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Indonesian Students’ Reading Literacy

Authors:
55
Indonesian Students’ Reading Literacy
*Note: Sub-titles are not cap
line 1: 1st Given Name Surname
line 2: dept. name of organization
(of Affiliation)
line 3: name of organization
(of Affiliation)
line 4: City, Country
line 5: email address or ORCID
Sri Hapsari Wijayanti
Faculty of Economics
Atma Jaya Catholic University
of Indonesia
Jakarta, Indonesia
sri.hapsari@atmajaya.ac.id.
Abstract Reading is supposed to be an activity
frequently performed by university students. However, not all
students are fond of reading, particularly in the digital era.
This study aims to identify students’ reading literacy both in
their family and their campus and determine whether campus
library maximally utilized. Performing as the subjects of this
study were 307 students at Atma Jaya Catholic University in
Jakarta, Indonesia. The data were collected through google
docs, in-depth interviews, and observation. The collected
qualitative and quantitative data were then descriptively
analyzed. This study found that the students were rarely or
even never told stories by their parents in their childhood.
Reading literacy stimulates when they went to school and
joined competitions concerning reading literacy. At
university, the students read for one to two hours a day. Some
of them tend to be lazy (38%) and not motivated to read
(33%). When they do, they merely read one book for the last
two months (43%). They spend more time with the gadget
(61%) and go to the library, not for reading (3%), but
learning and discussion (70%). This study concluded that
Indonesian university students’ reading literacy is still
unsatisfactory.
Keywords reading habit, literacy, higher education,
culture, storytelling
I. INTRODUCTION
Traditionally, literacy is the ability to read and write [1].
UNESCO defines literacy as “the ability to identify,
understand, interpret, create, communicate, compute, and
use printed and written materials associated with varying
contexts” [2]. Until now, reading literacy is a global issue
in need of serious attention. The results of a program of
International Students Assessment [3] and Progress in
International Reading Literacy Study [4] indicated there are
several countries with the low level of reading literacy;
some of them reveal no significant improvement in periodic
evaluation. It is a necessary and vital literacy to filter and
analyze knowledge and information spreading out rapidly.
Also, reading literacy is a crucial factor influencing
intellectual and emotional development [5]. Therefore,
reading literacy is need of serious attention for the sake of
better quality of future human resources. Reading activities
in higher education is different from those in a secondary
school; however, reading habit and interest in secondary
education influences that in higher education. Academic
activities in higher education involve reading and writing
tasks. The more one reads, the better they become in
academic achievements, in class discussion, and
understanding their reading as well as their writing [6].
Reading a lot of literature is such a demand for higher
education students to be able to create scientific works with
good quality.
In the digital era, the sources of reading are not only
printed but also digital. The data from We Are Social prove
that global internet users have increased as much as 9.1%
(367 million people) ranging from January 2018 to January
2019. In Indonesia, the number of internet users has
increased by 13% since last year [7]. The rapid growth of
technology has distracted students’ attention; they are
reading less than they should be [8]. A study showed that
reading habit decreases as technology advances [5]. Social
media, for instance, have been widely used more for
interaction and communication with their peers instead of
academic tasks [9].
Issues on reading have been studied theoretically and
empirically [10], [11]. Previous studies had incorporated
the relation between reading and motivation [12], [13]; the
roles of teachers in motivating their students [14]; the
relationship between reading and second language learning
success [14], [12], even the relation between reading and
gender [15], [11]. In higher education level, studies have
analyzed using participants either from homogeneous yet
heterogeneous majors [6], [16], [12], [17]. It has been
reported that “today’s college students do not read” [8];
“Many college students today are not strong readers; they
regularly report that they do not like to read” [17]. Total
56% of 1,200 respondents read less than an hour a day, and
13% even admitted that they never read at all [18]. Another
study revealed that as many as 1,138 respondents spend
their time reading books, newspapers, and magazines for
entertainment during 4.3 hours a week, while they spend
31.18 hours a week for going to the theater, listening to
radio, music, and watching television [8]. National Library
in 1982 reported that Malaysians read two books a year
(2005). In the meantime, it has been proven that 42% of
142 subjects in Hampton University read textbooks every
day [17] and 82% of 1,200 students in three universities in
Sweden read textbooks only when there is an assignment
[16]. This study aims to reveal the reading culture shaped
by family and secondary education and identify whether
campus library maximally utilized. This study includes
both academic and non-academic reading.
International Conference on Research and Academic Community Services (ICRACOS 2019)
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press SARL.
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 390
61
II. RESEARCH METHOD
This study is descriptive qualitative and quantitative
research. In this study, the participants were 307 students
(58.3% female and 41.7% male), which selected randomly.
The study was conducted in Indonesian Language and
Scientific Writing classes on the even semester academic
year of 2018/2019 for students in the 2014 year to 2018
year generation coming from four different majors:
pharmacy (8%), engineering (15%), economics and
business (28%), and biotechnology (49%) at Atma Jaya
Catholic University of Indonesia. Meanwhile, the object of
the study is reading literacy. Data were collected through a
closed questionnaire distributed through google docs,
direct observation of students’ campus activities, and in-
depth interviews with ten students randomly selected,
majoring economics and pharmacy. The questionnaire
distributed consisted of the habit of storytelling in the
family, reading literacy at elementary, junior, and senior
high schools, the habit of spending leisure time in college,
reading frequency, purposes of reading, and the use of the
library. The google docs was completed by semi-structured
interviews recorded using a tape recorder. The
questionnaire data were analyzed quantitatively in
frequency and percentage tabulation. The interview results
were transcribed so that the verbal data were analyzed
thematically and qualitatively.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A. Reading Habit in the Family and Schools Before
The participants of the study classified into generation
Z who are bare, if never, in touch with storytelling or
bedtime stories in their childhood. At home, they do not
have a model of the excellent reader; there is only a dad
keep mentioning as a person who reads newspapers daily
and big brothers or sisters who read textbooks. The
participants admit that sometimes they go to the bookstore
to have a look or buy books. In junior and high schools,
they joined reading literacy competitions when their
teachers instructed them to participate as some respondents
stated, Ikut lomba spelling bee waktu SD, menulis karya
tulis waktu SMP, SMA” (I joined a spelling bee competition
in elementary school and writing competition in junior and
senior high schools) (J, female); Menulis bersambung di
SD, lomba-lomba literasi karya tulis bahasa Inggris
tentang narkoba di SMA, juga esai bahasa Inggris
(Writing competition in primary school, English writing on
drugs and English free essay in senior high school) (S,
female); “Ikut story telling di kelas 5 SD, puisi, balas
pantun SMP apa SMA (I joined storytelling competition
in fifth grade, and poetry and unrequited rhyme
competitions in junior and senior high school) (Sh, female).
The fact inferred that reading habit within the family is
not well established. Parents’ busy activities give them little
time to tell stories to their children at early ages. One of the
subjects stated, “ Pernah tapi gak sering jadi kapan-kapan
juga waktu mau tidur yang dongeng pembantu seingat saya)
(As long as I remember, but not even, it was my nanny who
gave me bedtime stories) (G, male). The subjects of the
study have a lack of stimulation from their family so that
their reading habit and interest are not well shaped. When
the children go to elementary school, their parents put their
full trust of education to the school; in fact, parents are the
first teachers who matter the most to their children [2].
Fortunately, at school, reading literacy is introduced and
developed. It has been proven from the interview results that
some of the literacy competitions they joined are upon their
own will, and some based on their teachers’ instruction.
B. Reading Habits on Campus
Television used to be the only source of both
information and entertainment; however, nowadays,
gadgets are replacing television position. The presence of
ICT in the forms of such gadgets as handphones,
computers, tablets, and laptops bring an impact to college
students. These devices turn into the source of information
accessible everywhere and every time. It is no surprise that
gadgets are primary needs to the subjects of this study as
some of them said, “Dari SMA udah gak pernah nonton TV
karena semua ada di laptop, komputer, internet. Acara TV
lagian kurang menarik udah banyak iklan” (I have stopped
waiting for TV since high school because everything is in
the laptop, computer, and the internet. TV shows are
somehow not interesting cause they have a lot of
advertisements) (FR, male); “Pernah (nonton TV), tapi
sekarang-sekarang jarang, nontonnya Youtube dari HP”
(Honestly, I watched TV once in a while, but I watch from
Youtube by my handphone) (A, female).
It can be identified that college students read news,
articles, and any other information through their gadgets to
be able to chat with their peers and family, watch films
from Youtube, read the latest news, play games, looking for
information or tutorials, watch vlogs, download novels and
e-books, search for academic resources, and check on
social media. It has been reported that the subjects’
frequency on the use of handphone is two hours or more a
day: Tiap hari bisa dua jam atau lebih, dari siang buka
film, video-video doang, game, informasi, tips” (I can use
my handphone for two hours or more a day to watch films,
videos, games, information, tips, and tricks) (F, female).
Gadgets are not only used for academic purposes but also
entertainment. The time average of the use of gadget of the
subjects in this study range from five two fourteen hours a
day. These findings in line with a report that Indonesian
people access the internet for eight hours 36 minutes a day
on average. Most of them check on their social media for
three hours 26 minutes a day, watch videos for two hours
52 minutes a day, and listen to live streaming musics for
one hour 22 minutes. Based on the devices used to access
the internet, most of them use smartphones (60%), followed
by computers (22%), and tablets (8%) [7].
As the subjects interact a lot using their gadgets, their
reading intensity (of printed books) decreases. This study
has found that the reading intensity of the subjects is one to
two hours a day (32.69%) and two to three hours a day
(27.07%) for textbooks. However, for non-textbooks, they
can spend more hours as one of the subjects said, “Saya
bisa sampai 6-8 jam gak bisa berhenti karena seru terus
karena suka sama bukunya jadi asyik” (I spend six to eight
hours to read, and it’s tough to stop cause it’s exciting) (S,
female). These findings are same with 32.69 respondents in
University of Kashmir that higher students education spend
one to two hours for reading [11] or no more than two hours
(for reading) a day [19]. Another study indicates the same
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 390
62
results that either for academic or non-academic purpose,
reading is not a habit; students tend to passive activities
such as watching Youtube, listening to music, chatting and
talking to their friends (called personal relationship) [17].
On the weekend, their frequency of using gadget are vary:
some have it increased as one said, Karena banyak waktu
untuk main games dan komputer (Because I have more
time to play games on my computer) (G, male) and some
have it decreased as one said, “Ada kegiatan di tempat lain,
keagamaan atau keluarga, gak sempat buka (Cause I have
other activities such as going to the church and family
gathering, so I don’t have time to check on my handphone)
(O, female).
When they need to find particular books (textbooks or
other references), 16% of the subjects prefer e-books rather
than printed ones due to their price as one of the subjects
said, “Kalau e-book gak beli karena buku sulit ditemukan,
harga lumayan berasa kalau beli semua buku, yang penting
disimpan di USB, kan kayak buku” (It’s more efficient to
have e-books. Printed books are expensive. And I mean, it’s
the same, okay? I have it in my storage (USB)) (FR, male).
However, when their lecturers ask them to buy a textbook,
most of them will do it no matter the price it (64%), access
to internet (16%), borrow the books from their friends
(11%), and from the library (8%) (Fig. 1). These findings
indicate that with the presence of the internet, the library is
the last option. These findings are same with a previous
study that there are a bunch of options to access books such
as from personal collection (49.11%), the library (29.29%)
as a place to borrow a book, the internet (13.76%), and also
borrowing from their friends and seniors [10].
Fig. 1. How to access books
To motivate the students to read, lecturer usually require
their students to buy a textbook as stated, Buku statistik,
matematika, disuruh untuk UTS/UAS jadi harus beli
(Statistics and mathematics books required for the mid and
final exams, so we must buy them) (F, male). However, this
motivation is limited to having the book without deeply
understanding what is inside so that the students feel they
must buy it out of their fear of bad grades. Littlewood
(1999), quoted from [12], states that Asian students adhere
to reactive autonomy, i.e., students learn because of
initiated by “authoritative figures such as their teacher.”
When observed on the break and leisure time, students
spend their time more on having to chat with their friends,
eating the campus canteen or classes, and even sleeping in
the classroom before their lecturers come in. Rarely do they
finish their assignments in their leisure time on the campus
study corners, as one said, Jeda kuliah, ya untuk makan,
istirahat, ngobrol dengan teman sekelas di kelas, ke kantin
(Break time, I use it for eating, having an actual break,
chatting with my classmates, and also going to the canteen)
(O, female). Another one said, Makan, ngobrol,
selesaikan tugas yang belum selesai, tidur di kelas dulu
(Eating, chatting, finishing the task, and sleeping in the
class) (Sh, female). The other one said, Saya ke kantin,
makan, atau gak, saya aktif di UKM bantu-bantu (I use to
spare time to eat or not, help anything in the student club
that I join) (G, male). It can be inferred from that interview
that most of the students spend their break time to socialize
and interact with their peers.
Students’ lack of reading interest also showed up before
the writer come into the class. Based on the result of the
observation, the students watch a Korean film together in
the classroom using the computer available. Some of them
watch from their handphones, and none of them open any
books preparing for the lesson. In the meantime, some other
students from another class are busy checking on their
handphones and chatting with their friends in the hallway.
This finding is relevant to that of a previous study stating
that students spend their time on non-academic activities
such as chatting and browsing the internet on non-academic
stuff [6], [17]. Besides, their relationships with their friends
also take part in interfering their reading activities [17].
Even though the respondents agree that reading is useful
for their learning, vocabulary adding (for foreign
languages), pleasure, knowledge development, raise
motivation, and brain work quality improvement, they
agree that the most challenging obstacle on reading is
themselves. Some of which is laziness (38%) and lack of
motivation (33%) (Fig. 2). Motivation can be stimulated by
their environment: families, friends, and lecturers. But
there are not many lecturers who continuously motivate
students to read as a subject said, Cuma dosen yang suruh
ke perpustakaan untuk baca cuma 1-2 orang” (Only one or
two lecturers who made us read) (F, female).
Fig. 2. Reading constraints
In addition to internal factors coming from themselves,
there are also external factors influencing their lack of
reading interest such as the complicated language (24%),
hectic extracurricular activities (3%), and the book
appearance (2%) as shown by Fig. 2. It has been proven
that students’ hectic extracurricular activities have an
impact on their lack of time to read. The physical
appearance of the books also does not attract the students’
interest to read since their font size is sometimes look too
64%
11%
8%
16%
1%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Buy
Borrow to friend
Borrow to library
Internet
etc
38%
33%
24%
3%
2%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
Lazy
Lack of motivation
English version
Busy
etc
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 390
63
small, the language is too difficult to understand, and the
diction is too complicated. One said, Kalau buku
bahasanya ada yang berat terus tulisannya kecil banget,
malas bacanya kedempetan atau gimana gitu kurang
menarik” (Textbooks are usually difficult to understand,
and the font size is also too small. So, it’s not interesting to
read) (Feb, female). Another said, “Yah, kadang juga susah
dimengerti bahasanya(Yeah, sometimes it’s really hard
to understand that language) (F, female). Another agrees
that “Ada kata-kata baru yang kita gak paham” (There are
some words that I don’t know) (A, female). And the other
one proves that entertainment books are more interesting as
said, “Saya tuh kalau saya baca buku, saya kurang tertarik.
Mungkin capek liat hurufnya.Komik saya suka saya baca
Doraemon” (When I read textbooks, I get bored quickly. I
think I’m tired of seeing the little fonts. It’s different from
reading comic books. I like Doraemon, by the way) (F,
male). The results of the interview implied that students are
not interested in reading textbooks since they are not
reader-friendly: having limited illustration and summary,
having too much strange vocabulary, too few simple
sentences, unclear organization, and less exciting layout
[12].
C. The Role of Campus Library
The library is an essential facility at the university.
From the librarian information , the library collection until
2019 is 99,258 books including 0.3% of fiction books, 2%
of e-books, 7% of references, 15% of textbooks, and 76%
of general books. The decoration of the campus library is
quite artistic, and the situation is quite in order and quiet.
Despite the subjects’ agreement that the library comes with
a lot of benefits, they admit that they rarely come there. One
of them said that she comes to the library twice a week (S,
female), one of them stated that she seldom comes there (O,
female), and one said that he goes to the library once in two
weeks (F, male). The subjects of this study, who are mostly
the generation of 2018, go to the library for multiple
purposes such as learning, finishing their tasks, and
discussion (70%), reading (16%), borrowing books (12%),
and other purposes such as finding quite place, sleeping,
charging their handphones, and killing the time (2%) (Fig.
3).
Fig. 3. Purposes of going to the library
These findings support the previous study that only 16%
(25 people) of the postgraduate students in five universities
in Nigeria use the library for reading [20]. The subjects of
this study do not use the library for reading and borrowing
books since they have various purposes for going there.
One said, Kalau ada tugas, kalau mau cari buku, kalau
perlu, kalau butuh ke perpustakaan (If there is an
assignment if I want to search for a particular book, and if
I have to feel like, then I’ll go to the library) (F, female).
Another one said, “Kadang bikin tugas perlu konsentrasi
baru ke perpustakaan. Kalau biasa-biasa aja, di mana aja.
Takut berisik(If I need to concentrate for finishing my
task, then I’ll go to the library, but if I don’t, I can do it
everywhere cause afraid of noise) (Feb, female). Another
one agrees with this by saying, “Bikin tugas, mau cari
ketenangan di perpustakaan” (The library is suitable for
finishing a task in a quiet place) (A, female). Meanwhile, a
male student said, Perpustakaan untuk tugas kelompok,
pinjam buku, belajar untuk ujian akhir, ngadem (A library
is a place for working task together, borrowing books, and
learning for the final exam, looking of cooling off) (FR,
male) and the other male student even said that he goes to
the library to sleep (F, male).
A free wifi facility available in the campus gives the
students easy access to search references online, so they do
not have to go to the library. That is one of the main reasons
why the students’ reluctance to go to the library for book
searching or borrowing. It has also been revealed that
another reason for their reluctance to there is the lack of
fiction books available as one said, “Perpustakaan isinya
buku teks doang (The library only has textbooks) (S,
female). Thus, as proven by the previous study, it is found
that the reading interest of the intellectual is relatively
unsatisfied [21]. Libraries are supposed to be a place to
read. However, the respondents of this study choose their
homes as the place to read (91%), followed by the
classroom (4%), the library (3%), and open space such the
hallway (2%) (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4. Places to read
When asked about the number of books they have read
for the past two months (October and November 2018), the
subjects answer that they have read one book (43%), none
at all (27%), two books (21%), and more than two books
(9%) as shown by Fig. 5. The percentage indicates that
there are only a few numbers of the book the subjects read
at the end of 2018.
70%
16%
12%
2%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
Study, discussion
Read
Borrow a book
etc
91%
4%
3%
2%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Home
Class room
Libray
etc
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 390
64
Fig. 5. Number of books read in the last two months
This study also found out that students read more books
when the exam or the due date for an assignment is coming
(20%), when they want to kill time (61%), and when they
look for information (3%) (Fig. 6). These findings indicate
that students fill their leisure time by reading information
nor related to their academic tasks; they chat using their
social media instead.
Fig. 6. Purposes of reading
Figure 6 shows that the time the subjects spend on
accessing the internet for information not related to
academic tasks has a large percentage (61%). It leads to the
students addicted to their gadgets and lack of interest in
academic reading (20%). These findings are the same with
a previous study which found that students read books only
when there is an exam or an assignment [6].
IV. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This study has revealed that the reading interest and
habit of university students are unsatisfied. When
preschool, their parents are not used to telling a story to
their children. They started to develop their reading interest
and habit in their schools before triggered by such activity
as reading literacy competition motivated by their teachers.
Most of the university students in this study use their leisure
time by interacting with their peers to maintain a personal
relationship and use social media. Also, they still use the
library as a place to study and discuss, not to read and
borrow books. Students need motivation and model by the
lecturers that reading and discussion habits are important
factors. Besides, reading literacy enhancing the atmosphere
in need of enhancement. Now, there has been information
on the announcement boards and standing banners on book
facilities through a particular website or such activities like
seminar, workshop, recruitment, academic knowledge, but
also need to be additional information of literacy activities
such as student literacy competition and book review
periodically. The librarian should support all the literary
activities. Besides, the literacy atmosphere can be created
by having literacy corners at open space consisting of
entertaining books. Despite the findings, the results of this
study cannot be generalized for students in other
universities. Since this study does not focus on reading
textbooks, future study is suggested to focus on reading
literacy of academic books. The fact that most subjects of
this study are students at beginning of the year (2018), for
the next study, could be focus on university students who
are writing theses.
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43%
27%
21%
9%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
1
None
2
>2
16%
20%
61%
3%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Hobby
Assignment
Spend time
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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 390
65
... Literacy has been a big issue in Indonesian education progress. Many research findings present the university' students' reading literacy is still unsatisfactory (Wijayanti, 2019;Pantiwati, et al. 2020). Those researchers stated that the implementation of new literacy at the habituation and development stage had not yet reached the learning stage. ...
... They spend more time with the gadget (61%) to chat and play games. Other study found that Indonesian university students' reading literacy is still unsatisfactory (Wijayanti, 2019). A study which investigated Indonesian teachers' familiarity with Internet-based teaching of writing (Cahyono in Hidayati, 2018) revealed a positive effect. ...
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Digital technology has been attached to language education development. Computer based learning is applied to the language education program to enhance literary skill. With digital tools for education development and its application in society, this research paper was design to seek the effects of computer based teaching technique to equip students with digital literacy. The one group pre test and post test design of the experimental procedure was applied in third semester of university students. It took 32 students with the computer application. A computer based teaching technique was implemented to equip the students with the online communication and its reading procedures. After the computer based technique applied for 8 sessions, data obtained showed that the means scores of digital literacy post test = 83.25. The calculation showed that means of scores had increased from the pre test result = 67.75. It concluded the students' learning development in digital literacy has grown and they use many kinds of internet communication menus that help them in campus and society. The computer based learning has significantly equipped the students to use digital literacy for education and social interactions.
... The participants of this research have implemented educational applications in assessing students' reading since the beginning of 2021. Wijayanti (2020) claimed that learning applications as a medium of assessment are beneficial to be implemented for reading skills. It is because, in the digital era, reading text materials are both printed and available digitally. ...
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Utilization of educational applications in assessing the reading skills of junior high school students Globalization and the advancement of technology are giving a new challenge as well as op­portunities for English educators around the globe. Indirectly, there are obstacles associated with learning English due to the fact that technology has become an integral aspect of hu­man existence. The teaching of reading skill also faces the same challenge. Nowadays, read­ing is seen as more important than other skills, considering that reading has become one of the aspects of literacy. With regard to assessment, the availability of an educational ap­plication might be advantageous for teachers to assess students' reading skills. The current study investigates the types of application used by teachers in assessing students’ reading skill and the type of reading assessment that occur during the implementation of the ap­pli­cation. Through open-ended interview and document analysis method, the research result indicates that the implementation of Google Form as an educational application to assess students reading skills demonstrated a reading assessment based on tradi­tional assessment approaches with a focus on intensive reading. This study has shown the appropriate media for assessing students reading skill along with the reading fo­cus­es and assessment design that is suitable for it. In addition, in this study, Google Form dom­inates the most considerable use of media to assess students reading skills. Therefore, teachers could also save more time in assessing students’ reading by utilizing educational applications. Penggunaan aplikasi pendidikan dalam menilai ketrampilan membaca siswa SMP Globalisasi dan kemajuan teknologi memberikan tantangan sekaligus peluang baru bagi pengajar bahasa Inggris di seluruh belahan dunia. Secara tidak langsung, terdapat kendala yang terkait dengan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris karena fakta bahwa teknologi telah men­jadi aspek yang tidak terpisahkan dari keberadaan manusia. Saat ini, membaca dipandang lebih penting daripada keterampilan lainnya, mengingat membaca telah menjadi salah satu aspek literasi. Secara khusus, menentukan keterampilan membaca siswa menjadi sangat penting dalam pengajaran dan penilaian bahasa, dengan penambahan aplikasi pendidikan yang mungkin bermanfaat bagi guru untuk menilai keterampilan membaca siswa. Peneliti­an ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi aplikasi pendidikan yang dimanfaatkan untuk menilai ketrampilan membaca dan jenis-jenis ketrampilan membaca yang dinilai menggunakan ap­likasi. Melalui metode wawancara terbuka dan analisis dokumen, hasil penelitian me­nun­jukkan bahwa implementasi Google Form sebagai aplikasi pendidikan untuk menilai keter­ampilan membaca siswa menunjukkan penilaian membaca berdasarkan pendekatan peni­laian tradisional dengan fokus pada membaca intensif. Penelitian ini telah menunjukkan media yang sesuai untuk menilai keterampilan membaca siswa beserta fokus membaca dan desain penilaian yang sesuai dengannya. Selain itu, dalam penelitian ini, Google Form men­dominasi penggunaan media yang paling banyak digunakan untuk menilai kemampuan membaca siswa. Oleh karena itu, guru juga dapat menghemat lebih banyak waktu saat melakukan pe­nilaian keterampilan membaca siswa.
... Gerbang utama untuk mengembangkan budaya literasi bangsa adalah dengan penyediaan bahan bacaan untuk meningkatkan minat baca. Menurut Donal (2015), Wijayanti (2020), Tahmidaten & Krismanto (2020) bahwa minat baca masyarakat Indonesia tergolong rendah. Pendidikan yang terintegrasi merupakan solusi untuk meningkatkan serta menumbuhkan minat baca, karena dengan tersedianya bahan bacaan yang akan mendorong pembiasaan membaca dan menulis. ...
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Abstrak. Motivasi belajar mempunyai peran penting terhadap pembelajaran dan matematika mempunyai peran penting terhadap pendidikan serta literasi merupakan prasyarat kecakapan di abad ke-21. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan peran motivasi belajar terhadap literasi matematika. Jenis penelitian ini deskriptif kuantitatif. dengan subjek penelitian sebanyak 30 peserta didik kelas VII. Instrumen pengumpulan data menggunakan tes literasi matematika dan angket motivasi belajar. Teknik analisis data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan uji korelasi pearson, regresi dan ANOVA. Berdasarkan hasil pengolahan data, hubungan antara motivasi belajar dan literasi matematika sangat kuat sebesar 72,9%, motivasi belajar juga cukup kuat mempengaruhi literasi matematika sebesar 53,1%. Pada kelompok motivasi belajar rendah memiliki rata-rata literasi matematika 47,50, untuk kelompok motivasi belajar sedang memiliki rata-rata literasi matematika 71,39, dan kelompok motivasi belajar tinggi memiliki rata-rata literasi matematika 90,00. Hasil analisis uji anova juga membuktikan bahwa terdapat perbedaan literasi matematika peserta didik antara kelompok motivasi belajar rendah, sedang, dan tinggi. Dengan demikian dalam meningkatkan literasi matematika peserta didik, peran motivasi belajar sangatlah diperlukan.Kata Kunci: literasi matematika, literasi, motivasi belajar, motivasi
... Reading literacy is a global problem that requires serious attention. The International Student Assessment and Progress in International reading literacy Studies program shows some countries with low literacy rates, some of which did not significantly improve periodic evaluation, (Wijayanti, 2020;Li, 2018;Ariawan & Winoto, 2021). Can be developed literacy skills in early childhood by recognizing the letters of the alphabet, recognizing 20 letters and their sounds, starting to have phonemic awareness (every word has a sound element), and starting to read and write simple and capable vocabulary-vowel-consonants recognize some simple words, (Mahayanti & Asrina, 2017;Andriana et al., 2017). ...
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This study aims to determine the effect of using big book media on students' reading literacy in class. This research used a quantitative approach. The research design was a pre-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design. Data collection techniques using tests and observations. The data analysis techniques were validity, reliability, normality, homogeneity, t-test, and N-gain tests. The subjects of this study were 50 students of grade V consisting of 35 females and 15 males. The results show that there is a significant effect of big book media on the reading literacy of grade V students in elementary schools. The results of the Statistical analysis of the t-count test is 6.349 t-table 2,0. It can be concluded that big book media, is effective on students reading literacy.
... Kemampuan membaca masyarakat Indonesia untuk membaca teks akademis yang berbahasa Inggris masih sangat lemah (Wijayanti, 2020). Hal ini juga ditambah lagi dengan keberadaan Covid-19 ini, dimana pembelajaran reading di perguruan tinggi juga berdampak negatif pada mahasiswa (Harida, 2020 ...
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This study aims to determine the students’ attitude in learning reading comprehension at English Program IAIN Padangsidimpuan by using CIRC-b-FCL model. The research was done by using quantitative study by using questionnaires as the instrument. The data were analysed statistically. The students’ attitude was seen from the students’ cognitive, affective, and psycho-motoric result (Ahmadi, 2007). By the result, it was seen that the students’ attitude is better by using this model, it was seen by the result of cognitive (81.83) and psychomotor (82) are very good, and the effective attitude (77.08) was good. So, it can be concluded that the CIRC-b-FCL can be used for the students’ attitude in learning reading comprehension.
... Readers can grow their critical thinking through different reading processes, along with interpretation, inference, and text-based insights. However, the data obtained from previous research indicated that Indonesian college students still lack reading literacy for several reasons, such as laziness, insufficient time, poor reading habit, lack of vocabulary and background knowledge, and the use of ineffective reading strategies (Velayati, Muslem, Fitriani, & Samad, 2017;Wijayanti, 2020). Therefore, this current study explored critical reading's role to foster the critical thinking and reading comprehension of Indonesian undergraduate students majoring in Social and Political Sciences. ...
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Abstract Developing students' critical thinking and reading comprehension is crucial, particularly for those in colleges, because they need to read numerous scientific journals and textbooks written in English. Therefore, students need to employ critical reading strategies to raise their critical thinking skills for a successful academic life. However, current studies have shown a lack of critical thinking strategies among Indonesian students, thereby leading to various academic problems, particularly the inability to comprehend English. Therefore, this research aims to explore critical reading's role to support students' critical thinking and reading comprehension skills when reading a text. This is qualitative research with the purposive random technique used to obtain data from seven (7) EFL non–English major undergraduate students in their 2nd semester through three (3) short argumentative texts, a semi-structured interview, and students' answers in written forms. The results showed that students developed their critical thinking skills and improved their reading comprehension in varying degrees by exposure to numerous tasks. Keywords: Critical Reading, Critical Thinking, Reading Comprehension
... Readers can grow their critical thinking through different reading processes, along with interpretation, inference, and text-based insights. However, the data obtained from previous research indicated that Indonesian college students still lack reading literacy for several reasons, such as laziness, insufficient time, poor reading habit, lack of vocabulary and background knowledge, and the use of ineffective reading strategies (Velayati, Muslem, Fitriani, & Samad, 2017;Wijayanti, 2020). Therefore, this current study explored critical reading's role to foster the critical thinking and reading comprehension of Indonesian undergraduate students majoring in Social and Political Sciences. ...
Article
Full-text available
Developing students' critical thinking and reading comprehension is crucial, particularly for those in colleges, because they need to read numerous scientific journals and textbooks written in English. Therefore, students need to employ critical reading strategies to raise their critical thinking skills for a successful academic life. However, current studies have shown a lack of critical thinking strategies among Indonesian students, thereby leading to various academic problems, particularly the inability to comprehend English. Therefore, this research aims to explore critical reading's role to support students' critical thinking and reading comprehension skills when reading a text. This is a qualitative research with the purposive random technique used to obtain data from seven (7) EFL non-English major undergraduate students in their 2nd semester through three (3) short argumentative texts, a semi-structured interview, and students' answers in written forms. The results showed that students developed their critical thinking skills and improved their reading comprehension in varying degrees by exposure to numerous tasks.
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Extensive reading is broadly known as reading for enjoyment and is beneficial for EFL students. However, nowadays, the growth of technology has become a matter for students to be reading less than they should be. Thus, this research focused on the online extensive reading as the course program the students had experience in Pakuan University to find out their perspective. The respondents were 15 students from sixth-semester students who had experienced the Online Extensive Reading subject. The research was conducted by using qualitative method and using questionnaires and one-on-one interviews as the instruments. Data collected were separated into three indicators, which included the learning process, students’ skills improvement, and personal factors. Based on the result, the students’ perspective on the Online Extensive Reading helped them improve, especially in vocabulary gained, reading interest and reading comprehension. On the other hand, most students perceived that the learning process was effective for them to learn in this Online situation. However, they suggested that they needed more virtual meeting sessions instead of using chat forum to discuss or share. Furthermore, there were a few students that didn’t feel the effectiveness of the Online Extensive Reading because they had a problem in their personal characteristic such as, procrastinating, unmotivated to read, unmanageable time, and their lack of reading interest.
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Research in higher education has revealed that only a small proportion of students complete assigned reading during semester. The current studies examined students’ reading practices, and sought to explore potential factors underlying these practices. Three studies were conducted. Study 1 utilised a questionnaire to examine how long students spend reading academic material. Students reported spending an average of 14.1 hours per week reading a range of sources, including textbooks and journal articles for both guided and independent reading. The number of hours spent reading was lower than university expectations. Study 2 involved conducting focus groups to explore potential factors underlying students’ reading practices. Six main themes emerged in the data; Expectations, Perceived benefits, Course structure, Lack of time, Practicalities, and Confidence. Study 3 further examined students’ perceptions of a lack of time and a lack of confidence with reading using a diary exercise and a further questionnaire. The diary exercise revealed that students spent an average of 6.5 hours per day engaged in academic activities. In addition, students were generally confident with reading, although more so with reading textbooks than journal articles. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for staff teaching in higher education.
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Emphasis that reading has increasingly been the object of empirical and theoretical investigations for a long past. It has been studied from every possible dimension by researchers of different disciplines like Psychology, Sociology, Education, Media Studies and Library & Information Science. The study aims to investigate the reading and library usage habits of the college students in Kashmir Valley. The stratified random sampling technique was applied to select the students and questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. The results reveal that the college students have positive attitude towards reading and majority of them spend almost two hours on academic and non-academic reading daily. The students developed reading habits mostly through their self efforts followed up with the help of parents and teachers respectively. The college students prefer to read in morning, at home and in English. The results also depict that students mostly read for education followed by information. The preferred subject interest of students is Religion followed by Science & Technology and Literature respectively. The results further reveal that majority of the students exploit their personal collection followed by college library to satisfy their reading needs. The students face many problems in getting reading materials like restriction on borrowing in libraries, inadequate collection, price hike of reading materials and poor organisation of libraries.
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This paper reports on research into how first-university students communicate with peers and professors and their general study habits and to examine the possible relationship between students’ use of digital technologies. The research is positioned in the interpretive paradigm. We conclude that most students feel comfortable with digital technologies and they see Facebook/MySpace as more about connecting and interacting with friends than for academic communication. Results show that students prefer face-to-face communication for both academic/school and social communication. Regarding study habits, students prefer to learn by themselves, work independently and to study at home.
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This paper reports the findings of a study of undergraduate student use of, and attitudes toward, textbooks and other assigned reading. More than 1200 students of various subjects at three Swedish universities were surveyed. Most students said reading played an important role in learning generally and attributed positive characteristics to their textbooks. However, students' self-reported reading behaviour was at odds with these attitudes, with many students reporting some degree of non-compliance with reading assignments and a small group of students expressing active resistance to completing reading assignments. Although textbooks were perceived as valuable, students reported a preference for learning course content from other resources, such as lectures and lecture notes. Textbooks were perceived as alternatives, rather than complements, to attending class. Differences were found across academic disciplines. Implications of these findings for educational administration and classroom practice are discussed.
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Purpose Reading has increasingly been the object of empirical and theoretical investigation since decades being studied from different dimension by subject specialists particularly Psychology, Sociology, Education, Media Studies and Library & Information Science. The present study aims to investigate the reading habits of the college students and their gender variability. Design/Methodology/Approach The survey method is employed with a questionnaire for data collection following stratified random sampling. The data is analysed using different statistical and quantitative techniques. The findings obtained are correlated with earlier studies. Besides Z-statistic test is applied for the testing of hypothesis. Findings The results reveal that the college students have positive attitude towards reading with females being more dominant. The students, irrespective of gender acquire reading habits mostly of their own and prefer to read in morning, at home and in English language. The results discover that male read for information and females for education more. It further reveals that the male students mostly read about Religion, Politics and Literature whereas majority of female prefer Religion, Science & Technology and Literature. Research limitations/implications Despite providing meaningful insights on reading habits across genders, the limitation of the study is its sample size and frame focussing college students. This makes it difficult to generalise the results across different sections of the society. Originality/value The study confirms that gender is the principle factor affecting reading habits of students and females are more predominant than males in reading culture.
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This study, situated in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context where non-English major college learners are usually required to read content-area textbooks in English, tried to determine what motivates students to engage in English for Academic Purposes (EAP) reading activities. Three student informants were invited to reflect on their own EAP reading experiences and discuss pedagogical situations in which they were more willing to read. Then a questionnaire containing 18 statements describing various situations was constructed based on interviews with the student informants and data were collected from 212 college business majors. Descriptive statistics showed that learners were most willing to read under three circumstances: when (1) teachers were available to answer questions, (2) key points were highlighted clearly in textbooks, and (3) reading skills were taught. Factor analysis results presented three distinct clusters of variables, namely EFL teacher facilitation, reading requirements, and text facilitation. The three clusters of factors explained a total of 59% variance. Through learners’ indications of why they preferred specific content areas in EAP reading, background schema was also found to be an important factor influencing situational EAP reading motivation.
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What are the reading habits of college students? This paper reports the results of a survey of undergraduate business students addressing this question. The objectives were to determine: (1) what business publications students read and how often they read them, (2) what students read for pleasure and how often, (3) how many hours a week students spend in various activities including reading, and (4) what activities interfere most with reading and study. The results indicate that college textbooks are the most frequently read business material with 42 percent reading textbooks daily. Business related material on the internet was read by 17 percent of the students on a daily basis. For pleasure, students read magazines, religious publications, and newspapers the most often. Students tend to read these publications at least once a week. Novels, nonfiction, fiction, poetry, and comic books were read on a weekly basis by less than one half of the students. The results indicate that many students are not reading on a daily basis whether it is business related or for pleasure. If students are not reading, what are they doing? Students spend time watching television (31 percent watch 12 or more hours per week), talking on the telephone (27 percent talk on the phone 12 or more hours per week), and listening to recorded music (23 percent listen 12 or more hours per week). Students report spending fewer hours reading with 3 percent indicating that they spend 12 or more hours reading each week. When asked whether work, sports, clubs/organizations, personal relationships, or child care interfered with reading and study, the students responded that personal relationships as well as clubs and organizations interfered more often with reading and studying.
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This study was designed to identify underlying factors that motivate language learners to read in a foreign language (L2) context. It also examined the relationships between L1 and L2 reading motivation and any differences in reading motivation based on the learners’ academic majors and L2 reading proficiency. 259 Korean EFL college students participated in this study. Participants’ L1 and L2 reading motivation was measured using a Likert scale questionnaire and their L2 proficiency was estimated by test scores in their reading classes. This study yielded a four-factor solution for L2 reading motivation: learning goal-oriented motivation, intrinsic motivation, avoidance of reading, and utility value of L2 reading. The results indicated that learning goal-oriented motivation and utility value of L2 reading were the two primary indicators for the participants’ desire to read in English. The study also demonstrated that the factor-based L2 reading motivation scales correlated with some of the L1 reading motivation scales in the relatively low range but statements about the connection or transfer issue of reading motivation between the two languages must be tentative. All L2 reading motivation scales revealed significant differences between English and non-English majors except in utility value of L2 reading. Furthermore intrinsic and avoidance scales also differed significantly depending on the participants’ L2 reading proficiency. KeywordsEnglish reading motivation–English reading proficiency–Relationship between L1 and L2 reading motivation–Background variables
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The paper discusses study and reading habits of postgraduate students in selected Nigerian universities. Two hundred questionnaires were sent to five Nigerian universities. A total of 156 (78%) were returned. Students were asked about time and duration of study, learning styles and methods, materials used, and motivation. The results showed that the students did not see the library as a primary place to study. Students' purposes for study include personal knowledge and skills, and examination preparation.