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Mahua an important Indian species: A review

Authors:
  • Banda University of Agriculture and Technology

Abstract

Madhuca latifolia or Madhuca indica commonly called as Mahua is such a kind of tree involved in day to day activity of tribal people. It belongs to the family Sapotaceae, an important economic tree growing throughout India. The Mahua tree is medium sized to large deciduous tree, usually with a short bole and a large rounded crown. Mahua flower are used as a food as well as used as an exchanger in tribal and rural areas. It is also used by wild animals as food. Mahua seeds are rich in edible oil so they have economic importance. Mahua fruits are used as vegetable. Madhuca longifolia is also considered as medicinal tree and is useful for external application in treating skin diseases, rheumatism, headache, chronic constipation, piles, haemorrhoids and ethno medical properties like antibacterial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antiulcer, antihyperglycemic, analgesic activities etc. Mahua flower is not only used in preparation of liquor but can also utilized as a food ingredient for preparation of biscuit, cake, laddu, candy, bar, jam jelly, sauces etc. Mahua oil is used for manufacturer of laundry soaps and detergent, and also used as cooking oil in various tribal region of India. Madhuca longifolia is reported by various scientist that it contain sapogenins, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins, flavonoids and glycosides. The tree is considered a boon by the tribal's who are forest dwellers and keenly conserve this tree. The tribes consider the mahua tree and the mahua drink as part of their cultural heritage. So it is very much necessary to create awareness among the people to conserve the forest.
~ 3414 ~
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2018; 7(2): 3414-3418
E-ISSN: 2278-4136
P-ISSN: 2349-8234
JPP 2018; 7(2): 3414-3418
Received: 17-01-2018
Accepted: 18-02-2018
Vinita Bisht
Mewar University, Chittorgarh,
Rajasthan, India
Neeraj
Mewar University, Chittorgarh,
Rajasthan, India
Vishnu Kanwar Solanki
Mewar University, Chittorgarh,
Rajasthan, India
Nidhi Dalal
Mewar University, Chittorgarh,
Rajasthan, India
Correspondence
Vinita Bisht
Mewar University, Chittorgarh,
Rajasthan, India
Mahua an important Indian species: A review
Vinita Bisht, Neeraj, Vishnu Kanwar Solanki and Nidhi Dalal
Abstract
Madhuca latifolia or Madhuca indica commonly called as Mahua is such a kind of tree involved in day
to day activity of tribal people. It belongs to the family Sapotaceae, an important economic tree growing
throughout India. The Mahua tree is medium sized to large deciduous tree, usually with a short bole and a
large rounded crown. Mahua flower are used as a food as well as used as an exchanger in tribal and rural
areas. It is also used by wild animals as food. Mahua seeds are rich in edible oil so they have economic
importance. Mahua fruits are used as vegetable. Madhuca longifolia is also considered as medicinal tree
and is useful for external application in treating skin diseases, rheumatism, headache, chronic
constipation, piles, haemorrhoids and ethno medical properties like antibacterial, anticancer,
hepatoprotective, antiulcer, antihyperglycemic, analgesic activities etc. Mahua flower is not only used in
preparation of liquor but can also utilized as a food ingredient for preparation of biscuit, cake, laddu,
candy, bar, jam jelly, sauces etc. Mahua oil is used for manufacturer of laundry soaps and detergent, and
also used as cooking oil in various tribal region of India. Madhuca longifolia is reported by various
scientist that it contain sapogenins, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins, flavonoids and glycosides. The tree
is considered a boon by the tribal’s who are forest dwellers and keenly conserve this tree. The tribes
consider the mahua tree and the mahua drink as part of their cultural heritage. So it is very much
necessary to create awareness among the people to conserve the forest.
Keywords: flavonoids, mahua, skin diseases, sapotaceae, tree, vegetable
Introduction
Mahua is one of the most important trees of Central India. The Mahua trees have large
spreading root system, though many of them are superficial. Wood is hard to very hard with
large sapwood. Hardwood is reddish brown in colour. It is large and deciduous trees with a
short Bole and rounded crown. Mahua has a special status among NTFPs as it is linked to the
tribal livelihood systems in different ways. Apart from meeting food and other requirements, it
is also an important source of seasonal income. Its flowers are used to brew country liquor
which 7 is very popular in the tribal areas of the country. The tree has religious and aesthetic
value in tribal culture. Mahua flowers and seeds, which have medicinal and nutritional
properties, are collected and dried. One single mature tree can provide an income of about Rs.
1500 from its flowers and seeds, in addition to various other tangible and intangible benefits
(Kulkarni et al., 2013) [16]. Mahua provides livelihood security to poor households who collect
it both for self consumption and for sale the income is used to purchase daily household items.
However, in most tribal areas, Mahua gatherers rarely get the true value of produce, which
they usually barter for daily grocery items (FGLG, 2008) [12].
Mahua, the Indian Butter Tree (Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) J.F. Macribide) is an important
tree having vital socioeconomic value and growing throughout the tropical and subtropical
region of the Indian subcontinent. It is a deciduous tree that grows widely under dry tropical
and subtropical climatic conditions. It is very hardy and thrives well on rocky, gravely, saline
and sodic soils, even in pockets of soil between crevices of barren rock (Singh, 1998) [34].
Mahua (Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel. syn. Madhuca latifolia Macb.) belonging to the family
Sapotaceae (Banerji and Mitra., 1996) [8]. It is one of those multipurpose forest tree species
that provide an answer for the three major Fs i.e food, fodder and fuel (Patel et al., 2011) [25].
Fruits are eaten as raw or cooked. The fruit pulp may be utilized as source of sugar, whereas
the dry husk makes a good source of alcoholic fermentation. Seeds are good source of oil
(Singh et al, 2005). The tree, known under the name of mahua, produces edible flowers and
fruits (Jayasree et al., 1998). The leaves of Mahua tree contain saponin, an alkaloid glucoside.
Sapogenin and other basic acid have been found in the seeds. Mahua flowers are well known
for their high reducing sugar and nutrient content. Flowers of the plant are edible. The corolla
commonly called as mahua flowers is a rich source of sugar containing appreciable amount of
vitamins and minerals (Singh and Singh, 2005) [35, 36]. The flowers are also used in preparation
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
of distilled liquor, portable spirits, vinegar and feed for
livestock (Adhikary and Adhikary, 1989) [2]. Midya and
Brahmachary (1996) [19] reported that the fresh flowers of
Mahua (B. latifolia Roxb.), that emit fragrance contain
2acetyl1pyrroline (2AP), the compound responsible for
pleasant aroma in basmati and other scented rice. It was found
that 2AP gets synthesized only in fleshy corolla of mature
flowers (Wakte et al., 2011) [41]. They are edible and used as a
sweetener in preparation of many local dishes like halwa,
kheer, puri and burfi (Patel and Naik, 2008) [25] in the mahua
production belt of India. However, due to the lack of proper
scientific investigation and post harvest processing
technologies, they are collected and subjected to open yard
sun drying till about 80% moisture is lost, before storage
(Patel and Naik, 2008) [25].
Climate and soil: Mahua prefers tropical climate. It can
withstand drought admirably. This tree does not survive under
waterlogged conditions. Since it is a very hardy tree, it can
grow even in pockets of soil between crevices of barren rocks.
Trees even grow on degraded rocky areas including salt-
affected soils. However, for its better growth and
productivity, well drained, deep loam soil is ideal.
Cultivation and Collection - This plant can be cultivated or
self sown (Behl and Sriwasrawa, 2002) [9]. Flowering of this
medium sized tree take place during the season of March to
April, in every years.
Botanical Description and Identification Features - A
medium sized to large deciduous tree, usually with a short,
hole and large rounded crown found throughout the green
forest part of India up to an altitude of 1,200 meter and of 12
to 15 meter height, bark thick dark colored cracked, inner
bark dark red, milk, trunk short, branches numerous (Behl and
Sriwasrawa, 2002) [9]. Leaves are 10-30 centimeter long, are
thick and leathery most of leaves pointed at the tip,
clustescent glabrred near end of branches, epileptic or elliptic
oblong 7.5 to 23 cm into 3.8 to 11.5 cm. coriaceous pubeand
when young almost. Flowers are small and fleshy, dull or pale
white in color and in define fascicles near end of branches.
Corolla tubular, freshly pale, yellow aromatic and caduceus
(Variers and Vaidyarathanam, 1995) [40]. Fruits are 2-6 cm
long, fleshy and greenish. Bark dark color, cracked (CSIR,
2006) [4].
Fig 1: Parts of Madhuca longifolia
Used in tribal medicine: In diarrhoea a cup of infusion of
bark is taken orally twice a day by the tribals. Besides the
stem bark is used in chronic tonsillitis, leprosy and fever
(Kirtikar and Basu, 2001) [15]. It is commonly used for the
treatment of snakebite as antidote for southern part of
Tamilnadu, India (Ramar et al., 2008) [28]. Decoction of stem
bark is used to cure skin disease, hydrocoel and skin disease
(Ayyanar and Ignacimuttu, 2005; Joseph, 2008) [7, 14].
Powdered bark is employed for the treatment of scabies.
Madhuca longifolia leaves are expectorant and also used for
chronic bronchitis and Cushing’s disease (Prajapati et al.,
2008). The leaves are applied as a poultice to relieve eczema.
Phytochemical: The therapeutic value of the plant depends
on the active constituents present inside the different part of
the plant, which may be present in the small or large quantity
(Sardana and Sharma, 2009) [30]. The secondary metabolites
are the important substance responsible for the main
medicinal properties in the crude drugs (Sengar and Agarwal,
2009) [31]. The leaves of Mahua tree contain saponin, an
alkaloid, and glucoside. Sapogenin and other basic acid are
found in the seeds. Various Photochemical studies on Mahua
include characterization of Sapogenin, triterpenoids, steroids,
saponin, flavonoids and glycosides. In view of the aides and
attributed medicinal properties new components including
madhucic acid (penta cyclic triterpenoids), madhushazone,
four new oleanane type triterpene glycosides and
madhucosides A and B (Siddiqui et al., 2010) [10]. The fresh
flower of Mahua contains 2 acetyl 1 pyrroline, the aroma
molecule. They also contain polysacheride which on
hydrolysis give D-galactose, Dglucose, L-araninose, L-
rhamose,D- xylose and D-glucuronic acid (Miller, L.G. 2005)
[20]. To establish the pharmacological activity of particular
crude drug is known as the pharmacological screening, and it
is important for prediction of activity (Ansari, S.H. 2007) [6].
Active Constituent Present in Different Parts of Madhuca
indica (Source-Wealth of India, 2007)
Plant
Part
Phytoconstituents
Bark
Flavonoids, Triterpene, Sterol
Latex
Soluble Resin, Insoluble Resin
Leaf
Moisture, Organic Matter, Minerals, Potas (K2O)
Phosphoric Acid (P205 ) Silica, Alkaloids, Flavonoids,
Protobasic Acid
Flower
Carotene, Ascobic Acid, Thiamine, Riboflavine, Niacine,
Folic Acid, Biotine, Inositole
Ripe
seed
Moisture, Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, Minerals, Calcium,
Phosphoras, iron, Carotine, Ascorbic Acid, Tannins
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Table 1: Traditional uses of Madhuca longifolia in India
S.no.
Tree part(s)
Ethno medical Uses
Reference(s)
1.
Seeds cake
Anti-inflammatory, anti ulcer, and hypoglycaemic activity
Seshagiri M. et al 2007
2.
Bark
Antidiabetic activity
K Pavan Kumar et al. 2011 [17]
3.
Flower
Analgesic activity
Dinesh Chandra et al. 2001
4.
Leaves & bark
Wound healing activity
Smita Sharma et al. 2010 [37]
5.
Leaves
Nephro and hepato protective avtivity, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity
S. Palani et al. 2010
6.
Leaves and stem
Antimicrobial activity
Mangesh Khond et al. 2009
7.
Seeds
Effective to alleviate pain
Srirangam Prashanth et al 2010
Utilization
Sugar syrup: There are several reports on preparation of
sugar syrup from dry Mahua flowers, as its sweet property is
utilized in the fermentation process (Benerji et al., 2010,
Shriwastaea et al., 1970, Madhumita and Naik, 2010) [33, 24].
The water extract of dried flower is decolorized with different
de colorizing agent like slacked lime and activated charcoal
before concentrating it to the desired concentration. Activated
charcoal at a concentration of 3.5-5.0 % was found to be the
best agent for the preparation of the Mahua sugar
syrup Madhumita and Naik, 2010 [24]. The syrup thus obtained
from the flower of Mahua is employed in the different
purpose, either in the manufacturing of chocolate or as a
sweetening agent (CSIR, 2006) [4].
Fermented products: Dried mahua flowers are an attractive
source of fermented products due to the high sugar content.
Prepration of mahua wine from fresh flowers. (Yadav et al.,
2009) [42]. Various products like alcohol, brandy, acetone,
ethanol, lactic acid and other fermented products have been
prepared from the dry mahua (Fowler et al, 1920) [13].
Use of Mahua as a Food
Raw consumption of Mahua: In spite of being a rich source
of nutrition and easy availability in the rural areas these
flowers are not very popular as food. Only a small quantity of
flowers is consumed raw, cooked or fried in different parts of
India (Wealth of India, 1962) [3].
Utilization of mahua for processing of different food
products Sugar syrup: Abhyankar and Narayana, 1942
reports on preparation of sugar syrup from dry mahua flowers,
which can be further use as a sweeting agent in different food
products.
Jam, Jelly, marmalade, pickle: Reuther et al., 1967 reported
that mature (full grown) but still unripe fruits are made into
jam with addition of citric acid. The pulp is also converted
into marmalade or syrup, which is used as food material. Jelly
is also made from the pulp alone or combined with guava to
modify the astringent flavor. The pulp is also pickled. Major
quantity of flowers is used in the preparation of distilled
liquors (Wealth of India, 1962) [3]. Patel, 2008 prepared the
mahua jam and jelly by using fresh flowers. The developed
products were tested for their colour, flavor, taste, texture and
overall acceptability, using hedonic test. According to the
findings of hedonic test all the developed Mahua products
were found to be highly acceptable.
Bakery and confectionary: Candy, biscuits and cake were
prepared using the mahua concentrate as a liquid sweetener.
Puree and sauce: Patel, 2008 [25] used fresh flowers and
crushed it into puree (after manually removing the stamens)
and processed it into sauce.
Nutritional and Medicinal Use: The Mahua tree is having
lots of nutritional value in it. It produces fruit which is valued
for its seed which yield high quantity of fat commercially
known as Mahua butter or mowrah butter, many edible and
medicinal applications and it is also used as a biodiesel. Its fat
has been used as substitute for cocoa butter and ghee. It is one
of the single largest sources of natural hard fat. The fat which
is thus obtained from Mahua fruit oil is used in cooking,
frying and manufacturing chocolates. The seed fat has
emulsion property so it mostly used as an emulsifying agents
in few pharmaceutical industries. It is generally applied as
massage oil in many part of the country, as it is very good to
moisturize skin. Besides edible and medicinal uses, Mahua
has industrial application as it can be utilized in the
manufacture of laundry soaps and lubricants. Moreover, the
seed cake is reported to have insecticidal and pesticide
property and used as organic manure in crops like rice,
sugarcane etc. The medicinal properties which are seen in this
plant are stimulant, demulcent, emollient, heating. Skin
disease, rheumatism, headache, laxative, piles, and sometimes
as galactogogue astringent and many more. Review of
literature based on chemical composition of mahua flower
reveals its high nutritional value. Apart from being a rich
sours of sugar and protein, the flowers also contain essential
minerals like Ca, p, Fe, and K. Calcium is a major component
of the bone and assists in teeth development phosphorus is
next in importance to calcium as utilization of Ca is closely
related to it. Most of the Calcium in the body is deposited as
the calcium Phosphate.
Nutritional Properties of Mahua flower (Source: Kureel et
al., 2009)
Flower
19.8
6.37
0.50
54.06
8.00
2.00
4.36
Tree-Borne Oilseed Mahua: Seeds of many tree species
contain high levels of oil and their use for bioenergy
generation has been a topic of interest for long (Raina, 1986).
Mahua oil is also edible and is used by tribal communities.
All the TBOS are multipurpose in their utility, making them
what is desired for agroforestry systems. However, caution is
necessary in assessing whether all the uses will be realized at
the same time.
Mahua seed oil: Mahua seeds contain about 40% pale yellow
semi-solid fat. The seed oil is commonly known as “Mahua
Butter”. The oil content of the seed varied from 33 to 43%
weight of the kernel. For the tribals of India, Mahua oil is by
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Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
far the most important tree seed oils. Fresh Mahua oil from
properly stored seeds is yellow in colour with a not unpleasant
taste. The oil is used as cooking oil by most of the tribes in
Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and Maharashtra etc.
Nutritional Properties of Mahua Seed (Source: Kureel R.S
et al, 2009)
Proporties
Oil Percent (%)
Refractive index
1.452-1.462
Saponification value
187-197
Iodine value
55-70
Unsaponifiable matter (%)
1-3
Palmitic C 16:0 (%)
24.5
Stearic Acid C 18:0 (%)
22.7
Oleic Acid C C18:0 (%)
37.0
Linolic Acid C18:2 (%)
14.3
Conclusion
Mahua tree gives significantly high quantity of oil. The oil is
rich in PUFA and has desirable level of oleic and stearic acid
to be used as cocoa substitute in confectionary products and
production of margarines, cosmetic and pharmaceutical
industries. The mahua oil also has potential for alternative
fuel options for diesel. The flowers are used as vegetable, for
making cake, liquor etc. mahua is used to cure Bronchitis,
Rhematism, Diabetes, Piles, Eczema, Gums, Burns etc and
flower juice is used in the treatment of various disease and
ailments. The seeds are thus valuable in meeting demands for
food and food supplements with functional, health-promoting
properties in addition to industrial uses. As for the better
potential, good quality of mahua tree should be cultivated
through plant tissue culture by means of micro propagation.
The research workers have to come along with the people of
tribal community, so they may have more and valuable
knowledge. In coming next generation the importance of plant
and mahua tree is going to be increase because of their
effectiveness, easy availability, low cost and comparatively
being devoid of toxic effect. Plants are the important
economical source of a number of well established drugs
looking upon wide prospects and potential of Madhuca
Indica for various purposes; it is worthwhile to cultivate this
plant on large scale especially on unproductive and wasteland.
This will help in financial full support of poor and landless
families. Generally this plant Madhuca Indica is known only
for its liquor making purpose, but one have to come forward
to change the thinking of unaware people. The Mahua tree is
hidden from the public eyes as its medicinal point of view. As
for the better potential, good quality of mahua tree should be
cultivated through plant tissue culture by means of micro
propagation. The research workers have to come along with
the people of rulers’ area so they may have more and valuable
knowledge. In coming next generation the importance of plant
and mahua tree is going to be increase because of their
effectiveness, easy availability, low cost and comparatively
being devoid of toxic effect. Madhuca Indica has found
several of pharmacological activity, yet several other
activities have to be finding out.
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(Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel) Wine preparation. Natural
product radiance. 2009; 8:406-418.
... Yes [159] Yes [158] A, C, E [160] Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se [189] Quercetin, myricetin, rutin [160] Yes [161,162] Highly perishable [190] Raw, processed [191] Lasora Cordia myxa L. Yes [192] Yes [193] C [10] Ca, P, Zn, Fe [41,194,195] Polyphenols, flavonoids [41,194,196] Yes [197] Perishable [198] Processed [39,199] Mahua Madhuca longifolia Koenig Yes [200,201] Yes [200] C, A [201] Ca, P [202] Ascorbic acid [98] Yes [101,102] Very low perishability [201] Processed [99,100] Manila tamarind Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. ...
... Yes [159] Yes [158] A, C, E [160] Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se [189] Quercetin, myricetin, rutin [160] Yes [161,162] Highly perishable [190] Raw, processed [191] Lasora Cordia myxa L. Yes [192] Yes [193] C [10] Ca, P, Zn, Fe [41,194,195] Polyphenols, flavonoids [41,194,196] Yes [197] Perishable [198] Processed [39,199] Mahua Madhuca longifolia Koenig Yes [200,201] Yes [200] C, A [201] Ca, P [202] Ascorbic acid [98] Yes [101,102] Very low perishability [201] Processed [99,100] Manila tamarind Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. ...
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Nowadays, there is a large demand for nutrient-dense fruits to promote nutritional and metabolic human health. The production of commercial fruit crops is becoming progressively input dependent to cope with the losses caused by biotic and abiotic stresses. A wide variety of un-derutilized crops, which are neither commercially cultivated nor traded on a large scale, are mainly grown, commercialized and consumed locally. These underutilized fruits have many advantages in terms of ease to grow, hardiness and resilience to climate changes compared to the major commercially grown crops. In addition, they are exceptionally rich in important phytochemicals and have medicinal value. Hence, their consumption may help to meet the nutritional needs of rural populations, such as those living in fragile arid and semi-arid regions around the world. In addition , local people are well aware of the nutritional and medicinal properties of these crops. Therefore , emphasis must be given to the rigorous study of the conservation and the nutritional characterization of these crops so that the future food basket may be widened for enhancing its functional and nutritional values. In this review, we described the ethnobotany, medicinal and nutritional values, biodiversity conservation and utilization strategies of 19 climate-resilient important, un-derutilized fruit crops of arid and semi-arid regions (Indian jujube,
... The 27 percent of total population of India, depend on non-timber forest products (NTFPs) for subsistence and livelihood support with an annual turnover of about Rs.60000 Million Rupees Hayat 2009, Malhotra andBhattacharya 2010).One of the major NTFP tree species of eastern India, J. Koenig ex L.) J.F. Madhuca longifolia ( Macbr., belongs to family and generally referred Sapotaceae to as the butternut tree or Mahua (Ramadan et al 2006) is widely distributed in India, Sri Lanka and Nepal under dry tropical and subtropical climatic conditions (Saluja et al 2011). It is an important multipurpose tree species that provides livelihood support to tribal populations and is widely used by them in various ceremonies and festivals (Bisht et al 2018). The branches of are symbolized and M. longifolia regarded as the witness of the marriage in tribal communities (Kala, 2011). ...
... Considering the socio-economic importance of this species and its ecological adaptability , the promotion characteristics strategy in the wasteland, community land and as agroforestry practices can be adopted. Many parts of the region particularly Chhattisgarh and Odisha face severe drought issues and being a drought resistance M. longifolia species (Bisht et al 2018) can be a good option in such areas. The increased resource base of and other M. longifolia similar multipurpose tree species having edible and medicinal significance shall also support promotion of small scale industries, enabling employment opportunities to the marginal population living in this region as well as help to address the issue of large scale migration of labours from this part for employment. ...
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M. longifolia (J. Koenig ex L.) J.F. Macbr., also known as Mahua, is facing issues of gradual depletion and poor regeneration due to overexploitation and climate change. Present study highlights the distribution of suitable habitats of under the varying climatic M. longifolia conditions in eastern India using Maxen . At present about ~ 29,550.29 Km area possesses suitable habitat for the distribution of t 2 M. longifolia in the eastern region, with prominent distribution in Jharkhand comprising ~ 72% of total suitable area followed by Chhattisgarh with ~ 17 % area. The future projections for the year 2050 indicated an increase in suitable habitat area in the range of ~1.2- 2.7% with southward shifting but the pattern of distribution is getting confined to a narrower geographical range as compared to the existing extent. Variable Bio_3 (isothermality) followed by elevation was the major predictor variable in limiting the distribution of for the present as well as future M. longifolia climatic scenario. The outcome of the study provides an insight on suitable habitats of and promotion and conservation strategies M. longifolia on predicted areas shall enable better growth scenario and contribute towards socioeconomic upliftment of tribal communities in the region.
... AABR is home to many tribes with intimate cultural connection with the plants of the area. Mahua (Madhuca latifolia = indica) is a tree species common to the central India (Bisht et al. 2018). It has much spiritual, cultural, medicinal, ornamental significance for the tribal population of the area. ...
... The previously reported chemical analysis of Mahua seeds showed presence of carbohydrate (2.8%), protein (16.2%), oil (53.4%), fibre (19.6%), saponin (2.4%), tannin (0.4%) and ash (5.2%) (Bisht et al. 2018). The major constituent oil consists of unsaturated fatty acid (64%) and saturated fatty acid (33%). ...
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Madhuca latifolia Macbride (commonly known as Mahua) is an important multipurpose tree with great socioeconomic relevance. The post-harvest spoilage of fruits and seeds due to improper handling and filthy storage conditions is a major limitation to quality oil products. Therefore, a study was carried out to find the best storage medium and optimum duration to retain better oil content and other oil quality parameters. In order to evaluate the change in oil content and other quality parameters, the extracted and pre-treated mahua seeds were stored in 3 container bags (polythene, plastic and jute), kept under two storage environment (light and dark) and subjected to two air exposure (closed and open condition) were monitored at a monthly interval till 180 days. The oil content, saponification value and iodine value of the stored seeds were decreased with time while specific gravity, acid value and free fatty acid in the stored seeds increased. The oil content during storage was in order of polythene bag (44.09%) > cotton bag (42.78%) > plastic bag (33.89%). The closed plastic container exposed to light was the best storage method for retaining higher oil content. On the other hand, closed polythene bag kept in dark was the best storage method for retaining higher saponification value and this treatment combination is suggested to be good for soap industry.
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Mahua is a tropical tree mostly seen widely in the central and north Indian plane forest. It is known as the warehouse of no of phytochemicals and mostly used by the tribal people. It has numerous benefits in pharmaceutical and food industry. In Ayurveda the flowers have application in medicines with cooling properties. Mahua flowers are edible and consumed by the tribal mostly. It is rich in antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and used as food in tribal area. It is also used as an exchange of buying goods. The fruits of mahua are utilized as vegetable and mostly prepared curries by rural tribal peoples. However, the mahua tree is considered as medicinal tree and very useful for curing diseases like piles, skin diseases, headache, ulcer, constipation and many more. Mahua flower is not only used for the production of liquor but also used as an ingredient for the making of biscuit, cake, jam, jelly and sauces etc. The tree is considered as gold in forest dwellers and measured as fortunate thing for tribal. Oil is extracted from the flower used in cosmetic industry as well as for the purpose of cooking. Mahua tree is considered as a cultural heritage for the tribal people.
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Mahua is a tropical tree mostly seen widely in the central and north Indian plane forest. It is known as the warehouse of no of phytochemicals and mostly used by the tribal people. It has numerous benefits in pharmaceutical and food industry. In Ayurveda the flowers have application in medicines with cooling properties. Mahua flowers are edible and consumed by the tribal mostly. It is rich in antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and used as food in tribal area. It is also used as an exchange of buying goods. The fruits of mahua are utilized as vegetable and mostly prepared curries by rural tribal peoples. However, the mahua tree is considered as medicinal tree and very useful for curing diseases like piles, skin diseases, headache, ulcer, constipation and many more. Mahua flower is not only used for the production of liquor but also used as an ingredient for the making of biscuit, cake, jam, jelly and sauces etc. The tree is considered as gold in forest dwellers and measured as fortunate thing for tribal. Oil is extracted from the flower used in cosmetic industry as well as for the purpose of cooking. Mahua tree is considered as a cultural heritage for the tribal people.
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Madhuca indica has been used ethnomedically in Indian folks. In the present study we have investigated anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hypoglycaemic effect of ethanolic extract (EE) and crude alkaloid extract of Madhuca indica seed cake on albino rats. The study showed that the EE had a significant, dose dependent anti-edematogenic, anti-ulcerogenic and hypoglycaemic activity, whereas the crude alkaloid extract exhibited a significant only. Both the extracts possess dose dependent inhibitory activity on carrageenan-induced edema, inhibiting prostaglandins or mediators involved in prostaglandin synthesis, the second phase of inflammation. The EE was significantly effective in protecting pylorus-ligation-induced gastric ulcers at a higher dose level. The active principle of EE seems to be a selective inhibitor of the COX II (prostaglandin synthesis) without important effect on COX I since, EE exhibited both anti-edematogenic and anti-ulcerogenic effect. The EE was effective in reducing the plasma glucose level in normal albino rats in a dose dependent manner, producing hypoglycaemic effect by stimulating the release of insulin from the {\beta}-cells and/or increasing the uptake of glucose from the plasma.
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The aim of the present study was to explore the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic bark extract of Madhuca longifolia (ML) in healthy, glucose loaded and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. All three animal groups were administered with the ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (p.o.) and the standard drug glibenclamide at a dose of 500 μg/kg. Serum glucose level was determined on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of treatment. The extract exhibited a dose dependent hypoglycemic activity in all three animal models as compared with the standard antidiabetic agent glibenclamide. The antioxidant activity of the bark was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH), reducing power assay and superoxide scavenging activity. The results of the assay were then compared with a natural antioxidant ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The hypoglycemia produced by the extract may be due to the increased glucose uptake at the tissue level and/or an increase in pancreatic β-cell function, or due to inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption and a good source of compounds with antioxidant properties. Finally the study indicated the ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia to be a potential antidiabetic and antioxidant properties and the extract also exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity and superoxide scavenging activity.
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The physical properties of fresh mahua were evaluated at its initial moisture content. The initial moisture content (d.b.) of fresh mahua flowers was found to be constant at 79.82%. The average arithmetic and geometric mean diameters of fresh mahua having scaly corolla were higher as compared to mahua without scaly corolla. The average value of surface area, 1000 unit mass, densities, angle of repose, terminal velocity and coefficient of friction were higher for mahua with scaly corolla, whereas spericity and aspect ratio were higher in the case of mahua without scaly corolla.
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Madhuca indica J F Gmel. syn. M. latifolia Macb. commonly known as mahua is a large tree found in the dry deciduous forests of India. The tree produces edible flowers and fruits during leanest season of agriculture (March-May). Collection of mahua flowers and fruits is one of the most important sources of employment for the poorest of the poor in India. The flowers are edible and rich source of sugar, protein, vitamin and minerals. Present paper reviews the earlier research on these flowers and highlights the study conducted for value addition. About 80 per cent of juice was successfully extracted from fresh flowers and concentrated to produce a honey like liquid sweetener. The produced concentrate was analyzed and used for preparation of bakery and confectionary goods. Apart from this fresh flower pulp was used for preparation of jam, jelly and sauce. The study shows the income and employment generation potential of mahua flowers.
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Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and polyurea and this is the leading disease in the world causing morbidity. Many allopathic medicines are available to treat diabetes, but treatment associates with many side effects which were compensated by replacing allopathic medicine with natural drugs. Many natural drugs shown significant antidiabetic activity but all those natural drugs are not commonly available which provoked us to initiate the present study of evaluation of Antidiabetic activity of Madhuca indica. In this present study we extracted Madhuca indica by using different solvents viz. methanol, Petroleum ether and water. Among these extracts Methanolic extract of Madhuca indica has shown significant anti diabetic activity against streptozotocin and streptozotocin - nicotinamide induced diabetic models in wistar rats.
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The aim of present study was to assess the wound healing activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves and bark of Madhuca longifolia .Ethanolic extract of leaves and bark of Madhuca longifolia was examined for wound healing potential in the form of 5%w/w ointment in the excision wound created on the dorsal side of experimental animals, the 5% w/w extract should considerable difference in wound models and the result were compatable to that of the standard drug Betadine (5% w/w) in terms of wound contracting ability and wound closure time. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the plant was also carried out as a supporting evidence for its wound healing potential. The mean percentage wound closure was calculated on the 8 th , 11 th , 13 th , 15 th and 19 th wounding days. The extract treated animals showed tastes epithelisation of wound (17.86 ± 0.19 and 14.81±0.67) bark and leaves respectively then the control. The period of epithelisation 11.8±037 in case of standard drug 5% betadine ointment.