ArticlePDF Available

Medicinal, Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Properties of Cassava (Manihot esculenta): A Review


Abstract and Figures

The use of plant foods for therapeutic purposes represents one of the biggest human uses of the natural flora of the world. Cassava is any of several tropical plants belonging to the genus Manihot, of the family Euphorbiaceae and species esculenta or dulcis. They exist in varieties as Manihot esculenta (Bitter cassava) and Manihot dulcis (Sweet cassava) cultivated for their tuberous roots, which yield important food products. It is also used in the performance of various rituals and rites as well as for therapeutic purposes. Manihot esculenta Crantz, popularly known as cassava is one of the plants with various medicinal properties. Many studies showed that, due to presence of different phytochemicals cassava become remedy for different ailments like diabetes, celiac diseases, bone and neurological health, cardiovascular diseases, prostate problems and allergies, GIT problems and blood pressure etc., given that, it is important to remember cassava can be very poisonous if not prepared, processed, or cooked properly, Cassava produces cyanide and other toxicants, which are extremely poisonous compound to humans. The commonly occurring anti-nutrients in plants include; cyanide, Phytates, nitrates and nitrites, phenolic compounds and oxalates among others. As much as cassava contains various beneficial nutrients (carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, proteins, fiber and essential amino acids), it also has anti-nutritional and toxic substances, which impair nutrient uptake and absorption of nutrients. However, it has been documented in that various processing methods reduce the levels of some of these toxic substances in cassava. Manihot esculenta Crantz is not so commonly used in herbal medicine, but indigenous people do employ it for various purposes. Because some of its potentially toxic components, sometimes it is considered as non-edible and toxic in various parts of the world. But, it is definitely one of the most useful medicinal plants. Various phytochemicals presents in this plant, numerous medicinal uses and detoxification mechanism of this neglected plant have been highlighted in this review.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Academic Journal of Nutrition 8 (3): 34-46, 2019
ISSN 2309-8902
© IDOSI Publications, 2019
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ajn.2019.34.46
Corresponding Author: Temesgen Zekarias, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia P.O. Box: 2003. Tel: +251912844964.
Medicinal, Nutritional and Anti- Nutritional Properties of
Cassava (Manihot esculenta): A Review
Temesgen Zekarias, Bakalo Basa and Tamirat Herago
1 23
Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Livestock and Fisheries Development Office, Ofa Woreda, Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia
Ethiochicken, AGP Poultry PLC, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Abstract: The use of plant foods for therapeutic purposes represents one of the biggest human uses of the
natural flora of the world. Cassava is any of several tropical plants belonging to the genus Manihot, of the
family Euphorbiaceae and species esculenta or dulcis. They exist in varieties as Manihot esculenta
(Bitter cassava) and Manihot dulcis (Sweet cassava) cultivated for their tuberous roots, which yield important
food products. It is also used in the performance of various rituals and rites as well as for therapeutic purposes.
Manihot esculenta Crantz, popularly known as cassava is one of the plants with various medicinal properties.
Many studies showed that, due to presence of different phytochemicals cassava become remedy for different
ailments like diabetes, celiac diseases, bone and neurological health, cardiovascular diseases, prostate problems
and allergies, GIT problems and blood pressure etc., given that, it is important to remember cassava can be very
poisonous if not prepared, processed, or cooked properly, Cassava produces cyanide and other toxicants,
which are extremely poisonous compound to humans. The commonly occurring anti-nutrients in plants include;
cyanide, Phytates, nitrates and nitrites, phenolic compounds and oxalates among others. As much as cassava
contains various beneficial nutrients (carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, proteins, fiber and essential amino
acids), it also has anti-nutritional and toxic substances, which impair nutrient uptake and absorption of
nutrients. However, it has been documented in that various processing methods reduce the levels of some of
these toxic substances in cassava. Manihot esculenta Crantz is not so commonly used in herbal medicine, but
indigenous people do employ it for various purposes. Because some of its potentially toxic components,
sometimes it is considered as non-edible and toxic in various parts of the world. But, it is definitely one of the
most useful medicinal plants. Various phytochemicals presents in this plant, numerous medicinal uses and
detoxification mechanism of this neglected plant have been highlighted in this review.
Key words: Anti-nutrients Cassava Medicinal value Nutrients
INTRODUCTION needs [3]. Similarly Ethiopian traditional medicine is
Since ancient times of civilization, people of the world of plants, animal products and minerals as well as magic
have been relying on medicinal plants, plant extracts and and superstition. Though most practices and treatments
their natural constituents as either prophylactic or in herbal medicine require specialists or professionals
therapeutic remedy to restore and maintain health or as an which are referred generally to as herbalists, to use plants
alternative treatment for various diseases including which are common in Ethiopia [4]. Even though, there is
analgesia and inflammatory process of diverse organs significant role of medicinal plants in supporting the
[1, 2]. Despite the immense technological advancement in Ethiopian national primary health care, little work has so
modern medicine, many people in Africa (Approximately far been made to properly document the associated
75% of the population) still rely on traditional healing knowledge and promote its practices. On the other hand,
practices and medicinal plants for their daily healthcare medicinal plants and the associated knowledge are being
composed of a number of specific skills, namely; the use
Acad. J. Nutr., 8 (3): 34-46, 2019
seriously depleted due to deforestation, environmental produced by the body, peripheral organ systems and
degradation and acculturation that have been taking place extremities are guaranteed a healthy flow of blood and
in the country for quite a long time. So, urgent ethno oxygen to keep those cells healthy and operating at their
botanical studies and subsequent conservation measures optimal levels. Cellular re-growth and maintenance is
are needed to salvage the medicinal plants and the improved, which means that wound healing and energy
associated knowledge from further loss [5]. levels are also increased [10].
Among medicinal plants which are used so far in
ancient times, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one Effect of Cassava on Gastrointestinal Tract Problems:
which is a dicotyledonous plant, belonging to the family One of the other bonuses of tapioca is the wealth of
Euphorbiaceae [6]. The crop is an important source of dietary fiber it contains. Fiber has been directly linked to
carbohydrate for humans and animals, having higher improving a number of conditions within the human body,
energy than other root crops, 610 kJ/100 g fresh weight in but the most obvious is in terms of digestion. Fiber bulks
addition to remedy for various inflammatory, analgesic up stool, which helps to move it through the digestive
and carcinogenic conditions. Cassava is also significantly tract, thereby eliminating constipation, bloating, intestinal
rich in calcium, manganese, beta carotene, vitamin C and pain and even more serious conditions like colorectal
vitamin A. In spite having toxic cyanide, cassava is cancer. Furthermore, fiber helps to boost heart health by
remedy for number of ailments if prepared properly; such scraping excess cholesterol off the walls of arteries and
as digestive disorders (Gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, blood vessels, thereby helping to eliminate
constipation and colitis), liver disease, celiac disease and atherosclerosis and associated issues like heart attacks
diabetes [7]. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to and strokes [11].
review on medicinal properties, nutritional composition,
anti-nutritional components and detoxification methods of Effect of Cassava on Blood Pressure: Tapioca also
cassava (Manihot esculenta). contains potassium, yet another essential mineral that the
Medicinal Values of Cassava: Plants with various that it reduces the tension and stress of blood vessels
medicinal properties have been source of attraction for and arteries. This can increase the flow of blood to parts
many scientists all over the world since thousands of of the body and reduce the strain on the cardiovascular
years. Millions of plants have been studied extensively system. This means a reduction in atherosclerosis and a
since ancient times for various phytochemicals and their much smaller chance of blood clots getting stuck and
possible medicinal uses in various disease conditions in causing fatal events like heart attacks or strokes.
human beings. Even modern day treatment strategies do Furthermore, potassium is key for fluid balance in the
not underestimate potential of herbs for various chronic body and when it is in proper balance with sodium, all of
illnesses [8]. Recently there has been a tremendous the fluid exchanges in the body can be smooth, further
increase in the use of plant based health products in boosting metabolic efficiency and energy [12].
developing as well as developed countries resulting in an
exponential growth of herbal products globally. In the Effect of Cassava on Celiac Disease: Absence of the
present era of drug development and in discovery of allergenic protein -- gluten -- makes cassava flour a good
newer drugs, molecules of many plant products are substitute for rye, oats, barley and wheat. Persons
evaluated on the basis of their traditional uses. Manihot diagnosed with celiac disease and other gluten-based
esculenta Crantz, popularly known as cassava is also one allergies can find relief in consuming foods made using
of these plants with various medicinal properties [9]. tapioca or cassava flour. Although baking cakes, bread
Effects of Cassava on Cardiovascular Diseases: One of size, it can be substituted with guar and xanthan gum [13].
the most valuable mineral contributions of tapioca is iron.
Iron is essential for the normal functioning of the human Bone and Neurological Health: Tapioca is a rich source of
body and perhaps its most significant roles are in the vitamin K, calcium and iron, all of which play important
creation of new red blood cells. Together with copper, roles in the protection and development of bones.
which tapioca also contains, iron increases the amount of Bone mineral density decreases as we age, resulting in
red blood cells in the body, thereby preventing anemia conditions like osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and general
and related conditions. With more red blood cells being weakness and lack of flexibility. If tapioca is regularly
human body requires. Potassium is a vasodilator, meaning
and other foods requires gluten to enable them to swell in
Acad. J. Nutr., 8 (3): 34-46, 2019
consumed, then our bones can be protected and search for new classes of drugs to combat this disorder.
developed and also maintained as we get older. The To this effect, many substances from plant source have
wealth of vitamin K does more than promote osteotrophic been found to possess anti-diabetic activity with minimal
activity, it is also important for our mental health. It has side effects and the search is on-going [17].
been shown that vitamin K can reduce the chances of There is a trend towards using natural products to
developing Alzheimer’s disease by stimulating neuronal control hyperglycemia and associated pathologies.
activity in the brain. Alzheimer's often occurs due to a lack Cassava has been rediscovered as a medicinal agent.
of activity or mental stagnation; vitamin K keeps neural Cassava has been reported to have a broad spectrum of
pathways active and engaged and free of free radicals that biological activities; the anti-oxidant, oxygen radical
can cause a breakdown of brain tissues [14]. scavenging activity of cassava (And its extracts) is
Effect of Cassava on Prostate Problems and Allergies: The beneficial effects of cassava in diabetes have been
The long-term observations on the medicinal effect of confirmed by a number of studies in experimental animals
Manihot esculenta are related to prostate problems [7].
and allergies. Several decades of observations in
Western European countries and a few clinical tests have Nutritional Value of Cassava: Composition of cassava
shown cassava to be effective in treating prostate depends on the specific tissue (root or leaf) and on
problems ranging from infections and swelling to cancer several factors, such as geographic location, variety, age
[15]. It appears that consumption of cassava in large of the plant and environmental conditions. The roots and
quantities in the diet has no biochemically evident leaves, which constitute 50% and 6% of the mature
therapeutic benefit in castration-resistant prostate cancer. cassava plant, respectively, are the nutritionally valuable
A single case may not be adequate to test a hypothesis. parts of cassava [18]. The nutritional value of cassava
However in the absence of scientific publications about roots is important because they are the main part of the
the effects of cassava on prostate cancer, this plant consumed in developing countries. In Table 3, the
scientifically tested case would act as a basis of proximate mineral and vitamin compositions of cassava
evidence that can be used by health care workers who roots and leaves are reported.
look after patients with castration-resistant prostate
cancer as well as by patients with the disease until Nutritional Value of Cassava Roots
further research is done and better evidence is available Macronutrients: Cassava root is an energy-dense food.
Effect of Cassava on Diabetes: In modern medicine no
satisfactory effective therapy is still available to cure
diabetes mellitus, which is a syndrome resulting from a
variable interaction of hereditary and environmental
factors and characterized by abnormal insulin secretion
(Type- 1) or insulin receptor or post-receptor (Resistance,
Type- 2) events affecting metabolism involving
carbohydrates, proteins and fats in addition to damaging
â-cells of pancreas, liver and kidney in some cases.
Several attempts have been made to tackle hyperglycemia
and comorbidities (Cardiovascular, renal, hepatic,
ophthalmic, neurological and osteopathic-, endothelial-
and sexual-dysfunction, etc.) that come with increased
blood glucose level. To this effect drugs like sulfonylurea
that stimulate insulin secretion by the islets and
-glucosidase inhibitors that augment glucose utilization
and suppress glucose production have been developed.
Despite the limited efficacy of these therapies, it is also
not devoid of side effects, therefore necessitating the
mainly due to the presence of phenolics and flavonoids.
In this regard, cassava shows very efficient carbohydrate
production per hectare. It produces about 250000
calories/hectare/d, which ranks it before maize, rice,
sorghum and wheat [18]. The root is a physiological
energy reserve with high carbohydrate content, which
ranges from 32% to 35% on a fresh weight (FW) basis and
from 80% to 90% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Eighty
percent of the carbohydrates produced are starch [19].
83% is in the form of amylopectin and 17% is amylase [20].
Roots contain small quantities of sucrose, glucose,
fructose and maltose [21].
Cassava has bitter and sweet varieties. In sweet
cassava varieties, up to 17% of the root is sucrose with
small amounts of dextrose and fructose [17, 18]. Raw
cassava root has more carbohydrate than potatoes and
less carbohydrate than wheat, rice, yellow corn and
sorghum on a 100-g basis (Table 1). The fiber content in
cassava roots depends on the variety and the age of the
root. Usually its content does not exceed 1.5% in fresh
root and 4% in root flour [19]. The lipid content in
cassava roots ranges from 0.1% to 0.3% on a FW basis.
Acad. J. Nutr., 8 (3): 34-46, 2019
Table 1: Maximum recorded yield and food energy of important tropical staple crops (Source: [25]
Crop Annual yield (tons/hectare) Daily energy production (kJ/hectare)
Fresh cassava root 71 1045
Maize grain 20 836
Fresh sweet potato root 65 752
Rice grain 26 652
Sorghum grain 13 477
Wheat grain 12 460
Banana fruit 39 334
Table 2: Amino acid profile of cassava [19]
Content in roots Content in leaves
---------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------
Amino acid % wet weight % dry weight % protein % wet weight % dry weight % protein
Arginine 0.10 0.29 11.0 0.30 1.48 5.30
Histidine 0.02 0.07 2.60 0.13 0.66 2.30
Isoleucine 0.01 0.03 1.00 0.33 1.67 5.90
Leucine 0.11 0.31 11.70 0.54 2.72 9.70
Lysine 0.02 0.07 2.60 0.37 1.87 6.70
Methionine 0.01 0.03 1.00 0.07 0.36 1.30
Phenylalanine 0.01 0.03 1.00 0.18 0.92 3.30
Threonine 0.01 0.03 1.00 0.27 1.35 4.80
Tryptophan 0.29 0.50 0.05 0.24 0.80
Valine 0.01 0.04 1.50 0.20 0.99 3.50
Alanine 0.05 0.15 5.70 0.34 1.70 6.10
Aspartic acid 0.04 0.13 4.90 0.49 2.44 8.70
Cysteine 0.003 0.01 0.40 0.04 0.21 0.70
Glutamic acid 0.05 0.15 5.70 0.40 1.99 7.10
Glycine 0.003 0.01 0.40 0.35 1.73 6.20
Proline 0.01 0.03 1.00 0.18 0.88 3.10
Serine 0.01 0.04 1.50 0.34 1.68 6.00
Tyrosine 0.003 0.01 0.40 0.18 0.89 3.20
This content is relatively low compared to maize and exception of soybeans. The calcium content is relatively
sorghum, but higher than potato and comparable to rice. high compared to that of other staple crops and ranges
The lipids are either non polar (45%) or contain different between 15 and 35 mg/100 g edible portion. The vitamin
types of glycolipids (52%). The predominant fatty acids C (Ascorbic acid) content is also high and between 15 to
are palmitate and oleate [22]. The protein content is low at 45 mg/100 g edible portions [18, 14]. Cassava roots
1% to 3% on a DM basis and between 0.4 and 1.5 g/100 g contain low amounts of the B vitamins, that is; thiamin,
FW [23]. riboflavin and niacin and part of these nutrients is lost
In contrast, maize and sorghum have about 10 g during processing. Usually the mineral and vitamin
protein/100 g FW. The content of some essential amino contents are lower in cassava roots than in sorghum and
acids, such as methionine, cysteine and tryptophan, is maize. The protein, fat, fiber and minerals are found in
very low (Table 2). However, the roots contain an larger quantities in the root peel than in the peeled root.
abundance of arginine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid However, the carbohydrates, determined by the
[19]. About 50% of the crude protein in the roots nitrogen-free extract, are more concentrated in the peeled
consists of whole protein and the other 50% is free amino root (Central cylinder or pulp) [19].
acids (Predominantly glutamic and aspartic acids) and
non-protein components such as nitrite, nitrate and Nutritional Value of Cassava Leaves
cyanogenic compounds. The presence of cyanogenic Protein and Carbohydrates: The nutrient composition of
compounds, which predominate in bitter varieties and cassava leaves varies in both quality and quantity
processes to reduce them were recently reviewed by depending on the variety of cassava, the age of the plant
Montagnac et al. [24]. and the proportional size of the leaves and stems [19].
Minerals and Vitamins: Cassava roots have calcium, iron, vitamins B1, B2 and C and carotenoids [26]. Cassava leaf
potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese protein ranges from 14% to 40% of DM in different
contents comparable to those of many legumes, with the varieties [27]. The crude protein content is comparable to
Cassava leaves are rich sources of protein, minerals,
Acad. J. Nutr., 8 (3): 34-46, 2019
that of fresh egg (10.9 g/100 g) and the amino acid profile those reported for most legumes, leafy legumes, cereals,
of cassava leaf protein is well balanced compared to that egg, milk and cheese [31].
of the egg [28] except for methionine, lysine and may be
isoleucine. Furthermore, cassava leaves have an essential Fiber: The fiber content of cassava leaves is high
amino acid content higher than soybean protein and compared to the fiber content of legumes and leafy
FAO’s recommended reference protein intake [18]. legumes and ranges between 1 and 10 g/100 g FW.
The carbohydrate content in cassava leaves (7 to 18 g/100 Dietary fiber is considered part of a healthy diet and can
g) is comparable to that of green-snap beans (7.1 g/100 g), reduce problems of constipation. Although recent
carrots (9.6 g/100 g), or green soybeans (11.1 g/100 g) and evidence is mixed, fiber may help prevent colon cancer
it is higher than those of leafy vegetables such as green [32]. The rich fiber of cassava may assist intestinal
leaf lettuce (2.8 g/100 g). The carbohydrates in cassava peristalsis and bolus progression but, if fiber content from
leaves are mainly starch, with amylase content varying any source is too high, it will have negative effects in
from 19% to 24% [19]. humans. Fiber can be a nutritional concern because it can
Minerals and Vitamins: Cassava leaves are rich in iron, increase fecal nitrogen, cause intestinal irritation and
zinc, manganese, magnesium and calcium [10]. The reduce nutrient digestibility, in particular protein
following variations in mineral content for cassava leaf digestibility [31].
meal (CLM) have been reported: from 61.5 to 270 mg
iron/kg DM, 30 to 63.7 mg zinc/kg DM, 50.3 to 263 mg Anti-Nutritional Properties of Cassava
manganese/kg DM, 6.2 to 50 mg copper/kg DM, 2.3 to 3 g Anti-Nutrients in Cassava Leaves and Roots: Despite the
sulfur/kg DM, 2.6 to 9.7 g magnesium/kg DM, 0.4 to many benefits of eating tapioca in various forms, it is
16.3 g calcium/kg DM and 8 to 16.9 g potassium/kg DM important to remember that cassava can be very
[29, 30]. poisonous if not prepared, processed, or cooked properly.
Cassava leaf meal is rich in iron in comparison with Cassava produces cyanide, which is an extremely
liver (121 mg/kg FW) and egg yolk (58.7 mg/kg FW), poisonous compound to humans and animals. Therefore,
although the iron from plant origin is generally less while tapioca that you buy in a store is perfectly healthy
bioavailable than iron from animal food sources. Iron and to eat, don’t attempt to process or eat tapioca grown or
zinc content in cassava leaf meal are comparable to those found in the wild, unless you are instructed by someone
reported for sweet potato leaves and peanut leaves. who is very familiar with a healthy way of processing it
Calcium content is comparable to those of peanut and [33].
broccoli and magnesium content surpasses that of Anti-nutrients are also referred to as nutritional
broccoli but is below those of peanut and sweet potato. stress factors. These factors may either be in the form
Thus, mineral content of cassava leaf meal is comparable of synthetic or natural compounds and they impede
with that of other leaves [10]. nutrient absorption. The commonly occurring anti
The vitamin content of cassava leaves is richer in nutrients in plants includes; cyanide, phytates, nitrates
thiamin (Vitamin B1, 0.25 mg/100 g) than legumes and and nitrites, phenolic compounds and oxalates among
leafy legumes, except for soybeans (0.435 mg/100 g). others. As much as cassava contains various beneficial
The leaves have more thiamin than several animal nutrients, it also has anti-nutritional and toxic substances,
foods including fresh egg, cheese and 3.25% fat whole which impair nutrient uptake and absorption of nutrients.
milk. The riboflavin (Vitamin B2) content of cassava However, it has been documented in that various
leaves (0.60 mg/100 g) surpasses that of legumes, leafy processing methods reduce the levels of some of these
legumes, soybean, cereal, egg, milk and cheese. The toxic substances in vegetables [34].
niacin content (2.4mg/100 g) is comparable to that of maize Generally Cassava contains anti-nutrients, such as
(2 mg/100 g) and surpasses those reported for legumes phytate, nitrate, polyphenols, oxalate and saponins that
and leafy legumes, milk and egg. The vitamin A content of can reduce nutrient bioavailability. However, some of
cassava leaves is comparable with that of carrots and these compounds can also act as anti-carcinogens
surpasses those reported for legumes and leafy legumes. and antioxidants depending on the amount ingested.
The vitamin C content (60 to 370 mg/100 g) of cassava Phytate interferes with the absorption of divalent
leaves is high compared to values reported for other metals, such as iron and zinc, which are essential
vegetables. Thus, the overall vitamin content of the nutrients. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of raw
leaves is comparable and in certain cases better than cassava tuber contain alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and
decrease nutrient absorption in the body. Excess fiber will
Acad. J. Nutr., 8 (3): 34-46, 2019
Table 3: Nutritional composition of cassava roots and leaves Source: [23]
Proximate composition Cassava roots Cassava leaves
Food energy (kcal) 100-149 91
Moisture (g) 45.9-85.3 64.8-88.6
Dry weight g) 29.8-39.3 19-28.3
Protein (g) 0.3-3.5 1.0-10.0
Lipid (g) 0.03-0.5 0.2-2.9
Total carbohydrate (g) 25.3-35.7 7-18.3
Dietary fiber(g) 0.1-3.7 0.5-10.0
Ash (g) 0.4-1.7 0.7-4.5
Thiamin (mg) 0.03-0.28 0.06-0.31
Riboflavin (mg) 0.03-0.06 0.21-0.74
Niacin (mg) 0.6-1.09 1.3-2.8
Ascorbic acid (mg) 14.9-50 60-370
Vitamin A ( g) 5.0-35.0 8300-11800
Calcium (mg) 19-176 34-708
Phosphorus (mg) 6-152 27-211
Iron (%) 0.3-14.0 0.4-8.3
Potassium (%) 0.25-0.72 0.35-1.23
Magnesium (ppm) 0.03-0.08 0.12-0.42
Copper (ppm) 2.00-6.00 3.0-12.0
Zinc (ppm) 14.00-41.00 71.0-249.0
Sodium (ppm) 76.00-213.00 51.0(177)
Manganese (ppm) 3.00-10.00 72.0-152.0
anthocyanosides, anthraquinone, phlobatinnins and
saponins but, do not contain cardiac glycosides. The
cassava leaves contain lot of antinutrients, such as
tannins, oxalate, phytate and trypsin inhibitors [35].
Cassava leaves are nutritious but it contains more
anti-nutrients that cause toxicity unless processed [36].
Phytates: Phytate is an anti-nutrient that controls the
intracellular signaling and forms the phosphate storage
part in plant seeds; although it binds proteins and
minerals in the gastrointestinal tract making them
unavailable for absorption and utilization by the body.
In particular, phytate has a binding effect on multivalent
metal ions, including zinc, iron and calcium, all of which
are important nutrients. This leads to formation of salts
that are highly insoluble and minerals that are less
bioavailability [37].
Tannins/Phenolics: Flavonoids form a set of compounds
that are referred to as polyphenolics, such as tannins,
which are anti-nutritional agents. Data on polyphenols
found in cassava leaves is expressed by researchers as
tannin equivalents while employing a non-specific assay
[33, 38]. Polyphenols, which are antioxidants, bind various
minerals in food, reducing its bioavailability. In addition,
they impair the functionality of digestive enzymes, thus
slowing digestion and in some cases cause proteins
precipitation [39]. The levels in plants vary and may be
influenced by factors like; germination, storage and
processing time. Increase phenolic compounds levels are
known to decrease fertility among women of reproductive
age by altering the levels of hormones, hence affecting
the early pregnancy stages [40].
Cyanide: The cyanide, which occurs as cyanogenic
glucosides, is a toxic compound that has been associated
with adverse health outcomes among humans. The level
of cyanide in cassava surpasses 10 mg/kg dry weight,
which is the recommended maximum consumption level by
the World Health Organization and the Food and
Agricultural Organization. This makes cassava leaves
highly toxic for consumption by humans. The content of
cyanide in cassava roots is much lower (10 times lower)
as compared to the leaves, an aspect that explains its
utilization for methodological standardization [41].
The level of cyanide is cassava is defined by the type of
cassava of reference, with each variety exhibiting different
levels of this toxic compound. Excessive intake of cyanide
is known to cause cretinism and goiter which are
associated with iodine deficiency [42]. This is as a result
of the production of thiocyanate as a by-product of
cyanide metabolism, which restricts the uptake of iodide
by thyroid gland [43]. As such, prior to consumption, it is
important for cassava leaves to be properly processed in
view of reducing the content of cyanide [44].
Oxalates: Oxalates are di-carboxylic acids that are present
in plant-based foods such as cassava, which have a
negative impact on the bioavailability of magnesium and
calcium. These anti-nutritional agents bind calcium,
leading to formation of crystals or excretion through urine.
The crystals that form (Calcium oxalate) majorly contribute
to kidney stones. It is highly advisable to reduce oxalates
intake and promote the intake of calcium among
individuals who are risk of kidney stones [45]. Cassava
leaves have an oxalate concentration of between 1.35 and
2.88 g/100 g of total dry weight [33].
Less attention had been given towards the
importance of the levels of oxalates in foods until recently,
as it was believed that only 10% of the calcium excreted
daily was due to dietary calcium [45]. The impact that
oxalates have on the health of humans is highly
dependent on the calcium available and the oxalate levels
consumed. According to Wobeto et al. [33] cassava’s
calcium-to-oxalate ratio is a high of 5, which surpasses the
Acad. J. Nutr., 8 (3): 34-46, 2019
Table 4: The anti-nutrient levels of Manihot esculenta in mg/100 g of wet
Manihot esculenta Phytates Oxalates Tannins Cyanide Nitrates
191.25 15.74 0.65 25.69 3.58
recommended 0.44%, below which calcium uptake is
endangered. As such, the level of oxalates in cassava
leaves have no negative impact on calcium uptake.
Nevertheless, groups that consume cassava leaves
should consider breeding different varieties of cassava to
obtain types that have lower levels of oxalates and
enhanced calcium. Other anti-nutrients including nitrates,
phytates, oxalates, polyphenols and saponins also reduce
the bioavailability of nutrients. The anti-nutrient
compounds also act as antioxidants and anti-carcinogens
depending on amounts consumed [31].
Nitrates and Nitrites: Nitrates occur naturally in most
soils and water sources; hence they are taken up by
growing plants. Leafy vegetables are the main
contributors of nitrates in diets and contribute about 75%
of the total foods ingested. Nitrates in themselves are not
toxic at the levels present in most foods but the toxicity
occurs when the nitrates are reduced to nitrites [46].
When high levels of nitrates in vegetables are ingested,
they are changed to nitrite. This can result in the
development of blue-baby disease, metheamoglobinemia,
or cancer [47]. However, since nitrates and nitrites are
water soluble, some amounts may be lost through
leaching during the preparation process. Further, most of
the nitrites present are oxidized to nitrate and upon
cooking, they leach out of the vegetable [48]. Green leafy
vegetables with increased levels of nitrates include;
spinach, radishes, lettuce, beets and celery, among others
Detoxification Properties of Cassava
Detoxification of Cassava Cyanogens
Biotechnology and Conventional Breeding: The presence
of toxic cyanogenic glycosides in cassava constitutes a
critical limiting factor to its use, together with other
considerations such as deficiency in some essential
nutrients and high deterioration rate. Detoxification
through breeding/genetic engineering and processing
offers an opening to scaling this debacle that confronts
economic and social prospects of the plant. This reduces
the exposure to cyanogenic compounds and thus lowers
or eliminates the risk of cyanide intoxication [50].
Autolysis of linamarin is extensively relied on in
detoxifying cassava (especially during processing) for
human consumption. This is triggered by maceration or
cell disruption, which results in bringing linamarase
into contact with the glycosides and hydrolyses them.
The activity of linamarase, however decreases a few days
after harvest [51]. The reasons responsible for this
lowered activity is not certain, but has been related to the
formation of enzyme inhibiting compounds such as
polyphenols [52].
The hindrance to attaining optimal use of cassava
can best be achieved when cyanide-free strains are
obtained from breeding programmes because they do not
occur naturally [23]. Cyanide-free strains would make
cassava reliably safe, more acceptable and marketable and
reduce cyanide effluent from cassava processing plants
[53]. Genetic engineering, using antisense technology,
has been used to block the synthesis of linamarin,
resulting in cyanide-free cassava. Dramatically reduced
linamarin content in leaves and roots of wild-types has
also been achieved by genetic manipulation [53-55].
The downside to this development, however, is the
likelihood of having reduced plant yield as a result of
stalling the synthesis of linamarin [56]. The resulting
transgenic plant could not produce roots because of a
lack of ammonia, which is produced by the roots using
linamarin as its source. Obstructing the synthesis of
linamarin also leaves the plant vulnerable to animal and
insect attack since linamarin is used in a defensive
mechanism [57]. Besides these technical and research
issues, controversy and skepticism surrounding
genetically modified organisms [58] may pose a challenge
to the introduction and use of transgenic “strains” in part
of the world. Genetic transformation and molecular
biology techniques have not made any commercially
remarkable impact even though they present great
potential. Conventional methods of breeding, which
involves selection and crossing varieties to yield
desirable traits, have also been applied in a bid to reduce
the cyanogen content in cassava. Previous studies by
Iglesias et al. [59] showed reduced cyanogen content in
some clones compared to their parental variety. The low
vegetative multiplication rate and the fact that several
factors affect the quality of planting material; however,
complicates and makes this method quite difficult to
implement [60].
Processing: Aside of genetic/breeding interventions
embarked upon to obtain significantly reduced cyanogens
content in cassava, biological detoxification methods
such as enzyme and bacteria action and physical methods
such as processing present suitable options to attaining
Acad. J. Nutr., 8 (3): 34-46, 2019
a similar goal. These methods have resulted in favours contact of the enzymes with its substrate. In the
tremendous and significant economic gains as far as the case of submerged fermentation, this process synergises
use of cassava is concerned. Detoxification essentially with leaching of cyanogen to detoxify the cassava roots
involves two separate treatments; first is one that [73].
enhances the contact between linamarase and its Three major types of fermentation are widely
substrates (Cyanohydrins) followed by a second that practiced in different parts of Africa; these are the grated
volatilizes the HCN produced as a result of contact root fermentation, mould fermentation of roots in
between the enzyme and its substrates. Processing largely heaps and fermentation of roots under water [61].
promotes these conditions that are required for adequate Fermentation of cassava roots is largely acidic (pH 3.8)
detoxification. Cassava processing improves shelf-life, while that for leaves is alkaline (pH 8.5) with lactic acid
detoxifies the roots, facilitates transport and enhances bacteria dominating the microbiota [74]. Some lactic
consumer acceptability [61, 62]. acid bacteria and yeast possess linamarase activity and
The short coming of processing as a detoxification are recognized for significantly contributing to
method, conversely, is that a lot of them result in loss of cyanogenic glycoside breakdown during fermentation of
nutrients [63]. Enzymatic removal of cyanogens is cassava [75].
commonly accomplished by treating samples with These microorganisms are capable of utilizing the
enzymes isolated from bacteria to breakdown cyanogenic cyanogens and their degradation products [76] thereby
compounds into acetone cyanohydrins, which ridding their substrate of these noxious substances and
decomposes spontaneously to HCN or by treating with rendering the substrate safe. Previous reports have
plant cell wall-degrading enzymes such as cellulolytic and shown a remarkable reduction in cyanogenic potential of
pectolytic enzymes to enhance the release of linamarin cassava following fermentation. More than 50 % and 35 %
and allow for more contact time with linamarinase [64]. reduction in cyanogen levels has previously been
The latter principle has been exploited in the production achieved in the production of gari and fermented cassava
of cassava starch [65]. The HCN produced is flour respectively [77, 78] have also reported up to 41%
subsequently dissolves readily in water or is released into reduction in cyanide levels during fermentation. Other
the air [63, 66]. researchers have also reported varying levels of decline
The enzyme hydrolyses of the cyanogens is in cyanogen potential after fermentation [79]. Indeed
sensitive to changes in pH [67] with pH > 5 favoring the reduction in cyanide level in all cases depends on the
breakdown. Certain species of Bacillus,Pseudomonas initial cyanide levels of the raw material.
and Klebsiella oxytoca have been reported to utilize
cyanide as the only source of nitrogen under aerobic and Soaking: Soaking cassava roots usually precedes
anaerobic conditions thus breaking it down into non-toxic fermentation, cooking or drying. Retting, followed by sun
compounds [68]. Bacillus subtilis KM05 isolated from drying is exploited as a method of processing cassava
cassava peels has been used to detoxify cassava flour roots in some parts of Africa. This technique of long
[63] by degrading linamarin into HCN and subsequently soaking cassava roots in stagnant or slow running ponds
releasing ammonia. In another study by Nwokoro and and causes the breakdown of tissues and extraction of the
Anya [69] cassava flour samples treated with linamarinase starchy mass [80]. The water softens the cells of the
enzyme isolated from L.delbrueckii resulted in an 89.5% cassava roots, provides a larger medium for fermentation
reduction in cyanide content. and facilitates leaching of cyanogenic glycosides.
Fermentation: Fermentation as a method of processing but has little effect on bound cyanide. Soaking peeled or
primarily enhances nutritional properties through unpeeled cassava roots is practiced in the northern and
biosynthesis of vitamins, essential amino acids and central regions of Malawi [62] to produce ‘waluwa’ and
proteins, by improving protein quality and fiber ‘kanyakaska’ which are dried and pounded into flour
digestibility as well as the enhancement of micronutrient and used to prepare a local delicacy called ‘kodowole’.
bioavailability and degradation of anti-nutritional factors The cassava roots come out of the process having lost
[70, 71] Fermentation of cassava, both aerobic and between 31.0% and 49.9% (For unpeeled and peeled roots
anaerobic, favors the hydrolysis of linamarin into HCN. respectively) of their cyanogenic potential. Other studies
Even though details of the mechanism involved are have resulted in remarkably significant reduction in
unclear [72] fermentation softens the cells of the roots and cyanogenic glycosides after soaking [81].
The method removes a substantial amount of free cyanide
Acad. J. Nutr., 8 (3): 34-46, 2019
Cooking: Boiling cassava roots, which is often for direct becomes immobilized thus preventing its interaction with
consumption with accompaniments such as soups and linamarase in the drying medium [52, 87]. Extending the
stews, is commonplace in most areas where cassava is period of drying with higher moisture levels have been
produced for culinary purposes. Cooking is processing observed to result in enhanced linamarin breakdown, thus
cassava roots by this method is preceded by peeling, explaining the fact that fast drying rates result in lower
cutting into11 chunks/dicing and washing. Disruption of detoxification while slower rates result in higher cyanogen
cell membrane during cooking largely occurs between removal [52]. Cyanohydrin levels remain high in the
60 and 70°C and not long after that linamarase is product during drying because of the enzyme hydrolysis
destroyed, making contact with its substrate inadequate that takes place, especially when root pieces are humid.
for thorough detoxification. This causes a possible Their levels could be reduced further by thorough drying
retention of cyanogenic glycoside levels [82]. well below 12 or 13% moisture. HCN levels conversely
Cyanohydrins from aldehydes, may also exist even after remain low during drying because it volatilizes as a result
cooking because they are thermo-stable [50]. As a result, of its exposure to heat [87].
boiling is often criticized and an ineffective standalone
method of detoxifying cassava roots and hence is CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
preferred as a method of processing sweet cassava,
although the heat favors rapid evaporation of HCN Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations
produced [83]. studied out in the plant Manihot esculenta in various
Indeed, the extent of reduction of cyanogenic literature sources reveal its multidisciplinary usage. It is
glycosides has been related to the cooking time [82, 84] very essential to have a proper documentation of
have reported cooking to reduce cyanogen potential by medicinal plants and to know their potential for the
50 -70% in Southern Asia [85]. Introduced a soaking and improvement of health and hygiene through an eco-
squeezing stage prior to cooking and achieved a friendly system. Manihot esculenta Crantz, most
remarkable reduction in cyanogenic potential of up to popularly known as cassava is one of the most forgiving
70%. Boiling/cooking has also been applied to process and adaptable plants. It is not so commonly used in herbal
cassava leaves and resulted in 75 % reduction [84] and in medicine, but indigenous people do employ it for various
some cases more than 90% reduction in cyanide level [86]. purposes. Because of some of its potentially toxic
Roasting Drying: Cassava roots have been processed in it is considered as non-edible and toxic in various parts of
to a lot of dried products. Drying is widely accepted as an the world but, it is definitely one of the most useful
efficient processing method for cassava roots as it results medicinal plants. Therefore, based on the above
in products that are shelf-stable with relatively reduced conclusion the following recommendations are forwarded:
cyanide content. In as much as advanced systems of further pharmacological experiments should be performed
drying exist, sun drying is the most adopted method in in the plant to extend to the next level of clinical trial to
cassava processing regions of Africa and as such generate novel drugs. Processing cassava into ready-to-
sun-dried cassava products are the most common [61]. eat products is necessary to remove cyanogens and other
Dried cassava pieces can be processed further into other anti-nutrients. In addition to genetically engineering and
preferred forms. Drying or roasting cassava is usually traditionally breeding cassava to contain higher amounts
preceded by peeling, chipping, chunking or grating before of macronutrients, it is necessary to process cassava to
spreading out in the sun to dry. Detoxification is achieved reduce toxic cyanide and improve protein content and
by the drying mechanism in itself does not play any energy density. Continued efforts to improve its
significant role in the detoxification process but the tissue nutritional value are important because cassava is staple
disruption that precedes drying. The efficiency of cyanide food for many people in developing countries.
removal during drying is dependent on moisture content
of the roots, rate of moisture loss (Which relates to drying REFERENCES
conditions) and the extent of tissue disruption [52].
The influence of moisture content on detoxification is 1. Heidari, R.M., M.E. Azad and M. Mehrabani, 2006.
crucial, as glucoside degradation has been observed to Evaluation of the analgesic effect of Echium
stop between 13% and 18% moisture. This is because amoenum, Fisch and C.A, May, Extract in mice;
diffusion of linamarin during drying continually decreases possible mechanism involved, J. Ethnopharmacol.,
and at a point where bulk water for transport is lacking, it 103: 345-349.
components which are removed by processing, sometimes
Acad. J. Nutr., 8 (3): 34-46, 2019
2. Kupeli, E, I.I. Tatli, S.Z. Akedemir and E. Yesilada, 14. Charles, A.L., Y.H. Chang, W.C. Ko, K. Sriroth and
2007a. Estimation of antinociceptive and T.C. Huang, 2004. Some physical and chemical
antinfmmatory activity on Geranium protense subsp. properties of starch isolates of cassava genotypes.
Finitimum and its phenolic coumpounds, J. Starch/Starke, 56: 413-418.
Ethnopharmacol., 114: 234-240. 15. Anbuselvi, S. and T. Balamurugan, 2014.
3. Ojewole, O.A.J., 2004. Evaluation of the analgesic ant Phytochemical and antinutrient constituents of
inflammatory and antidiabatic properties of cassava and sweet potato. World Journal of
Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst. Stem bark Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3: 1440-1449.
aqueous extract in mice and rats. Phytother, Res., 16. Abeygunasekera, A.M. and K.H. Palliyaguruge, 2013.
18: 601-608. Does cassava help to control prostate cancer? A
4. Gedif, M. and H.J. Hahn, 2003. The use of medicinal case report. Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology &
plants in self-care in rural central Ethiopia, J. Drug Research, pp: 2. doi: 10.7243/2050-120X-2-3
Ethnopharmacol., 87: 155-161. 17. Abo-Salem, O.M., R.H. El-Edel, G.E.I. Harisa,
5. Giday, M., Z. Asfaw and Z. Woldu, 2009. N. El-Halawany and M.M. Ghonaim, 2009.
Medicinal plants of the meinit ethnic groups of Experimental diabetic nephropathy can be prevented
Ethiopia: An ethno botanical study, J. by propolis: Effect on metabolic disturbances and
Ethnopharmacol., 124: 513-521. renal oxidative parameters. Pakistan J. Pharm. Sci.,
6. Alves, A.A.C., 2002. Cassava botany and 22: 205-210.
physiology. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, 18. Okigbo, B.N., 1980. Nutritional implications of
pp: 67-89 projects giving high priority to the production of
7. Ani, A.I., I.J. Atangwho, M.A. Agiang and staples of low nutritive quality. In the case for
Y.E. Alozie, 2012. Biochemical effects of some cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) in the humid
traditional Nigerian diets in experimental diabetic rat tropics of West Africa. Food Nutr Bull, 2: 1-10.
models. International Journal of Biochemistry 19. Gil, J.L. and A.J.A. Buitrago, 2002. La yuca en la
Research, 2(2): 70-77. alimentacion animal. In: Ospina B, Ceballos H,
8. Afolabi, L., O.O. Adeyemi and O.K. Yemitan, 2008. editors. La yuca en el tercer milenio: sistemas
Cassava leaves have anti-inflammatory and analgesic modernos de producci´on, procesamiento, utilizaci
principles, which justify its use in traditional African ´on y comercializaci ´on. Cali, Colombia: Centro
medicine. J. Ethnopharmacol., 119: 6-11. Internacional de Agricultura Tropical., pp:: 527-569.
9. Bahekar, S. and R. Kale, 2013. 20. Rawel, H.M. and J. Kroll, 2003. Die Bedeutung von
Psychopharmacological aspects of Manihot Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) als
esculenta crantz (Cassava)-a review. Mintage Journal Hauptnahrungsmittel in tropischen L¨andern.
of Pharmaceutical and Medical Sciences. Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau, 99: 102-110.
10. Wobeto, C., A.D. Corrêa, C.M.P. De Abreu, C.D. Dos 21. Tewe, O.O. and N. Lutaladio, 2004. Cassava for
Santos and J.R. De Abreu, 2006. Nutrients in the livestock feed in sub-Saharan Africa. Rome, Italy:
cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) leaf meal at FAO.
three ages of the plant. Cienc Technol. Aliment, 22. Hudson, B.J.F. and A.O. Ogunsua, 1974. Lipids of
26: 865-869. cassava tubers (Manihot esculenta, Crantz). J. Sci.
11. Jayasri, P., D. Narendra, Naik and A. Elumalai, 2011. Food Agric., 25: 1503-1508.
Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Manihot 23. Bradbury, J.H. and W.D. Holloway, 1988. Cassava,
esculenta leaves. Int. J. Curr. Pharm. Res., 3: 115-116. M. esculenta. Chemistry of tropical root crops:
12. Trinidad, P.T., S.S. Rosario, C.M. Aida, S.B. Melissa, significance for nutrition and agriculture in the
P.D.L. Marco and F.A. Theressa, 2013. Sweet Potato pacific. Australian center for international agricultural
and Cassava Can Modify Cholesterol Profile in research, Monograph 6, Canberra, Australia,
Humans with Moderately Raised Serum Cholesterol pp: 76-104.
Levels. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 4: 491-495 24. Montagnac, J.A., C.R. Davis and S.A. Tanumihardjo,
13. Dorota, L., Z. Rafa , G. Halina and S. Marek, 2014. 2009. Processing techniques to reduce toxicity and
Gluten Free Bread in a Diet of Celiacs. International antinutrients of cassava for use as a staple food.
Journal of Celiac Disease, 2(1): 11-16. Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety, 8: 17-27.
Acad. J. Nutr., 8 (3): 34-46, 2019
25. El-Sharkawy, M.A., 2003. Casssava biology and 38. Fasuyi, A.O., 2005. Nutrient composition and
physiology. Plant Mol. Biol., 53: 621-641. processing effects on cassava leaf (Manihot
26. Adewusi, S.R.A. and J.H. Bradbury, 1993. esculenta, Crantz) antinutrients. Pakistan Journal of
Carotenoid in cassava: comparison of open column Nutrition, 4: 37-42.
and HPLC methods of analysis. J. Sci. Food Agric., 39. Beecher, G.R., 2003. Overview of dietary flavonoids;
62: 375-383. nomenclature occurrence and nitrate. Journal of
27. Eggum, R.O., 1970. The protein quality of cassava Nutrition, 133(10): 32485-32545.
leaves. Br J. Nutr., 24: 761-768. 40. Greenwell, I., 2000. Antioxidant Power. In: Life
28. Jacquot, R., 1957. Les facteurs d’efficacit´e Extension Magazine March Life Extension
alimentaire. In: Nutrition et alimentation tropicales. Foundation, Boston.
Tome 1, AO editions. Rome, Italy: FAO. 41. Haque, M.R. and J.H. Bradbury, 2004. Total cyanide
29. Chavez, A.L., J.M. Bedoya, T. Sanchez, C. Iglesias, determination of plants and foods using the picrate
H. Ceballos and W. Roca, 2000. Iron, carotene and and acid hydrolysis methods. Food Chemistry,
ascorbic acid in cassava roots and leaves. Food Nutr. 77: 107-114.
Bull., 21: 410-413. 42. Nhassico, D., H. Muquingue, J. Cliff, A. Cumbana
30. Madruga, M.S. and F.S. Camara, 2000. The chemical and J.H. Bradbury, 2008. Rising African
composition of “Multimistura” as a food supplement. cassava cyanide intake and control measures.
Food Chemistry, 68: 41-44. Journal of Science. Food and Agriculture,
31. Montagnac, J.A., R.D. Christopher and 88: 2043-2049.
S.A. Tanumihardjo, 2009. Nutritional Value of 43. Ermans, A.M., N.M. Mbulamoko, F. Delange and
Cassava for Use as a Staple Food and Recent R. Ahluwalia, 1980. Role of cassava in the Etiology of
Advances for Improvement. Comprehensive Endemic Goitre and Cretenism International Research
Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Centre. Ottawa.
8: 181-194. 44. Gomez, G. and M. Valdivieso, 1985. Cassava foliage:
32. Rock, C.L., 2007. Primary dietary prevention: is the chemical composition, cyanide content and
fiber story over? Recent Results Cancer Res., effect of drying on cyanide elimination. Journal
174: 171-177. of Science Food and Agriculture Chichester,
33. Wobeto, C., A.D. Corrêa, C.M.P. De Abreu, C.D. Dos 36: 433-441.
Santos and H.V. Pereira, 2007. Anti-nutrients in the 45. Massey, L.K., 2007. Food oxalate: Factors affecting
cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaf powder at measurement, biological variation and bioavailability.
three ages of the plant. Cienc Technol. Aliment, Journal of American Dietetic Association,
27: 108-112. 107: 1191-1194.
34. Ogbadoyi, E.O., A.H. Makun, O.R. Bamigbade, 46. Mohri, T., 1993. Nitrates and Nitrites. In:
O.A. Oyewale and J.A. Oladiran, 2006. The effect of Encyclopaedia of Food Science, Food Technology
processing and preservation methods on the oxalate and Nutrition. Vol. 5. (Eds.) Macrae, R; R. K.
levels of some Nigeria leafy vegetables. Biokemistri., Robinson and M. J. Sadler. Academic Press, London,
18: 121-125. pp: 3240-3244.
35. Achidi, A.U., O.A. Ajayi, B. Maziya-Dixon and 47. Gupta, P., K. Dhawan, S.P. Malhotra and R. Singh,
M. Bokanga, 2008. The effect of processing on the 2002. Purification and characterization of trypsin
nutrient content of cassava leaves J. Food. Process. inhibitor from seeds of faba bean (Vicia faba L). Acta
Preserv., 32: 486-502. Physiology. Plantarum, 22: 433-438.
36. Dini, I., G.C. Tenore and A. Dini, 2009. Saponins in 48. Ricardo, B., 1993. Amaranth. In: Encyclopaedia of
Ipomoea batatas tubers: Isolation, characterization, Food Science Technology and Nutrition. Academic
quantification and antioxidant properties. Food press, London, 1: 135-140.
Chem., 113: 411-419. 49. Prasad, S. and A.A. Chetty, 2008. Nitrate-N
37. Rhou, J.R. and J.V. Erdman, 1995. Phytic acid in determination in leafy vegetables: Study of the
Health and Disease. Critical Reviews in Food Science effects of cooking and freezing. Food Chemistry,
and Nutrition, 35: 495-508. 106: 772-780.
Acad. J. Nutr., 8 (3): 34-46, 2019
50. Onabolu, A.O., O.S.A. Oluwole, H. Rosling and 62. Nyirenda, D.B., L. Chiwona-Karltun, M. Chitundu,
M. Bokanga, 2002. Processing factors affecting the S. Haggblade and L. Brimer, 2011. Chemical safety of
level of residual cyanohydrins in Gari. Journal of the cassava products in regions adopting cassava
Science of Food and Agriculture, 82: 966-969. production and processing Experience form
51. Iwastuki, N., M. Kojima, E.S. Data and Southern Africa. Food and Chemical Toxicology,
C.D.V. Villegas-Godoy, 1984. Changes in cyanide 49: 607-612.
content and linamarase activity in cassava roots after 63. Murugan, K., K. Yashotha-Sekar and S. Al-
harvest. In: Uritani, I. and Reyes, E.D. (eds), Tropical Sohaibani, 2012. Detoxification of cyanides in
root crops-postharvest physiology and processing. cassava flour by linamarase of Bacillus subtilis
Japan Scientific press, Tokyo, pp: 151-161. KM05 isolated from cassava peel. African Journal of
52. Essers, A.J.A., R.M. Van Der Grift and Biotechnology, 11: 7232-7237.
A.G.J. Voragen, 1996. Cyanogen removal from 64. Yeoh, H.H. and F. Sun, 2001.Assessing cyanogen
cassava roots during sun-drying. Food Chemistry, content in cassava-based food using the enzyme-
55: 319-325. dipstick method. Food and Chemical Toxicology,
53. Siritunga, D. and R.T. Sayre, 2003. Generation of 39: 649-653.
cyanogen - free transgenic cassava. Planta, 65. Sornyotha, S., K.L. Kyu and K. Ratanakhanokchai,
217: 367-373. 2010. An efficient treatment for detoxification process
54. Andersen, M.D., P.K. Busk, I. Svendsen and of cassava starch by plant cell wall-degrading
B.L. Moller, 2000. Cytochromes from cassava enzymes. Journal of Biosciences and Bioengineering,
(Manihot esculenta Crantz) catalyzing the first steps 109: 9-14.
in the biosysnthesis of the cyanogenic glycosides 66. Rolle, R.S., 1998. Enzyme application for agro-
linamarin and lotaustralin: cloning, functional processing in developing countries: an inventory of
expression in Pichiapastoris and substrate specificity current and potential applications. World Journal of
of the isolated recombinant enzymes. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 14: 611-619.
Biology and Chemistry, 275: 1966-1975. 67. Cumbana, A., E. Mirione, J. Cliff and J.H. Bradbury,
55. Siritunga, D. and Sayre R.T., 2004. Engineering 2007. Reduction of cyanide content of cassava
cyanogen synthesis and turnover in cassava flour in Mozambique by the wetting method. Food
(Manihot esculenta). Plant Molecular Biology, Chemistry, 101: 849-897.
56: 661-669. 68. Kaewkannetra, P., T. Imai, F.J. Garcia-Garcia and
56. Taylor, N., P. Chavarriaga, K. Raemakers, D. Siritunga T.Y. Chiu, 2009. Cyanide removal from cassava mill
and P. Zhang, 2004. Development and application of wastewater using Azotobacter vinelandii TISTR
transgenic technologies in cassava. Plant Molecular 1094 with mixed microorganisms in activated sludge
Biology, 56: 671-688. treatment system. Journal of Hazardous Material,
57. Vetter, J., 2000. Plant cyanogenic glycosides. 172: 224-228.
Toxicon, 38: 11. 69. Nwokoro, O. and F.O. Anya, 2011. Linamarinase
58. Falkner, R., 2004. The first meeting of the parties to enzyme from Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B-763:
the Cartagena protocol on bio safety. Environmental Purification and some properties of a -Glucosidase.
Politics, 13: 635-641. Journal of Mexican Chemical Society, 55: 246-250.
59. Iglesias, C.A., T. Sanchez and H.H. Yeoh, 2002. 70. Achinewhu, S.C., L.I. Barber and I.O. Ijeoma, 1998.
Cyanogens and Linamarase activities in storage Physicochemical properties and garification
roots of cassava plants from breeding program. (Gari yield) of selected cassava cultivars in River
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, States, Nigeria. Plant Food for Human Nutrition,
15: 379-387. 52: 133-140.
60. Ceballos, H., E. Okogbenin, J.C. Perez, L.A.B. Lopez- 71. Motarjemi, Y., 2002. Impact of small scale
Valle and D. Dubouck, 2010. Cassava. In: Bradshaw, fermentation technology on food safety in
J.E. (ed). Roots and Tuber Crops, Springer Science developing countries. International Journal of Food
and Business media, London, pp: 53-96. Microbiology, 75: 213-229.
61. Westby, A., 2002. Cassava Utilization, storage and 72. Vasconcelos, A.T., D.R. Twiddy, A. Westby and
small-scale processing. In: Hillocks, R.J., thresh, J.M. P.J.A. Reilly, 1990. Detoxification of cassava during
Bellotti, A., (eds) Cassava: Biology, production and gari preparation. International Journal of Food
utilization.CAB Publishing International, pp: 281-300. Science and Technology, 25: 198-203.
Acad. J. Nutr., 8 (3): 34-46, 2019
73. Westby, A. and B.K. Choo, 1994. Cyanogen 81. Ampe, F. and A. Brauman, 1995. Origin of enzymes
reduction during the lactic fermentation of cassava. involved in detoxification and root softening during
Acta Horticulturae, 373: 209-215. cassava retting. World Journal of Microbiology and
74. Oyewole, O.B. and S.L. Ogundele, 2001. Effect of Biotechnology, 11: 178-182.
length of fermentation on the functional 82. Jansz, E.R. and D.I. Uluwaduge, 1997. Biochemical
characteristics of fermented cassava ‘fufu’. The aspects of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) with
Journal of Food Technology in Africa, 6: 38-40. special emphasis on cyanogenic glucosides A
75. Kimaryo, V.M., G.A. Massawe, N.A. Olasupo and Review. Journal of the National. Science Council of
W.H. Holzapfel, 2000. The use of a starter culture on Srilanka, 25: 1-24.
the fermentation of cassava for the production of 83. Bokanga, M., 1995. Biotechnology and cassava
kivumde a traditional Tanzanian food product. processing in Africa. Food Technology, 49: 86-90.
International Journal of Food Microbiology, 84. Hidayat, A., N. Zuraida and I Hanarida, 2002. The
56: 179-190. cyanogenic potential of roots and leaves of ninety
76. Akindahunsi, A.A., G. Ohoh and A.A. Oshodi, 1999. nine cassava cultivars. Indonesian Journal of
Effect of fermenting cassava with Rhizopus oryzae Agricultural Science, 3: 25-32.
on the chemical composition of its flour and gari. 85. Fukuba, H., O. Igarashi, C.M. Briones and
Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse, 76: 437-440. E.M.T. Mendoza, 1982. Determination and
77. Kemdirim, O.C., O.A. Chukwu and S.C. Achinewhu, detoxification of cyanide in cassava and cassava
1995. Effect of traditional processing of cassava on products. Philippians Journal of Crop Science,
the cyanide content of gari and cassava flour. 7: 170-175.
Plant food for Human Nutrition, 48: 335-339. 86. Ngudi, D.D., Y.H. Kuo and F. Lambein, 2003. Cassava
78. Enidiok, S.E., L.E. Attah and C.A. Otuechere, 2008. cyanogens and free amino acids in raw and cooked
Evaluation of moisture, t otal cyanide and fiber leaves. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 41: 1193-1197.
contents of Garri produced from cassava 87. Mlingi, N.L.V., Z.A. Bainbridge, N.H. Poulter and
(Manihot utilissima) varieties obtained from Awassa H. Rosling, 1995. Critical stages in cyanogen removal
in Southern Ethiopia. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, during cassava processing in southern Tanzania.
7: 625-629. Food Chemistry, 53: 29-33.
79. Djoulde, D.R., N.J.J. Essia and F.X. Etoa, 2007.
Nutritive value, toxicological and hygienic quality of
some cassava based products consumed in
Cameroon. Pakistani Journal of Nutrition, 6: 404-408.
80. Ayernor, G.S., 1985. Effects of the retting of cassava
on product yield and cyanide detoxification. Journal
of Food Technology, 20: 89-96.
... Cassava is also rich in calcium and manganese. The common anti-nutritional factors found in plants are cyanide, phytates, nitrates and nitrites, phenolic compounds, and oxalates [16,17]. ...
... It has high amounts of fibers and thereby eliminates constipation, bloating, and intestinal pain. However, if cassava is not prepared, processed, or cooked properly, it can be poisonous due to the presence of cyanide and other toxicants [16]. ...
... The roots of cassava have abundant starch content. Zekarias et al. [16] reported that its tubers contain 32-35% carbohydrate on fresh weight (FW) and 80-90% on dry matter (DM) basis, of which 80% is starch and about 17% sucrose. In its starch, 83% is amylopectin and 17% is amylose. ...
Full-text available
Root, bulb, or tuber vegetables, which are borne underground, are reported to be dense in essential nutrients and come with several health benefits. Most of these root vegetables are the cultivated ones, but few are still underexploited. The root vegetables are consumed either wholly or partially and raw or after processing. They are high in fiber but low in fat and cholesterol. There are wide varieties of bioactive phyto-chemicals present in them that may contribute to their medicinal and nutraceutical properties. Although some research work has been conducted to uncover the pharmacological effects of root vegetables, their unlimited potential has yet to be fully exploited. The pharmaceutical industry can develop various health-promoting herbal formulations with medicinal properties. The food industry can employ novel processing technologies to preserve nutrition and prevent degradation of the phyto-chemicals during processing or for value addition of food products. The information presented in this chapter would be helpful for researchers, nutritional and medical professionals, pharmaceutical companies, and the food industry to design and develop effective medicines, drugs, and value-added food products by exploiting the specific as well as multiple modes of action of the various root vegetables.
... The roots of Quercus suber are responsible for soil salinization tolerance of high salinity in initial mechanisms such as membrane protection, activations of antioxidant enzymes, and dehydrins synthesis (Dias et al., 2022). M. esculenta, or bitter cassava, known as critical food plant for medicinal purposes to treat diseases such as diabetes, prostate, and, bone and neurological health (Zekarias et al., 2019). C. sinensis or commonly known as tea is a well-known beverage worldwide. ...
Stevia rebaudiana is a plant under the Asteraceae family and has been reported as a healthier alternative to sugar. Steviol glycosides (SGs) is the group of secondary metabolites responsible for the sweet taste. Among nine SGs synthesised by S. rebaudiana, stevioside and rebaudioside A are the sweetest. The biosynthetic pathway of SGs partly involves conversion of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) into steviol, catalysed by ent- kaurene synthase (KS), ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPPS), and kaurene oxidase (KO). This study focuses on in silico molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of KS from Malaysia’s S. rebaudiana MS007 variety (Stevia MS007). The transcriptomic dataset of S. rebaudiana accession MS007 was used in initial experiment toward analysing the KS. Through the blastx homology search using transcriptomic dataset query Cluster-31069.42907, the Stevia rebaudiana kaurene synthase (SrKS) sequence was identified with the highest similarity percentage identity (99.62%). The protein domain prediction using InterPro yields IPR005630 (terpene synthase metal-binding domain) at positions 490 to 755 and IPR001906 (terpene synthase-N-terminal-domain) at positions 258 to 477. Multiple sequence alignment was conducted using MUSCLE and MEGA-X as phylogenetic tree analysis tool for constructing the phylogenetic analysis tree. Based on the bootstrap value from the phylogenetic analysis, Cluster-31069.42907 represents relationships between the ancestors. Since both Helianthus annuus and S. rebaudiana are Asteraceae species, the bootstrap value for both species was 100%. In conclusion, this research contributes to a better understanding of Stevia MS007 KS via in silico analysis.
... Farmers' ambition to profit from their cultivars and the lack or low demand for other actors are the driving forces behind their readiness to take on different roles across the chain. (Tsige, 2019) In the region where cassava is being studied, there are no specialized middlemen. The traders are intermediaries who gather veggies grown nearby. ...
Full-text available
The current cassava value chain in Malawi is examined in this study. The study used both participant observation and surveys in combination. Six elements of the value chain were examined: (a) the agents, roles, and links; (b) the inputs, outputs, and activities that produce transformation; (c) the value addition and allocation; (d) the final product or a group of final products; (e) the power relations and governance mechanisms; and (f) the issues and opportunities that are shared by all agents. Five actors-farmers/producers, middlemen or wholesalers, retailers, processors, and end consumers-were identified in the study as having four significant links each. The cassava value chain has been analyzed, and the results indicate that cassava production has a great deal of potential to enhance participant wellbeing. Cassava production provided farmers with a net profit margin of 70% and provided 39% of their income. Post-harvest and by-product processing problems, as well as general production and utilization challenges, continue to exist. The study outlined the value of embeddedness and the broader social structure for cassava agribusiness and provided policy recommendations for Malawi's development of the cassava value chain.
... Singkong (Manihot esculenta) merupakan tanaman ubi kayu penting yang dibudidayakan di Afrika, Asia, dan Amerika Selatan (Lebot, 2009). Tanaman ini berasal dari suku Euphorbiaceae yang mempunyai berbagai manfaat seperti bahan baku makanan dan khasiat obat (Tsige & Herago, 2019). Singkong merupakan sumber utama karbohidrat dan energi bagi 700 juta orang yang tinggal di daerah tropis dan subtropis (Ferraro et al., 2016). ...
Araecerus fasciculatus merupakan hama yang menginfestasi komoditas pertanian di gudang penyimpanan. Pada singkong kering, hama ini menyebabkan kerusakan sebesar 20,6-91,51%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari biologi A. fasciculatus pada singkong kering dan tingkat kerusakan yang ditimbulkannya. Pengujian lama perkembangan telur dilakukan dengan menginfestasikan imago A. fasciculatus sebanyak 100 ekor ke masing-masing 50 potong singkong kering selama 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 hari. Pengujian lama perkembangan larva, pupa, dan imago ke masing-masing 305 potong singkong kering selama 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 hari, selanjutnya singkong kering 5 potong didestruksi setiap hari selama dua bulan. Pengamatan dilakukan setelah lama hari infestasi. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap morfologi, morfometri, lama perkembangan setiap stadia, tingkat kerusakan singkong kering akibat infestasi A. fasciculatus. Pada pengujian ini, dilakukan analisis kandungan nutrisi singkong kering, pengukuran suhu, dan kelembapan ruang pengujian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan lama perkembangan telur 5,82 hari. Perkembangan larva instar pertama, kedua, ketiga, keempat, kelima selama 3,40; 3,80; 4,60; 5,80; 7,80 hari. Sedangkan pupa dan imago selama 7,20 dan 28,34 hari. Pada pengujian ini, disajikan morfologi gambar berwarna dan morfometri semua stadia. Periode penyimpanan 3 bulan menyebabkan persentase kehilangan singkong kering berlubang 61,58% dan bubuk singkong 11,08%. Pengujian biologi ini akan menjadi dasar dalam identifikasi dan pengendalian A. fasciculatus untuk setiap stadianya pada singkong kering.
... The amino acid profile can full fill the nutrient requirement of human. According to the literature, use of cassava leaves with different food pattern has been suggested as a solution to malnutrition among the population (Zekarias et al., 2019). ...
... In addition to their macronutrient nutrient, the phytochemicals present in these plants can provide both pharmacological and health benefits when consumed as food (Demir and Akpinar 2020). For instance, the phytochemicals present in M. esculenta are attributed to the use of this plant in the treatment of various ailments like allergies, bone problems, celiac disease and diabetes (Zekarias et al. 2019). Baccaurea angulata (Merr.) was also reported as a potential functional food and exhibits effective antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and cholesterol-lowering activities (Erwin et al. 2018). ...
This study investigated three edible plants, namely, Ardisia iwahigensis Elmer, Baccaurea gracilis Merr., and Manihot glaziovii Müll.Arg consumed by the Palaw'an tribe in Bataraza, Palawan. Specifically, the phytochemical components, macronutrient contents, antimicrobial properties, and toxicity of the crude ethanol extracts of the fresh and/or air-dried leaves were determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening of fresh leaves and chemical profiling of air-dried leaves both revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols, and tannins. Macronutrient analysis indicated that B. gracilis contained the highest crude protein (13.4% weight by weight) and crude fiber (6.65% w/w), while M. glaziovii contained the highest crude fat (0.807% w/w). Disc Diffusion Assay demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) antibacterial property against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus Ogston, 1880 and Bacillus subtilis Ehrenberg, 1835) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli Escherich, 1885 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Schroeter, 1872) bacteria. The mean zones of inhibitions for A. iwahigensis against gram-positive (21.65-22.58 mm) and gram-negative (19.59-22.27 mm) bacteria were comparable with the positive controls (oxacillin 19.25-19.32 mm; Amikacin 16.52-27.32 mm). However, the three plants did not exhibit antifungal properties. Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay showed that A. iwahigensis was the most toxic with 100% mortality at 1000 ppm (LC50 = 4.270 ppm) after 24h exposure followed by M. glaziovii (97% mortality at 1000 ppm with LC50 = 7.918 ppm). The three edible plants are good sources of various phytochemicals that may have essential biological activities. This indicates that they can be used, not only as food ingredient, but also for therapeutic purposes and as potential sources of bioactive compounds with antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Aguirre et al.: Phytochemical screening of some edible plants The Palawan Scientist, 13(2): 68-86
... The root of cassava is composed of 85-90% of carbohydrate, 1 -3% of crude protein and lesser content of vitamins and minerals (Stupak et al., 2006). Several medicinal properties in cassava due to presence of different phytochemicals were reported (Zekarias et al., 2019). In Sri Lanka, surplus cassava is available during the season. ...
Full-text available
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is one of the major edible foodstuffs rich in carbohydrates and fiber. This study investigated the reduction of postharvest losses of jackfruits by value addition. Jack fruit seeds (JFS) flour and Jackfruit bulbs (JFB) flour were used as raw material. JFB and JFS were subjected to mechanical drying, grinding and sieving (particle size <200µm) to yield the JFS flour and JFB flour. The composite flour consists of different ratio of JFS, JFB, and cassava flour (CF), corn flour and semolina. The proximate composition, physical properties and cooking characteristics of developed pasta were determined. Sensory attributes of the pasta were evaluated using Hedonic scale (7-points) with 36 semi-trained panelists. The best composite flour formulation was JFS: JFB: semolina: CF: corn flour, at the ratio of 40:40:10:5:5. Crude protein (13.26±0.18%), crude fiber (4.91±0.61%) and ash (3.35±0.04%) were 98 higher in the best selected composite flour than the other treatments. Carbohydrate content (71.28%) was the lowest in T3 formulation. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in moisture content among the treatments, whereas, hardness and water activity differed significantly (p<0.05) among the treatments. The best selected formulation exhibited higher water absorption (1.20±0.02 g/g) and cooking time (8.6±0.2 min) than the other treatments while cooking loss (13.3±0.4%) was lower than the other treatments except the control. Lightness value of pasta was decreased with increasing the amount of JFS and JFB flour. In conclusion, value added jackfruit flour pasta has a higher potential for commercialization as a convenient food for the consumers with busy lifestyles.
Many people especially those in the sub-Saharan African countries depend on fermented foods for their day-to-day living. This is because most fermented foods are cheap and affordable. Fermentation is a process of transforming raw food into edible finished products, with new flavours, texture, and extended shelf life. The nutritional quality and storage stability of fermented foods cannot be overemphasized, a common example of such described in this study include gari, kunun-zaki, and iru made from cassava, cereal and proteinaceous seeds respectively. These fermented foods may help to fight common ailments, such as protein-energy malnutrition, diabetics, gut inflammation, cardiovascular disease, celiac disease and many more. The information about the therapeutic benefits of these fermented foods is hidden to many people. This chapter discuss the nutritional composition of some selected fermented foods, and emphasises their importance to human health.KeywordsFermented foods Gari Kunun-zaki Iru Health benefits
Full-text available
Cassava's important mineral contents depends on some factors, including genetic and growing locational factors. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of genotype and growing locations on the mineral concentrations in yellow-fleshed cassava root genotypes. Twenty-five pipeline yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes and three white-fleshed varieties (check samples) were planted at five different experimental fields for two seasons, each representing the major agroecological zones in Nigeria. Standard laboratory protocols were employed in the sampling to ensure zero contamination, and the trace and macro elements were determined using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopic method (ICPOES). The trace and macro elements identified in all the genotypes and varieties investigated were Fe, Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Co, Ni, Zn, and Al; Ca, Mg, Na, K. P, and S respectively. Genotype and growing location had a highly significant (p < 0.05) effect on all the trace elements except Ti and Cr. However, there was no interactive effect between genotype and growing location on all the trace elements except for Pb and Zn. Among the explanatory variables, the variable growing location was the most influential on macro and trace elements. Conclusively, genotypes 01/1442 and 01/1273 have outstanding trace and macro element concentrations.
Full-text available
O número elevado de cultivares de mandioca adaptados às mais diversas regiões confere ampla variação na composição química da farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM). Portanto, foram investigados os teores de alguns nutrientes nas FFM de cinco cultivares em três idades da planta, a fim de selecionar cultivares e idades com níveis superiores destes nutrientes. Aos 12 meses de idade da planta, observaram-se os maiores níveis de proteína bruta (PB), b-caroteno, ferro, magnésio, fósforo e enxofre. O cultivar IAC 289-70 apresentou os maiores níveis de magnésio, assim como teores apreciáveis de PB, b-caroteno, ferro, zinco e enxofre, pois não diferiu estatisticamente dos cultivares com os níveis mais elevados destes nutrientes.
Full-text available
Some cassava based products (cassava chips, gari and cooked fermented cassava paste "Batons de manioc") were bought from local markets in Cameroon and analyzed for protein, cyanide content and their microbiological quality evaluated. Results showed a high level of total cyanide in gari (114.16±25 ppm), cassava chips (73.85±11 ppm) and a little less in fermented cassava paste ("Batons de manioc") (63.1±5 ppm). The average total protein content was very low (2.9±0.5% in cassava chips, 1.9±0.3% in fermented cassava paste and 4.13±0.4% in gari). Microbiological quality was non-acceptable with an average high level of fungi in gari and cassava chips, and total mesophil aerobic microorganisms (56 x 10<sup>5</sup>cfu/g of dry weight) in fermented cassava paste. This study suggests amelioration in the production process and post-retting practices with the scope of improving on the toxicological, nutritive and hygienic quality of these products.
1. A chemical and biological evaluation of the protein content of some leaves and leaf extracts from the eastern region of Nigeria (Biafra) has been made: most were from cassava ( Munihot utilissima ). 2. The protein content of the leaves was from 3 0 to 40% (expressed as percentage of leaf dry matter). The concentrations of essential amino acids were adequate, except for methionine. The biological criteria, true digestibility (TD) and biological value (BV), showed that the digestibility was from 70 to 80%, whereas BV varied from 44 to 57%, depending on the methionine content. 3. Adding methionine to a diet of cassava leaves raised BV from 49 for the leaves alone to 80 for the mixture. This relationship clearly shows that cassava leaves contain too little available methionine. An investigation into the true availability of the amino acids showed that this is somewhat variable, and only 60% of the methionine is available. 4. The BV of cassava leaves combined with Norwegian dried cod showed a mutual supplementation effect.
The cyanogenic glycosides (CGs) are glycosidic derivatives of α-hydroxynitriles. These molecules are distributed in three phyla of higher plants; the majority of such compounds were isolated and described in dicot plants, and highest occurrence characterizes the subclass Rosidae. Biosynthetic capacity of CGs seems to be an ancient property in plant kingdom. Their biogenetic precursors are amino acids (five proteinogenic and one non-proteinogenic); the molecules are accumulated in vacuoles. Decomposition of CGs produces sugars (mainly glucose), one organic molecule of aldehyde or ketone character, and HCN. Catabolism of CGs is performed by an enzyme system (ß-glucosidase + hydroxynitrile), but in intact tissues it is localized in a separate cell compartment. Consequence of a tissue damage (induced by chewing, crushing, or by temperature, frost) can be the contact of substrates (CGs) and decomposing enzymes and liberation of HCN. The main biological function of CGs is a role in plant defense system against effects of distinct animals (attacks of insects or herbivorous animals). Interaction of protective plants and animals produced, however, specific mechanisms for separation of poisons or for blockage of this system. Acute poisoning of animals and humans, originating from consumption of cyanogenic plants or food products, can induce rapid, drastic inhibition of respiration system in mitochondria, and consequences can be fatal. Continuous intake of plants with low CG (cyanide) levels can cause mainly specific damages of nervous system. Control and reduction of CGs are essential challenges for feeding of animals or in food safety. The following section is a review of this topic.
Evaluation of the analgesic ant Phytochemical and antinutrient constituents of inflammatory and antidiabatic properties of cassava and sweet potato
  • O A J Ojewole
Ojewole, O.A.J., 2004. Evaluation of the analgesic ant Phytochemical and antinutrient constituents of inflammatory and antidiabatic properties of cassava and sweet potato. World Journal of Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst. Stem bark Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3: 1440-1449. aqueous extract in mice and rats. Phytother, Res., 16. Abeygunasekera, A.M. and K.H. Palliyaguruge, 2013. 18: 601-608. Does cassava help to control prostate cancer? A
Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology & plants in self-care in rural central Ethiopia
  • M Gedif
  • H J Hahn
Gedif, M. and H.J. Hahn, 2003. The use of medicinal case report. Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology & plants in self-care in rural central Ethiopia, J. Drug Research, pp: 2. doi: 10.7243/2050-120X-2-3
  • A A C Alves
Alves, A.A.C., 2002. Cassava botany and 22: 205-210. physiology. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, 18. Okigbo, B.N., 1980. Nutritional implications of pp: 67-89 projects giving high priority to the production of
La yuca en el tercer milenio: sistemas Cassava leaves have anti-inflammatory and analgesic modernos de producci´on, procesamiento, utilizaci principles, which justify its use in traditional African´on y comercializaci ´on. Cali, Colombia: Centro medicine
  • L Afolabi
  • O O Adeyemi
  • O K Yemitan
Afolabi, L., O.O. Adeyemi and O.K. Yemitan, 2008. editors. La yuca en el tercer milenio: sistemas Cassava leaves have anti-inflammatory and analgesic modernos de producci´on, procesamiento, utilizaci principles, which justify its use in traditional African´on y comercializaci ´on. Cali, Colombia: Centro medicine. J. Ethnopharmacol., 119: 6-11. Internacional de Agricultura Tropical., pp:: 527-569.
Die Bedeutung von Psychopharmacological aspects of Manihot Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) als esculenta crantz (Cassava)-a review
  • H M Rawel
  • J Kroll
Rawel, H.M. and J. Kroll, 2003. Die Bedeutung von Psychopharmacological aspects of Manihot Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) als esculenta crantz (Cassava)-a review. Mintage Journal Hauptnahrungsmittel in tropischen L¨andern. of Pharmaceutical and Medical Sciences. Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau, 99: 102-110.