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Bali is one of the most popular tourism destinations in the world with various forms of accommodation. Start from five star hotels until small lodgings built in each community residential unit. The strong custom and restrictions on tall buildings in Bali, making people look for various new alternatives to develop accommodation. The existence of local regulations that require the use of traditional Balinese ornamentation, requires accommodation owners to find adaptive accommodation development methods. However, with the development of the digital industry 4.0 specifically in contact with online advertising, there are no official rules in Bali that regulate it. This condition makes the demand for cheap accommodation in Bali seem unlimited. The promotion system no longer requires government legality. This phenomenon makes accommodations in remote places even can be accessed easily by all people in the world. The community then competes with each other to build cheap accommodations in their traditional homes. The government also cannot touch the spatial development caused by online media demand, due to the absence of regulations that limit it. This research tries to identify the bed bunk phenomenon that is built and operationalized through online promotion media, and has no legality. Data collection was carried out by direct observation of the object of study in Canggu village, district of North Kuta, Badung Regency, Bali Province. The findings of this study indicate that, bed bunk was born in Bali due to the high demand for backpacker tourists which is sufficient with wifi, table and bed facilities. The high cost of land in Bali encourages local people to build accommodations in their residential units. The maximum utilization of the interior (construction of 6-8 beds in one room) is the most preferred choice. This condition is due to vertical building restrictions that cannot exceed 15m and economic factors (get maximum income on narrow land). This finding is expected to be used as an evaluation material for spatial improvement in Bali which has an impact on congestion throughout the tourist area due to uncontrolled accommodation development.
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International Journal of Engineering and Emerging Technology Vol. 4 No. 2 July – December 2019
p-issn: 2579-5988, e-issn: 2579-597X
29
Abstract. Bali is one of the most popular tourism destinations in the world with various forms of accommodation. Start from
five star hotels until small lodgings built in each community residential unit. The strong custom and restrictions on tall
buildings in Bali, making people look for various new alternatives to develop accommodation. The existence of local
regulations that require the use of traditional Balinese ornamentation, requires accommodation owners to find adaptive
accommodation development methods. However, with the development of the digital industry 4.0 specifically in contact with
online advertising, there are no official rules in Bali that regulate it. This condition makes the demand for cheap
accommodation in Bali seem unlimited. The promotion system no longer requires government legality. This phenomenon
makes accommodations in remote places even can be accessed easily by all people in the world. The community then
competes with each other to build cheap accommodations in their traditional homes. The government also cannot touch the
spatial development caused by online media demand, due to the absence of regulations that limit it. This research tries to
identify the bed bunk phenomenon that is built and operationalized through online promotion media, and has no legality. Data
collection was carried out by direct observation of the object of study in Canggu village, district of North Kuta, Badung
Regency, Bali Province. The findings of this study indicate that, bed bunk was born in Bali due to the high demand for
backpacker tourists which is sufficient with wifi, table and bed facilities. The high cost of land in Bali encourages local people
to build accommodations in their residential units. The maximum utilization of the interior (construction of 6-8 beds in one
room) is the most preferred choice. This condition is due to vertical building restrictions that cannot exceed 15m and economic
factors (get maximum income on narrow land). This finding is expected to be used as an evaluation material for spatial
improvement in Bali which has an impact on congestion throughout the tourist area due to uncontrolled accommodation
development.
Keyword: Bed Bunk Accommodation, Convergence, Online Media
I. INTRODUCTION
1
HE development of human civilization demands many
changes in various fields. One of the most significant
fields affecting human life today is change in the fields of
communication and technology. In the past,
communicating with distant relations was very calculated.
Communication tools such as letters, telegrams until
pagers and landlines appear, reflecting a change in human
communication technology. Until the present mobile
phones whose use is unlimited, not limited to
communication, but can drive business and various fields
of life. All of these communication tools are very
dependent on the existence of the internet. Internet needs
are increasing when shops begin to use the internet to start
an online business. The seller starts interacting with
customers through online media known as online shops.
People in various parts of the world can exchange
merchandise in various variants, in a short time for a low
cost. How was the newspaper was very important to the
community, and finally experienced a very significant
1Student of Doctoral Program Engineering Science Udayana University
suda.nurjani@gmail.com1
2Lecture of Doctoral Program Engineering Science Udayana University
syamsul@unud.ac.id2
3Lecture of Doctoral Program Engineering Science Udayana University
acwin@unud.ac.id3
4Lecture of Doctoral Program Engineering Science Udayana University
diasanaputra@unud.ac.id4
Ni Putu Suda Nurjani1, Syamsul Alam Paturusi2, Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra3 I Dewa Gede
Agung Diasana Putra4
Bed Bunk Accommodation; Convergence of
Online Promotion Media with Balinese
Traditional Houses in Canggu Village, Bali
T
30
change. The availability of online news on the internet,
makes it easy for people to get various types of
information very easily, without subscribing per month,
people can access information wherever and whenever.
According to Gerald A. Militer quoted by Onong Uchjana
Effendy explained that:
"In the main, communication has its central
interest in those behavioral situations in which
sources transfer a message to a receiver with
conscious intent to affect the latte's behavior".
Basically, communication contains an understanding of
situations and behaviors as central interests, where a person
as a resource conveys an impression to someone or a
number of recipients who consciously aim to obtain
behavioral characteristics (Effendy, 2002: 49)
Current media intersections not only affect conventional
trading activities, but also affect spatial development.
Promotion of tourist accommodation through online
media, has increasingly accelerated the spread of tourists
to various regions in Bali, to remote areas that do not yet
have a good physical transportation network. This
intersection from conventional media to digital media is
called "convergence". One well-known convergence
theory is the "Symbolic Convergence Theory". This theory
was pioneered by Ernest Bormann (1989), this theory
explains the process of exchanging messages that give rise
to group awareness that results in the presence of meaning,
motives, and also shared equality. Group awareness that is
built up in a group can develop a kind of meaning, motive
for acting for the people in the group. Symbolic
convergence theory is a unique theory because it tries to
put forward the importance of narrative or narrative factors
in communication. That what is often discussed and
considered important in a group context will ultimately
reproduce the symbolic meaning and ultimately will
determine the meaning or reality of a person. Symbolic
convergence theory is a theory in the sociocultural
tradition that examines language, fantasy, and fact symbols
in the communication process. So that it is expected to be
able to explain the shared meaning that appears in
communication relations on webportal.
Traditional Balinese houses in general have many
meanings. Not only does it function as a shelter from heat
and rain, but many ritual meanings are contained within
the building unit. In harmony with Max Weber's research
that uses the "Verstehen" approach (understanding) of the
meaning contained in social reality or behind human
actions carried out by tracing values, beliefs, goals, and
attitudes that guide human behavior and actions. The
influence of the social structure of the family as residents
of a traditional dwelling is assessed based on Verstehen's
theory. Changes in trust make people form a new space
that has spiritual value. The same is true for changes in the
family economy. Motivation to obtain economic
improvement, makes people add new functions in their
homes. The addition of this commercial function opens
opportunities for interaction between people outside the
family. In some cases, the presence of this stranger
influences the life of the original family. However, on the
other hand, traditional life and family life can continue
normally. The presence of internet media as one of the
communication tools is increasingly encouraging the
development of accommodation built in residential units.
The community is now beginning to be able to promote
their own accommodation units. Promotional costs are not
as expensive as conventional promotional media. Various
promotional media such as Airbnb, booking.com, Agoda,
Trip advisor and the like, offer the convenience of features
and diversity of applications that can expose the reality of
the accommodation offered. However, behind all the
facilities, the community is faced with the challenge of the
rapid tourist visits to remote areas. The increased visit of
backpacker tourists has led to the birth of Bed Bunk
accommodation. The question now is, to what extent does
this promotional media influence the development of
traditional Balinese houses today, and how the continuity
of traditional rituals in the house after the online
promotion media. The results of this study are expected to
be used as an evaluation material for spatial improvement
in Bali, especially residences as a result of uncontrolled
accommodation development.
II. RESEARCH METHOD
This research is a qualitative study that raises the
phenomenon of the development of Bed Bunk
accommodation in Canggu Village. This accommodation
emerged and developed not apart from the influence of
online promotional media that are not touched by local
policies. The high demand for cheap accommodations
encourages Canggu people to look for various forms of
alternative accommodation that can accommodate many
tourists with the backpacker lifestyle. The objects of this
study are 100 Bed Bunk accommodations in Canggu
Village that use online promotional media facilities
(Airbnb, Agoda, booking.com, Tripadvisor, tiket.com,
Traveloka). The facilities offered in this online media are
used as an indicator to observe the demand for backpacker
tourist spaces. The number of reviewers in each online
promotion media in Canggu is used as an indicator to
determine the number of accommodation requests.
Reviewers are used as indicators, because someone who
has given a review are people who have used the Bed
Bunk facility, so that they know more about what they
need and feel during their stay. The results of observations
of the Bed Bunk are made in the form of tables and graphs
which are then analyzed so that an overview of how far
online promotional media influences the development of
accommodations in Canggu Village is obtained. How to
maintain the continuity of traditional activities and rituals
among the interests of tourism.
International Journal of Engineering and Emerging Technology Vol. 4 No. 2 July – December 2019
p-issn: 2579-5988, e-issn: 2579-597X
31
III. BED BUNK DEVELOPMENT HISTORY IN CANGGU
VILLAGE
Tourist accommodation is important in meeting the
needs of tourists who are traveling. Setzer Munavizt
(1958) states that "Accommodation is something that is
provided to meet needs, such as a place to stay or
temporary shelter for people who are traveling."
Furthermore, Munavizt states that tourist accommodation
can be a place where tourists can rest, stay, bathe, eat,
drink and enjoy the services provided. Lodging is a form
of accommodation for people who do activities not in their
daily residence or outside the city for the benefit of things
like travel, business, meetings and so forth. Badung
Regency as one of the regions in Bali which has the largest
income from the tourism sector, has a variety of types of
tourist accommodation. Starting from a five-star hotel that
has complete facilities, to a small homestay built for
backpacker tourists. Canggu as one of the natural tourism
areas based on Badung Regent Regulation No. 7 of 2005
dated 7 February 2005 concerning tourist attractions and
tourist attractions in Badung Regency, has various types of
accommodation. Ranging from city hotels to homestays
that are sold at prices below Rp. 150,000 / night. The
development of tourist accommodation types in Badung
Regency, can be seen in table 1 below:
Table 1. Number of Accommodation Enterprises in
Badung Regency 2018
Source: Badung Dalam Angka, 2019
Based on the data in table 1 above it can be seen that,
the type of accommodation that has experienced the most
increase in Badung Regency in the last three years is a
tourist cottage. From 775 units in 2016, by the end of 2018
the figure had reached 885 units. One of the villages in
Badung Regency that has experienced the most significant
tourist cottage development is Canggu Village, located in
the North Kuta district. Based on the author's research
results in Canggu Village, accommodations that have a
tourist cottage permit are also regrouped into two criteria,
namely Villa and Guest House. This guest house is divided
into two, namely, a guest house that has one bed in the
room, and a guest house that has more than 4 (four) beds
in one room called the "monkey house" by the local
community or as widely known in the world as "Bed
Bunk". The classification of tourist cottages in Canggu can
be seen in table 2 below:
Table 2. Types of accommodation that are classified as
tourist cottage types in Canggu Village
Source: Author
The road construction that connects Petitenget-Canggu
Village is one of the main indicators of the development of
tourism development in Canggu Village. With this road,
the distance between Kuta and Canggu can be reached in
less than 20 minutes. Alternative routes that previously
had to rotate to the village of Kerobokan before reaching
Canggu, in the period of the 2000s increasingly made
shorter past the Petitenget Village, along the coast directly
to Canggu. The only accommodation that was built in
Canggu at the end of 1998 was the Tugu Batu Bolong
Hotel. After the construction of the Tugu Hotel in 1998,
there were not many changes felt by the people of Canggu.
In 2003, the Badung Regency Government for the first
time issued a policy through Badung Regent Decree No.
637 of 2003 concerning Spatial Planning in North Kuta
District. This decree contains the determination of the
function of the Canggu Coastal Area as a Tourism Zone
(article 11 paragraph 2). After the issuance of the Badung
32
Regent's Decree, it increasingly emphasized the
designation of the tourist area in Canggu, so that investors
would not hesitate to invest. The peak phase of the
construction of tourist facilities in Canggu occurred in
2014. Many people's homes began to function as tourist
accommodation. Construction of tourist facilities has been
entered in all banjars (community) in Canggu. The entry
of fbackpacker tourists into Canggu Village in the decade
of 2014 has changed the face of the tourist cottage in
Canggu Village. Demand for Bed Bunk is increasing. The
relatively low capital of making Bed Bunk encourages the
development of this type of accommodation. However, the
problem experienced by local people is the marketing
method. The community initially only relied on tourists
who came directly to Canggu, without using digital
promotional media. Over time, this method experienced
many obstacles, so that there were several initiators using
the online promotion media in collaboration with third
parties.
IV. THE CONCEPT OF TRADITIONAL BALINESE HOUSE IN
CANGGU COMMUNITY AREA
In general, the plains of Balinese people in general are
not a single unit of one roof, but rather a manifestation of
space in a space that consists of many periods. Starting
from the angkul-angkul that become one with the
penyengker (perimeter fence) is the first building that can
be found before entering the house, as well as functioning
as a protective building in it. Kitchen (paon) is made
separately from the bedroom, and the granary as a place to
store rice. Entering the living room there is a core called
natah. Natah is the center of the naming of buildings in
traditional Balinese plains. The bedroom is divided into
two buildings, namely Bale delod (located in the south of
Natah) and Bale Daje (in the North of Natah). Bale
Dangin as a place to perform the ceremony Manusa
Yadnya located in the East Natah. The building which
occupies a position in the main utamaning of a traditional
Balinese house is the sanggah / pemajan (family
sanctuary). The layout of traditional Balinese traditional
house layout can be seen in the following figure;
Based on the results of field observations, the physical
form of the traditional home of the Canggu people seemed
to break the concept of a linear pattern that only exists in
mountainous areas. Starting access to the Canggu
community housing unit there are angkul-angkul buildings
of the same shape as those in Bali in general. The naming
of the building has the same concept, which is the center
point in the middle yard (natah). The kitchen is placed
close to the main entrance of the site, where the kitchen
has the meaning of neutralizing all negative auras before
residents and visitors enter the residential area. After that
there is a granary building which is placed adjacent to the
kitchen (paon). Buildings that are used for beds have bale
daje and bale delod. What is meant by the bale delod by
the people of Canggu is the customary bale for the
implementation of the Manusa Yadnya ceremony. Its
position is not placed exactly east of Natah. The building
that is just east of Natah prior to the presentation is
Sanggah Natah. Sanggah Natah has a very important role
in the development of building compositions in Canggu.
The imaginary axis that determines the orientation of the
building in the house, is between the sanggah natah and
the entrance (angkul-angkul). This imaginary axis besides
functions as the center of the orientation of the building
period, this empty space also plays an important role in
various ritual activities of the community.
As in the quarterly ritual, there are activities that
surround this area three times. Sodok (2019) states that,
this ritual has a very strong philosophical meaning for the
people of Canggu. A guide to life that has always been a
way of life for the people of Canggu. In this ritual it is
illustrated that humans are not born into eternal living
things. Humans will one day be in old age (elderly).
Banana Heart (pusuh biu) which is carried by the mother
during the ritual around Natah is a symbol of a baby born
to the world as a new offspring in a family. After the
mother, followed by the baby, a three-month ceremony
attended by her grandparents. The obligation of
grandparents who carry their grandchildren to this ritual,
has the meaning that the grandfather and grandmother of
the baby has given the family life relay to the baby who
was born. Grandfather and grandmother in the future will
depend on his grandchildren for this life until later they
will pick up both. At a time when they are unable to
actively work their big hopes, so that the next generation
will be a good generation, dedicated to their parents and
giving thanks to others. Behind grandparents, there is the
father who carries a stick which is decorated with cloth
(wastra) as a symbol of the defender (law enforcement of
all family problems, and as the backbone of the family).
This is where the baby's father is expected to remain
upright when various household problems come up later.
V. CONVERGENCE OF ONLINE PROMOTION MEDIA IN THE
DEVELOPMENT OF BED BUNK ACCOMMODATION IN CANGGU
VILLAGE
Figure 1. Arrangement of Spaces in Traditional Balinese House
Sumber: ttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balinese_traditional_house
International Journal of Engineering and Emerging Technology Vol. 4 No. 2 July – December 2019
p-issn: 2579-5988, e-issn: 2579-597X
33
Nicholas Negroponte (1978) uses the term
"convergence", to describe the meeting of the media
industries. Convergence in social science occurs as a result
of changes in community habits, not due to mere
technological factors. Studying the development of Bed
Bunk from the point of view of convergence theory, is an
evaluation of the continuity of customs and culture and the
sustainability of the arrangement of traditional Balinese
residential spaces. The house is a reflection of a dynamic
culture. The house is also an embodiment of a social
relationship between residents and the surrounding
environment. When humans as residents of the house and
then plan for a change in occupancy, cannot be separated
from various considerations. Humans as social creatures
who always have a desire continuously, and never feel
satisfied with what they already have. This condition
motivates a person to make various changes in his life.
Abraham H. Maslow in the Human Motivation Theory
suggested the existence of a pyramid in human life.
Changes that occur as a result of meeting the basic needs
(physiological needs) to the formation of self-actualization
to enhance dignity in society. Changes in human behavior
and habits will greatly affect physical changes and the
arrangement of space in residential units.
Canggu community in this matter also cannot be
separated from change. Changes that occur in traditional
Canggu homes, are not always caused by economic
factors. 30% of the 100 accommodation owners
interviewed indicated that resource persons from the
middle to upper economic level made changes to the
structure of the building period with the reason that they
were following the rapidly growing tourism trend in
Canggu, another 20% made changes due to their desire to
own long term investment.
Figure 2. Bed Bunk Standard
Source: Ernest Neufert Standard Eds. 3 (2000:471)
The hereditary trust, makes people maintain the space in
their residential units. Not all people know the values or
meaning of the space they have in the house. However,
trust in the sacred value of the space or building, makes
people think long for making significant changes.
Defending space or buildings symbolically is one of the
choices to keep traditional traditions. As for the graph of
the ratio of factors that encourage Canggu people to make
changes to the composition of the space in their homes, it
can be seen in diagram 1 below:
Figure 3. Factors that encourage Canggu to make changes in
their traditional homes
Source: Author
Media promotion as one of the instruments used to
attract tourist visits, greatly influences the changes in
space that occur. While in the past the promotional media
was limited to creative sketches and words, tourists could
not clearly know the facilities that were in the
accommodation. Even the most favorite accommodations
cannot be exposed in detail. As shown in the following
image;
Figure 4. Promotional media in the past
Source: https://www.pulsk.com/654155/
When promotional media develops online, many things
can be exposed in it. Tourists can access detailed
information such as the number of rooms, interiors,
facilities, nearby attractions and so on, by accessing the
subportal on the website, as shown in the following figure:
34
Figure 5. Digital media promotion
Source :
https://www.airbnb.co.id/rooms/31550469?source_impression_id
=p3_1572726060_OpKPBSQs%2Bwh%2FYNP7
One of the most important indicators to attract tourists is
the subportal reviewer. Based on observations of 100
tourists who use bed bunk facilities in Canggu Village, the
subportal in the online promotion media that most
influences the decision to choose tourist accommodation is
the subportal reviewer. Second is the consideration of the
price per night and the third is the area of the room. The
Subportal graph that greatly influences tourist decisions
can be seen in the following figure:
Figure 6. Subportal that most determines tourist
accommodation choice in Canggu
Source: Author
VI. CONCLUSION
A bunk bed is a type of bed in which one bed frame is
stacked on top of another, allowing two or more beds to
occupy the floor space usually required by just one. They
are commonly seen on ships, in the military, and in
hostels, dormitories, summer camps, prisons, and the likes.
Bunk beds are normally supported by four poles or pillars,
one at each corner of the bed. A ladder is used to get to the
upper bed, which is normally surrounded by a railing to
prevent the sleeper from falling out. Some models also
have a privacy curtain for the lower bunk. The growth of
bed bunk in Canggu village is a phenomenon of
convergence due to changes in media digitalization.
However, the commercialization of these traditional
dwellings does not make the customs, traditions and rituals
that take place in Canggu traditional dwellings disappear.
The ritual space is still maintained by prioritizing the
symbol and meaning of space. Subportal reviewer as one
of the main indicators that attracts tourists visiting one of
the tourist accommodations, greatly influences spatial
development. Accommodation that has a high reviewer
value will be increasingly dense, so that the surrounding
area is also increasingly out of control. Badung district
government should start building an automatic connection
network with online promotional media, so that the real
facts of the number of bed bunk in the field can be easily
detected. With the detection of real tourism
accommodation conditions in the field, it is hoped that
they can be used as a basis for limiting cheap
accommodation which is currently increasingly out of
control.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Acknowledgments to those who have supported the writing
of this paper are all my supervisor at Udayana University
and the Engineering Faculty of Udayana University, also
Mahendradatta University for the support of research
grants and Village Head and all the owners of the bed
bunk in Canggu Village.
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ABSTRAK Perumahan Permukiman Tradisional Bali merupakan suatu tempat kehidupan yang utuh dan bulat yang berpola tradisional yang terdiri dari 3 unsur, yaitu: unsur kahyangan tiga (pura desa), unsur krama desa (warga), dan karang desa (wilayah) dengan latar belakang norma-norma dan nilai-nilai tradisional yang melandasinya. Perumahan Permukiman Tradisional Bali tersebut pada prnsipnya dilandasi oleh konseps-konsepsi sepert: hubungan yang harmonis antara Bhuana Agung dengan Bhuana Alit, Manik Ring Cucupu, Tri Hita Karana, Tri Angga, Hulu-Teben sampai kepada melahirkan tata nilai Sanga Mandala yang memberi arahan tata ruang, baik dalam skala rumah (umah) maupun perumahan (desa). Dalam kajian ini, konsep-konsep tersebut dirumuskan ke dalam 4 atribut atau aspek dalam perumahan permukiman tradisional Bali, yaitu: aspek sosial, simbolis, morfologis dan fungsional. ABSTRACT Balinese Traditional Housing and Settlement is a place of unity and harmonious life that has a traditionally pattern and consists of three elements i.e. element of the village temple (kahyangan tiga), element of the village inhabitants (krama desa), and element of the village region (karang desa) and predominantly based on traditionally norm and value background. The Balinese Traditional Housing and Settlement is in essence sustained by concepts such as: harmonious relations between Bhuana Agung with Bhuana Alit, Manik Ring Cucupu, Tri Hita Karana, Tri Angga, Hulu-Teben till developing the value arrangement of Sanga Mandala that offers the guidance to the spatial pattern both on the house and the settlement scale. In this study, those concepts are mainly concluded into four aspects in the Balinese Traditional Housing and Settlement such as: a social, symbolic, morphology and functional aspects.
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Four positions concerning theorising housing-related phenomena are discussed. (1) Theory of housing (v1): It is possible and desirable to construct a theory of housing to which all housing-related research topics can be related. (2) Theory about housing: It is not possible, nor desirable to try to construct a theory of housing; one should rather apply theoretical resources developed in established disciplines and research fields in theorising housing-related topics. (3) Theory from housing: It is possible and desirable to theorise housing by scrutinising the nature of housing as a special activity and experience. (4) Theory of housing (v2): It is possible and desirable to construct a theory about the invariable relationships between features of the housing system and features of society. Theory of housing (v1) is shown to be questionable basically due to the fact that housing is not a research topic but a common denominator of various topics. Theory about housing is acceptable with the qualification that housing research can feed back to more general theorising. Theory from housing offers a limited perspective on theorising but it can serve as a necessary check to other theorising. Problems with Theory of housing (v2) have to do with the balance between abstract generalisation and concrete empirical/historical analysis.
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