Article

Transoral robotic narrow field oropharyngectomy for tumours of the parapharyngeal space

Authors:
  • Queens Medical Centre
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Abstract

The advent of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has allowed transoral approaches for parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumours to be re‐evaluated. It provides enhanced visualisation and instrument access for appropriate tumours. We describe a specific technique, TORS narrow‐field oropharyngectomy, that is ideal for benign PPS tumours which have been violated by intra‐oral biopsy or incision and drainage. This allows the contaminated, overlying oropharyngeal mucosa to be resected en‐bloc with the PPS tumour, reducing the risk of local recurrence. This technique provides a window into the PPS, improving visualisation of underlying neurovascular structures as well as the tumour. This reduces the risk of tumour spillage and leads to superior vascular access and haemorrhage control. This technique is only applicable to PPS tumours that are appropriate for transoral approaches and is specifically designed for those selected patients that have been placed at risk of seeding or local scarring by intra‐oral procedures prior to definitive resection. We present two such cases: a 38‐year‐old male with a PPS inflammatory cyst, and a 66‐year‐old female with a PSS pre‐styloid Schwannoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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... The advantages of endoscopically assisted approaches include the lack of any need for an external incision (eliminating scarring), a short hospital stay, minimal blood loss, and little postoperative pain. Recently, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been used for transoral removal of selected PPS schwannomas ( Fig. 1) [47]. Some authors are developing new surgical corridors to the PPS through transoral or retroauricular approaches, with outcomes comparable to those of conventional open surgery, but with less morbidity [48,49]. ...
Article
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Benign peripheral non-cranial nerve sheath tumors are rare lesions, including both schwannomas and neurofibromas. These tumors arise from Schwann cells, and may originate from any peripheral, cranial, or autonomic nerve. Most of them are localized and sporadic but multifocal systemic forms can occur. Cervical sympathetic chain, brachial plexus, cervical plexus and spinal roots and nerves are the major nerve systems commonly affected. Dumbbell-shaped intra- and extradural tumors occur most commonly in the cervical spine, as well as purely extradural and paravertebral tumors. The management of these tumors has improved greatly owing to the developments in imaging techniques and surgical innovations such as endoscopically assisted approaches and robotic surgery. Microsurgical intracapsular excision of the tumor helped by the use of intraoperative fluorescent dyes and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring minimize postoperative neural deficit, since most schwannomas are encapsulated. Most tumors can be removed with a low rate of complications and recurrence. Radiotherapy should be considered for growing lesions that are not amenable to surgery. In asymptomatic patients, observation and serial scans is an option for elderly infirm patients.
Article
The parapharyngeal space, an area of complex anatomic relationships, is involved in a wide variety of benign and malignant neoplasms. Because primary parapharyngeal space tumors are rare, it is difficult to obtain surgical experience in this region. This paper reviews the anatomy, presentation, evaluation, surgical approaches, and pathologic features and complications reported in managing patients with parapharyngeal space neoplasms. Two surgical procedures have been used by the author to treat 44 tumors in the parapharyngeal space. The cervical-parotid approach was used in 35 patients, and the cervical-parotid approach with midline mandibulotomy was used in 9 patients. Of the 44 tumors, 32 were benign lesions and 12 were malignant neoplasms. Forty tumors were primary parapharyngeal space tumors, and 4 cases represented isolated metastases to parapharyngeal nodes. Recurrent tumors accounted for 12 of the 44 cases. Discussion of the indications, surgical technique, and select points pertinent to using these two operative procedures is based on the operative experience gained from these 44 patients. The use of these two operations resulted in low morbidity and provided a safe, efficacious approach to the management of all parapharyngeal space neoplasms encountered.
Article
Background: Preliminary case series have reported clinical feasibility and safety of a transoral minimally invasive technique to approach parapharyngeal space masses. With the assistance of the surgical robotic system, tumors within the parapharyngeal space can now be excised safely without neck incisions. A detailed technical description is included. Methods: After developing compressive symptoms from a parapharyngeal space lipomatous tumor, the patient was referred by his primary otolaryngologist because of poor open surgical access to the nasopharyngeal component of the tumor. Results: Transoral robotic assisted resection of a 54- × 46-mm parapharyngeal space mass was performed, utilizing 97 minutes of robotic surgical time. Pictorial demonstration of the robotic resection is provided. Conclusion: Parapharyngeal space tumors have traditionally been approached via transcervical skin incisions, typically including blunt dissection from tactile feedback. The transoral robotic approach offers magnified 3D visualization of the parapharyngeal space that allows for complete and safe resection.
Article
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current use of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the treatment of parapharyngeal space (PPS) neoplasms through a case series and systematic analysis. Methods: A case series review of 4 patients was combined with a PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus search that identified 82 reports. Fifty-three articles remained after screening for duplicates, finally, 8 reports with adequate patient data were included. Statistical analyses and graphical representations were performed with Microsoft Excel (Redmond, WA) and GraphPad Prism software (La Jolla, CA). Results: Forty-four patients had TORS resection of PPS neoplasms. Overall, mean length of stay was 3.0 days with mean time to oral diet of 1.0 day. There were no recurrences but there was a mean follow-up time of only 18.5 months. Twenty-nine of these neoplasms (65.9%) were pleomorphic adenomas of which 7 (24%) had unintended capsule violation or tumor fragmentation during surgery and 2 patients had pharyngeal dehiscence that was managed conservatively. There were no neurovascular complications. Conclusion: TORS is a viable approach to resection of neoplasms of the PPS with minimal surgical morbidity. However, further long-term evaluation, especially for pleomorphic adenomas, is needed to define patient selection and the role of TORS for PPS salivary gland neoplasms.
Article
Educational objectives: To understand the presentation and evaluation and various pathologic conditions involving the parapharyngeal space and to review the cervical-parotid approach and cervical-parotid approach with mandibulatomy as a means to remove tumors of the parapharyngeal space.
Article
Objective: In transoral robotic surgery (TORS), if an endoscopic arm equipped with two integrated cameras is placed close to a lesion, a three-dimensionally magnified view of the operative field can be obtained. More important is that the operation can be performed precisely and bimanually using two instrument arms that can move freely within a limited working space. We performed TORS to treat several diseases that occur in the parapharyngeal space (PPS) and subsequently analyzed the treatment outcomes to confirm the validity of this procedure. Patients and methods: Between February 2009 and February 2012, 11 patients who required surgical treatment for the removal of a parapharyngeal lesion were enrolled in this prospective study. Nine patients received TORS for parapharyngeal tumor resection, and 2 patients with stylohyoid syndrome underwent TORS for resection of an elongated styloid process. The average age of the patients included in this study was 42 years. Five patients were male, and 6 patients were female. Results: TORS was successfully performed in all 11 patients. The average robotic system docking and operation times were 9.9 minutes (range, 5-24 minutes) and 54.2 minutes (range, 26-150 minutes), respectively. Patients were able to swallow normally the day after the operation. The average blood loss during the robotic operation was minimal (11.8 mL). The average hospital stay was 2.6 days. There were no significant complications in the perioperative or postoperative period. All patients were extremely satisfied with their cosmetic outcomes. Conclusions: PPS surgery via a transoral approach using a robotic surgical system is technically feasible and secures a better cosmetic outcome than the transcervical, transparotid, or transmandibular approach. This new surgical method is safe and effective for benign diseases of the PPS.
Article
Our objective was to determine the safety, feasibility, and the adequacy of surgical margins for transoral robotic surgery (TORS), by reviewing the early results from independent institutional review board-approved clinical trials in three separate institutions. Pooled Data from Independent Prospective Clinical Trials. One hundred ninety-two patients were initially screened, but inadequate exposure did not permit TORS in 13 (6.7%). For two additional patients, TORS was begun but intraoperatively converted to an open procedure. Thus, the intent-to-treat population was 177 patients (average age, 59 years; 81% male), predominantly comprised of tumors arising in the oropharynx (139, 78%) and larynx (26, 15%). TORS was performed for 161 (91%) patients with malignant disease: 153 (95%) with squamous cell carcinoma (T1 [50, 32.7%], T2 [74, 48.4%], T3 [21, 13.7%], T4 [8, 5.2%]), six patients (3.72%) with salivary gland tumors, and two patients with carcinoma in situ. The average follow-up was 345 days. There was no intraoperative mortality or death in the immediate postoperative period. Average estimated blood loss was 83 mL; no patient required transfusion. The rate of positive margins was 4.3%. Twenty-nine patients (16%) experienced 34 serious adverse events that required hospitalization or intervention (grade 3) or were considered life threatening (grade 4, 2.3%). Tracheostomy was performed in 12.4% of all patients (22/177), but only 2.3% had a tracheostomy at last follow-up. For all patients undergoing TORS without previous therapy, the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy dependency rate was 5.0%. The average hospital stay was 4.2 days. Based on this multicenter study, TORS appears to be safe, feasible, and as such play an important role in the multidisciplinary management of head and neck cancer.
Article
The parapharyngeal space is a difficult area for a surgical approach due to anatomical complexity. We performed a minimally invasive and precise surgical technique to remove neurogenic tumors of the prestyloid parapharyngeal space using transoral robotic instrumentation. The mass was successfully removed in the two cases with three-dimensional visualization providing an excellent view of the resection margin and the dissection plane preserving the vital structures. An adequate resection margin was acquired, and no violation of the tumor capsule occurred. No significant complications were noted. Transoral robotic surgery was feasible for neurogenic tumors of the prestyloid parapharyngeal space, providing a sufficient resection margin and delicate dissection through excellent surgical views and instrumentation.
Article
Parapharyngeal space (PPSp) tumours are uncommon and hence the 'generalist expertise' for diagnosis and treatment is limited. Recent improvements in radiology and cytopathology mean the likely diagnosis is more certain and hence the recommended surgical treatment can be more definitive. A wide spectrum of primary pathologies are reported to involve the PPSp; the majority (80%) are benign neoplasms. Radiological imaging, computed tomography (CT) and MRI, with diagnostic fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), have continued to increase preoperative diagnostic accuracy. Thus, it is easier to identify the patients whose external surgery may rarely require a mandibulotomy. Only highly selected cases can be safely excised via a transoral approach. All tumours of the PPSp require accurate diagnosis, using modern diagnostic imaging and FNAC. Surgery, in most cases, remains the treatment of choice. Many neurogenic tumours and paragangliomas can be observed in elderly patients. The optimum surgical approach for complete excision needs to be selected on an individual basis. Each patient must be adequately informed of the associated morbidity and possible complications, likelihood of cure and the risk of tumour recurrence - short and long term. Most tumours can be excised safely, and with low risk of recurrence and short hospitalization, with a cervical-parotid approach.
Article
To evaluate the outcomes of patients with parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumors treated with a transoral robotic surgery (TORS) approach. We prospectively enrolled well-defined benign PPS tumors accessible from the oropharynx with no carotid encasement or bone erosion. We designated outcome measures that included technical feasibility of the approach, local tumor control and complication rates. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the outcome data. With a mean follow-up of 29.9 months (range 12-40 months), a total of 10 patients have been enrolled. TORS was completed in 9 of 10 patients with acceptable operative time and blood loss and no significant complications including hemorrhage, infection, trismus or tumor spillage. Local control has been 100% for 7 patients with pleomorphic adenomas. We confirm the safety and feasibility of the TORS approach for PPS tumors that achieves a high local control and low surgical complication rate. TORS is a viable approach for removing benign tumors and lesions of the PPS.
Article
The parapharyngeal space, an area of complex anatomic relationships, is involved in a wide variety of benign and malignant neoplasms. Because primary parapharyngeal space tumors are rare, it is difficult to obtain surgical experience in this region. This paper reviews the anatomy, presentation, evaluation, surgical approaches, and pathologic features and complications reported in managing patients with parapharyngeal space neoplasms. Two surgical procedures have been used by the author to treat 44 tumors in the parapharyngeal space. The cervical-parotid approach was used in 35 patients, and the cervical-parotid approach with midline mandibulotomy was used in 9 patients. Of the 44 tumors, 32 were benign lesions and 12 were malignant neoplasms. Forty tumors were primary parapharyngeal space tumors, and 4 cases represented isolated metastases to parapharyngeal nodes. Recurrent tumors accounted for 12 of the 44 cases. Discussion of the indications, surgical technique, and select points pertinent to using these two operative procedures is based on the operative experience gained from these 44 patients. The use of these two operations resulted in low morbidity and provided a safe, efficacious approach to the management of all parapharyngeal space neoplasms encountered.
Transoral robotic surgery: a multicenter study to assess feasibility, safety, and surgical margins
  • G S Weinstein
  • O'malley
  • Bw
  • J S Magnuson
Weinstein GS, O'Malley BW Jr, Magnuson JS, et al. Transoral robotic surgery: a multicenter study to assess feasibility, safety, and surgical margins. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:1701-1707.