unique data set was collected using a time and motion study method to determine labor requirements. Profits are lowest for low stocking rate–continuous grazing and high stocking rate–rotational grazing. Total labor and labor in three specific categories are greater on per acre and/or per cow bases with rotational-grazing than with continuous-grazing strategies. These results help to explain relatively low adoption rates of rotational grazing in the region.
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Grazing management practices affect watershed hydrology by altering vegetation cover and soil properties. Long-term success of grazing management depends on how well increased forage harvest efficiency is balanced with the need to maintain soil aggregate stability. The overall objective of this study was to assess the impacts of alternate grazing management practices including the light continuous (LC), heavy continuous (HC), adaptive multipaddock (MP) grazing, and no grazing (EX; exclosure) on hydrological processes at the ranch and watershed scales in a rangeland-dominated (71% rangeland) Clear Creek watershed (CCW) in north central Texas using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Measured data on vegetation, soil physical and hydrological properties, and grazing management at four study ranches within the watershed (two under MP and one each under LC and HC grazing management) were used to parameterize the SWAT model. The SWAT model was calibrated and validated using the measured standing crop biomass and soil moisture data at the study ranches, and streamflow data at the watershed outlet over a 34-year period from 1980 to 2013. At the ranch scale, when the management was changed from the baseline MP grazing to HC grazing, the simulated average (1980 to 2013) annual surface runoff increased within a range of 106% to 117% and water yield increased within a range of 39% to 53%. While surface runoff was found to be a major contributor (52% to 67%) to streamflow under the HC grazing, baseflow was the dominant (55% to 66%) component of streamflow under the MP and EX practices. At the watershed scale, shifting grazing management from the baseline HC grazing to the improved MP grazing decreased surface runoff by about 47%, increased infiltration by 5%, and decreased streamflow by 29.5%. In addition, improvements to grazing decreased the simulated highest annual streamflow over the 1980 to 2013 period from 8.3 m³ s⁻¹ ([293.1 ft³ sec⁻¹] baseline scenario) to 6.2 m³ s⁻¹ ([219 ft³ sec⁻¹] MP grazing). This reduction in the maximum flow has a potential to reduce the risk of flooding downstream. However, these hydrologic responses vary according to the extent of grazing lands in a watershed. Overall, the MP grazing was found to be the best grazing management practice in terms of water conservation, vegetation regrowth, and the potential to reduce flood risk.
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Understanding motivating factors for taking soil conservation measures is seen as key to improving on-farm implementation. However, to date only few on-farm conservation measures have been investigated. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of farmers’ subjective beliefs on their intention to apply and actual implementation of cover cropping, with the region of Brandenburg (Germany) as a case. An additional objective was to investigate how these insights can contribute to increase farm level implementation of soil conservation measures. Theory of planned behavior provides an approach to understand human behavior by analyzing farmers’ subjective beliefs. Our results, based on a survey of 96 farmers, show that attitudes (ATTs) and perceived difficulty significantly explain variations in intention to apply cover cropping, with ATTs being generally very positive. We discuss that, in this case, the most effective way to increase on-farm implementation is to decrease the farmers’ perception of difficulty. This can be achieved by providing information to farmers on how to overcome barriers to implementation of conservation measures. In-depth insights into belief structures reveal what kind of information is most useful in the case of cover cropping.
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Management strategies in rotational grazing systems differ in their level of complexity and adaptivity. Different components of such grazing strategies are expected to allow for adaptation to environmental heterogeneities in space and time. However, most models investigating general principles of rangeland management strategies neglect spatio-temporal system properties including seasonality and spatial heterogeneity of environmental variables. We developed an ecological-economic rangeland model that combines a spatially explicit farm structure with intra-annual time steps. This allows investigating different management components in rotational grazing systems (including stocking and rotation rules) and evaluating their effect on the ecological and economic states of semi-arid grazing systems. Our results show that adaptive stocking is less sensitive to overstocking compared to a constant stocking strategy. Furthermore, the rotation rule becomes important only at stocking numbers that maximize expected income. Altogether, the best of the tested strategies is adaptive stocking combined with a rotation that adapts to both spatial forage availability and seasonality. This management strategy maximises mean income and at the same time maintains the rangeland in a viable condition. However, we could also show that inappropriate adaptation that neglects seasonality even leads to deterioration. Rangelands characterised by higher inter-annual climate variability show a higher risk of income losses under a non-adaptive stocking rule, and non-adaptive rotation is least able to buffer increasing climate variability. Overall, all important system properties including seasonality and spatial heterogeneity of available resources need to be considered when designing an appropriate rangeland management system. Resulting adaptive rotational grazing strategies can be valuable for improving management and mitigating income risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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This paper employs diffusion and farm-structure variables to explain variations in Montana farmers' adoption of two kinds of sustainable agricultural practices: those involving intensive management and those which require fewer purchased inputs. While perceived profitability was found to be the most important factor affecting adoption of both, the independent variables had different effects on beliefs about net economic returns as well as on adoption of the two practices. Type of farm enterprise played a larger role in adoption of the low-input practices than the management intensive ones; access to information was more important for the latter. Implications for policy are discussed. -Authors
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Intensive grazing is a fast growing dairy production system in the USA, New Zealand, and Ireland. The key concept underlying intensive grazing systems is the substitution of cow-harvest for machinery harvest of forages. Study objectives were: (i) to determine whether randomly selected, representative dairy farms using intensive grazing were profitable, (ii) to determine whether grazing was more or less profitable than other crop enterprises, and (iii) to identify factors statistically associated with increasing intensity of grazing. Data were collected on 53 farms in a prominent dairy region of Pennsylvania in 1993. Results indicated that moderate intensive grazing achieved a $129/acre return to operator management and labor, compared with $20 and $58 returns for all hay and corn silage enterprises, respectively. Dairy enterprise returns averaged about $317/cow. Debt per cow was substantially higher for farmers increasing grazing intensity. Pasture acres per cow, high debt-to-assets, and negative cash flows were statistically associated with increasing intensity of pasture use. Thus, this study suggests that farm financial constraints of high debt and poor cash flows provide an important motivation to increase grazing intensity. A major drawback of intensive grazing is the likelihood of achieving slightly lower milk production than with confinement feeding. The primary economic benefit of intensive grazing was the reduction of costs associated with the production of pasture forage vs. production of other crops.
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The quality of the country's arable land in terms of productivity is declining fast, and this is mainly attributed to the fact that Uganda's agricultural land in has not been utilized in sustainable and optimal ways. The adoption rates of soil and water conservation technologies that have been suggested and disseminated to farmers in order curb degradation are still below expectation in some areas. This study was conducted among the subsistence households in Kabale district, in southwestern Uganda, to establish the factors that influence the technology adoption decisions. A logistic regression model was used both at household and parcel levels. Results indicate that household size, gender of the household head and whether the latter has a leadership position in the community, livestock holding, total land operated and parcel size, proportion of operated land that has title, perceived slope of the parcel, farmers' perception of parcel fertility status, neighbors' parcels having soil and water conservation technologies on them, distance of the parcel from the homestead, perceived risk in terms of possibility of a slide on a parcel, and expectation to still use the land in future are some of the main factors that influence adoption of soil and water conservation technologies. This study recommends enhancement of resource access for farmers and use of technology dissemination methods that target key and fellow farmers, in addition to more comprehensive training programs and putting incentives in place, especially for highly degraded parcels. Copyright © 2015 Soil and Water Conservation Society. All rights reserved.
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The conventional methods for crash injury severity analyses include either treating the severity data as ordered (e.g. ordered logit/probit models) or non-ordered (e.g. multinomial models). The ordered models require the data to meet proportional odds assumption, according to which the predictors can only have the same effect on different levels of the dependent variable, which is often not the case with crash injury severities. On the other hand, non-ordered analyses completely ignore the inherent hierarchical nature of crash injury severities. Therefore, treating the crash severity data as either ordered or non-ordered results in violating some of the key principles. To address these concerns, this paper explores the application of a partial proportional odds (PPO) model to bridge the gap between ordered and non-ordered severity modeling frameworks. The PPO model allows the covariates that meet the proportional odds assumption to affect different crash severity levels with the same magnitude; whereas the covariates that do not meet the proportional odds assumption can have different effects on different severity levels. This study is based on a five-year (2008–2012) national pedestrian safety dataset for Switzerland. A comparison between the application of PPO models, ordered logit models, and multinomial logit models for pedestrian injury severity evaluation is also included here. The study shows that PPO models outperform the other models considered based on different evaluation criteria. Hence, it is a viable method for analyzing pedestrian crash injury severities.
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The spatial grazing pattern of goats around a water point on an arid and semi-arid rangeland system in the Karoo in South Africa was modeled. A dynamic automata model was developed by subdividing a spatial area into subunits called cells and where the dynamics of each cell depends on its present state, the state of its neighbors and external factors such as rainfall. By using a dynamic automata model, the long-term influences on the changes in vegetation composition of two species, namely woody perennials and galenia africana, are investigated. The model relates a preference equation, which is a combination of two parameters, forage density and distance to a water point, to the total amount of time spent by each animal within a particular cell in a year. The model provides evidence that the total number of animals grazing an area, the number of water points in the system and the weighting factors associated with the preference equation, influence the extent of degradation of the area.
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This paper examines the decisions of Irish farmers to convert to organic farming by applying the theory of planned behaviour to control for social influence and technical constraints. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis are utilised to account for sample heterogeneity and to identify heterogeneities in farmer beliefs regarding adoption of organic methods. The results indicate that the impact of economic incentives and technical barriers varies, while social acceptance of organic farming constrains adoption. These findings suggest that policy incentives mainly based on subsidy payments may be insufficient to increase the organic sector in the presence of social and technical barriers.
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Agricultural systems that incorporate perennials in the form of grassland pasture have consistently been lauded for the balance of ecological and economic performance they provide, both at the farm and landscape level. The multiple functions grazing systems provide are being explored in increasing detail as ways to mitigate negative externalities associated with expanding commodity crop production. This thesis work provides two distinct contributions to the development of performance indicators within perennial systems that utilize grazing as a tool to provision multiple benefits. The first being a comprehensive review of literature, primarily research-based, pertaining to the grazing as a form of agricultural production, as well as its role as a tool to maintain ecological functionality in grasslands. This review, as Chapter 2, is designed to serve as an information hub regarding the resources for grazing systems in the context of Iowa's farming landscape, and discusses possibilities for developing incentives for grazing management that provisions economic and ecological benefits. The second endeavor explains the rationale for and outcomes of a case study based upon qualitative data relevant to an Iowa Bird Conservation Area in a working agricultural landscape. This exploratory research project provides a real world scenario for how stakeholders view the role of grazing systems in both conservation and production contexts. Chapter 3 provides an overview of this work, including factors that facilitate and inhibit the development of grazing systems that provision multiple benefits. Chapter 4 focuses on the preferred formats for communication and education regarding grazing systems that model a `balance' of ecological and economic considerations. Results indicate livestock producers as well as natural resource professionals see key challenges to developing these systems as an issue of access to knowledge and venues to share knowledge appropriate for the specificity of grazing systems. Concomitantly, the Bird Conservation Area model was identified as holding much promise in terms of its flexibility and scale, in terms of targeting outreach and incentives to livestock producers and natural resource professionals who wish to form partnerships that manage grasslands for `beef and birds.'
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This article reviews 25 years of literature focused oil the adoption Of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) in the United States to examine general trends in the categories of capacity, awareness, attitudes and farm characteristics.The study Uses a vote count methodology and counts every, instance of positive, negative mid insignificant relationships in 55 studies. Education levels, Capital. income, farm size, access to information, positive environmental attitudes, environmental awareness, and utilization of social networks emerge as sonic of the variables that arc more often positively, rather than negatively, associated with adoption rates. The type of statistical analysis used in the studies has a negligible effect oil groupings, the aggregated the results. When different types of BMP's are examined in similar findings generally hold true. The study concludes that farmer adoption rates call be improved by focusing oil the generally consistent determinants Of agricultural BMP adoption. This paper also highlights future areas of research that are needed including a focus on the determinants of adoption of water and livestock management BMPs and more Study of the role of tenure and farm proximity to a river or stream.
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Excerpt Subversion is the process of attempting to change existing political structures or other forms of authority used to maintain the status quo. Subversive activities are those that work to overturn, or significantly alter, traditional ways of thinking about critical issues. How is it, you ask, that I can use subversive and conservationist in the same title? What does subversive have to do with being a conservationist? Let me answer those questions by posing another simple question: As you look at the larger conservation community today, who speaks for soil and water resources? This simple question is rarely asked. However, when it is asked, the answer, more times than not, supports the need for subversion. Listen and see if you hear what I hear when asking this question. I hear the modern equivalent of the Tower of Babel—many agency voices representing a multitude of programs, all based on the implicit assumption that more programs and more money means more conservation. Propagating agency jargon and acronyms and implementing accountability measures surrounding these efforts has become the focus of the many professional program managers who populate these agencies. Their dogma is simple: The more money they spend under various labels and titles, the…
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Neurobiological and social psychological studies suggest the existence of non-conscious ‘self–other overlap’ that can lead individuals to identify with other individuals or groups. This paper investigates whether this effect may help to explain support by some Whites for an otherwise unpopular policy on behalf of African Americans-slavery reparations. A representative telephone survey (n=1200) serves as baseline of comparison for an online reaction time study with a non-representative sample (n=1341) that measures ‘self–other overlap’ (interchangeably referred to as “implicit closeness” to Blacks). Partial proportional odds ordered logit analyses reveal implicit closeness to Blacks as the single most powerful predictor of support for reparations among White respondents. The magnitude of the absolute effect of implicit closeness exceeds that of traditional predictors such as racial resentment, ideology, and party identification. Methodological and political implications are discussed. __________________________________________ The full-text version of the article is not uploaded to ResearchGate. But you can request a copy from me by downloading the pdf-file under the 'Full-Text' heading and clicking the link provided in it. This will take you to my personal website where you can enter your e-mail address so that I can send you a personal copy of the article.
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Holistic Resource Management (HRM) is a process of goal setting, decision making and monitoring which integrates social, ecological and economic factors. Biodiversity enhancement is a fundamental principle in HRM and students are taught that biodiversity is the foundation of sustainable profit. In the HRM process, practitioners develop a holistic goal which includes: (1) quality of life values, (2) forms of production to support those values, and (3) landscape planning, which should protect and enhance biodiversity and support ecosystem processes of succession, energy flow, hydrological and nutrient cycling. We present an overview of the HRM model and results of interviews with 25 HRM farmers and ranchers from across the USA in which perceptions and experiences with respect to the role of biodiversity in the sustainability of their operations were explored. An ethnographic approach and qualitative research methods were used in the interviews. While only 9% of the interviewees reported thinking about biodiversity in the context of their operations before being exposed to HRM, now all of them think biodiversity is important to the sustainability of their famrs and ranches. Of the people interviewed, 95% perceived increases in biodiversity (particularly with respect to plants) and 80% perceived increase in profits from their land since HRM began influencing their decisions. In addition to perceiving increases in biodiversity, all of the interviewees reported observing indications of positive changes in some of the ecosystem processes on their farms or ranches. In addition, 91% of the interviewees reported improvements in their quality of life because of changes in their time budgets. Three of the interviewees who had quantitative data on changes in numbers of plant species and economic indicators are discussed in detail. We conclude that holistic management approaches like HRM are worthy of further study.
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Empirical results demonstrate that uncertainty about costs and requirements for environmental compliance is an important determinant of dairy producers' investment behavior. Ex ante forecasting of how uncertainty and irreversibility are likely to affect producers' responsiveness to agricultural technologies has implications for the design of environmental policies. Simulation modeling methods are described. The empirical analysis focuses on Texas producers' propensity to adopt free-stall dairy housing. Free-stall investments offer advantages for both productivity-augmentation and pollution abatement, yet uncertainty and irreversibility are obstacles to adoption. Implications of this ex ante paradigm for policy design and implementation are discussed.
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This paper uses recent survey results from almost 1000 dairy producers in northeastern US to analyze farmers’ perceptions of barriers to the adoption of rotational grazing [management-intensive grazing (MIG)] as a means for feeding their dairy herds. The survey found that approximately 13% of dairy producers in the region were using MIG during the 2006 growing season. Approximately 40% of farmers surveyed were using a confinement feeding operation where the milking herd does not graze at all and close to 47% were using a traditional system that involved some pasture forage for the milking herd. Regardless of the popular sentiment that increased information and technical assistance is needed in the field, producers more frequently report a series of other barriers as being greater obstacles to the adoption of MIG. Farmers using confinement feeding tended to see each of the barriers presented as being more significant obstacles than did other farmers. Farmers with higher debt ratios and higher milk production per cow were more likely to view the financially related barriers (decreased milk production per cow, cash flow and farm profits) as significant obstacles.
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Abstract This paper employs diffusion and farm-structure variables to explain variations in Montana farmers' adoption of two kinds of sustainable agricultural practices: those involving intensive management and those which require fewer purchased inputs. While perceived profitability was found to be the most important factor affecting adoption of both, the independent variables had different effects on beliefs about net economic returns as well as on adoption of the two practices. Type of farm enterprise played a larger role in adoption of the low-input practices than the management intensive ones; access to information was more important for the latter. Implications for policy are discussed.
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This study investigates the role of information in influencing the adoption of improved farm management practices. A lack of producer information regarding both the profitability and the environmental benefits of adopting improved practices may be a reason why widespread adoption of these practices has not occurred. Compared to direct regulation or financial incentives, raising producer information levels may be a more cost-effective method of increasing adoption. The United States Department of Agriculture has recently established and begun implementing a program based on this idea. To test the validity of the program, a two-stage adoption model is specified and estimated using data from a survey of producers in the program area. The results indicate that producer perceptions play an important role in the decision to adopt. Changing these perceptions by means of an educational program may be a reasonable alternative to financial incentives in encouraging BMP adoption.
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This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on the adoption of agricultural innovations during the last decade and the impact of policy interventions promoting technology adoption. The analysis of the final stage of the Green Revolution technology diffusion cycle reveals that the agroclimatic environment is the most significant determinant of locational differences in adoption rates. The linkage between micro-adoption and the aggregate diffusion process needs to be more firmly established to achieve a clearer understanding of diffusion patterns. Several studies showed that the impact of policy interventions to promote technology adoption depends on the type of technology, market structure, and the nature and duration of the policy intervention.
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A simulation model was used to determine the ecological and economic consequences of managing stocking rate on semi-arid savanna rangeland continuously stocked with livestock to achieve the alternate management goals: (1) maintaining current range condition, (2) maximizing profit, or (3) improving range condition over a 30-year time frame. We developed values for end of the year herbaceous standing crop and utilization required to attain these management goals for rangeland in poor to excellent condition. Based on extensive field research conducted in this region over 5 decades, range condition in this model is programmed to decline in response to three factors: excessive grazing pressure, below average precipitation, and an increase in woody plants. Earning capacity is four times higher for range in excellent condition than that in poor condition. For all initial range condition (RC) values, simulated stocking rates that maintained RC resulted in simulated mean weaning weights 93-94% of maximum. Maximum short-term and long-term profit is attained at higher stocking rates than would maintain long-term range condition and at much higher levels than would increase range condition levels. When stocked for maximum profit, individual animal performance was 90% of maximum. The model predicts that low stocking rates allow range condition to improve. At these recovery stocking rates, total 30-year profits were found to be 78%-87% of the stocking rates that would maintain range condition, and only 67%-75% of stocking rates that would maximize profit. Predictions of the end of year standing crop to maintain range condition were in broad agreement with the 1000kg ha-1 advised for this region. To improve range condition, the model predicts that an end of year standing crop of 1500-2000kg ha-1 is required, compared to the generally advised level of 1200-1500kg ha-1. The predicted end of year forage standing crops for the maximum profit goal are well below the advised 800kg ha-1 threshold required to prevent degradation for all of the initial range conditions that were simulated. To ensure maintenance of range in excellent condition, our results concur with the advised utilization levels of 20-25%. However, for range in poorer than excellent condition, the model predicted much lower utilization levels were needed to maintain or improve range condition.