BANATICA, 26 | 2016
THE EARLY UPPER PALEOLITHIC OF THE
BANAT AND RECENT RESEARCH AT THE
PALEOLITHIC SITE OF TINCOVA*
Wei Chu**, Christian Zeeden***,
Keywords: Aurignacian, Loess, Danube Corridor, Early Upper Paleolithic, Banat
Cuvinte-cheie: aurignacian, loess, argilă, Coridorul Dunării, începutul
paleoliticului superior, Banat
Research concerning modern human dispersals into Europehave prolif-
erated in recent years thanks to ever improving genetic research. e amount of
corresponding archaeological evidence concerning modern human dispersals
and the Upper Paleolithic in Europe has also been augmented by new
eldwork. is increase of datahas led to more complex narratives of cultural
dispersals and demographic expansions. Previously, all available Early Upper
Paleolithic evidence suggested that the arrival of the Aurignacian marked the
rst entry of Homo sapiens into Europe from the Levant, and that this arrival
coincided with the rapid decline/replacement of local Neanderthal populations.
However, it is clear now that this narrative is far too coarse. Dierent trajec-
tories of regional cultural development show multiple, distinct dispersals and
e investigations were carried out in the context of the CRC 806 “Our way to Europe”,
subproject B1 “e Eastern Trajectory: Last Glacial Paleogeography and Archeology of
the Eastern Mediterranean and of the Balkan Peninsula”, supported by the DFG (Deutsche
Forschungsgemeinscha, grant number INST 216/596–2). We would like to thank Dumitru
Ţeicu for the invitation to submit this article as well as Jürgen Richter, Frank Lehmkuhl, omas
Hauck and Mircea Anghelinu for thoughtful discussions. Any errors are of course, our own.
Institute of Prehistory; University of Cologne, Weyertal 125, 50923 Cologne, Germany,
Chair of Physical Geography and Geoecology, Department of Geography, Templergraben
55, RWTH Aachen University, D–52056 Aachen, Germany, e-mail: christian.zeeden@geo.
Muzeul Banatului Montan Reșiţa, b-dul Republicii, nr.10, e-mail: email@example.com
disparate interaction patterns with native hominins. is is particularly true in
Southeastern Europe, a hypothesized geographic intermediary between Central
Europe and the Middle East.
Because of the early Aurignacian nds in the Swabian Jura e.g. Hohle Fels,
Willendorf II, Geißenklösterle, Keilberg-Kirche1 and the slightly older Early
Upper Paleolithic assemblages (Bachokirian/Kozarnikan) in the lower reaches
of the Danube catchment e.g. Kozarnika, Temnata and Bacho Kiro, scholarshave
hypothesized an early migratory link through the Danube Valley; the so-called
Danube Corridor Hypothesis2. Plausible as that hypothesis may seem, in
reality the Danube’s role in early modern human movements is not well under-
stood as the catchment’s Early Upper Paleolithic siteshave not been veried
and tested alongside the more extensive surrounding archaeological record.
Current archaeological research along the Danube is limited to the surrounding
highlands, the Inner Carpathians and Lower Austria; little is known from the
Basin itself3. Additionally, many ndspots remain poorly understood while
others with single and multiple layers are only just being identied/reexcavated,
for instance, Beregovo I4. In addition, archaeologistshave paid scant attention
to the topography and paleoclimatic variability of the Middle Danube, which
couldhave inuenced modern human migration.
e Banat plays a key role in this discussion as it is a unique topographic
region that comprises the intersection of both karstic cave and open air settle-
ments5 thathave yielded Europe’s earliest modern human fossils at the Peștera cu
Oase6 as well other early specimens at Peștera Muierii and Peștera Cioclovina7.
Excavationshave also reported smaller, possible early lithic traces in the karst
at the Peștera Liliecilor8 and Tabula Traiana Cave (Serbia) where artifacts
were recovered directly above a Campanian ignimbrite tephra and dated with
associated cutmarked bones to between 41.3–34.5 ka cal BP9. However, these
assemblages are small, poor in diagnostic artifacts, and in the case of Liliecilor,
the provenience of the artifacts remain unclear10.
By contrast, the region alsohas a number of large open air early Aurignacian
Conard, Bolus 2008; Higham et alii 2012; Nigst et alii 2014; Uthmeier 1996.
Conard, Bolus 2003.
Anghelinu et alii 2012; Ioviţă et alii 2014; Steguweit et alii 2009.
Tasić et alii 2011.
Moldovan 2003; Trinkaus et alii 2003, 2012.
Alexandrescu et alii 2010; Harvati et alii 2007; Socaru et alii 2006, 2007; Trinkaus et alii
Dobrescu 2008, 409.
Borić et alii 2012; Mandić, Borić 2015.
Cârciumaru 2010, 145.
assemblages concentrated around the fringes of the Poiana Ruscă Mountains in
the Romanian Banat such as at Românești, Coșava, Tincova and potentially at
the newly discovered ndspot at Temerești11. ere are also further Aurignacian
artifacts found in the plains surrounding the city of Vršac (Vojvodina, Serbia)
most notably at Crvenka-At where thesehave been recovered in good preserva-
tional contexts12. Dates for the open air sites remain scarce, however, OSL and
TL dates of sediments and heated artifacts both directly and indirectly bracket
the Aurignacian levels at Românești to between 45–40 ka ago13. If correct, these
would place the assemblage contemporaneous with the oldest Aurignacian
assemblages in Europe.
Unfortunately, the human fossils and the lithic artifacts in the Banat, while
both important to our understanding of early modern humans in Europe, are
frustratingly found to the exclusion of the other. Except for a few scattered,
unprovenienced pieces at both Peștera Muierii and Peștera Cioclovina in other
parts of the cave, no lithics are associated with the modern human fossils.
Likewise, no organic remainshave yet been found in open air sites, a situation
that is not likely to change due to high soil acidity14. Furthermore, as yet, there
are no Aurignacian or contemporaneous nds in the Carpathian Basin loess
where better preservation may be expected15.
It is with this in mind that the Collaborative Research Center–806 “Our Way
to Europe” began eldwork in the Banat, attempting to acquire and compare new
comparative archaeological and sedimentological data with which to compare
other Early Upper Paleolithic sites in the Levant and in Central Europe.
2� Background—Palaeolithic Research in the Romanian Banat
e history of Palaeolithic research in the Romanian Banat has been
discussed extensively by I.Băltean (2011). He relates that Pleistocene research
in the Banat began at the end of the 19th Century with the discovery of Upper
Pleistocene faunal remains (Ursus spelaeus, Capra ibex) in the Buhui Cave in
Steierdorf-Anina16. Paleolithic artifacts were not found until the late 1930s
when research was carried out at the Cerbului and Popovăţ Caves in the Caraş
Valley. While these artifacts were originally interpreted as bone and quartzite
Palaeolithic artifacts, they were later shown to be geofacts17.
Mogoșanu 1978; Kels et alii 2014; Sitlivy et alii 2014a; Micle et alii 2015.
Chu et alii 2014; Mihailović 1992; Radovanović 1986.
Schmidt et alii 2013; Sitlivy et alii 2012.
Kels et alii 2014.
Händel et alii 2009.
Mogoșanu 1978, 14.
e rst systematic Paleolithic excavation in the Banat took place in 1954 at
the Peștera Hoţilor and was carried out by Nicolăescu-Plopşor18. ese excava-
tions yielded numerous Mousterian assemblages manufactured on quartzite
(attributed to the Last Glacial cycle) along with a small number of possible
Upper Paleolithic Aurignacian nds. Further collaboration with A.Păunescu,
P.Roman and I.Stratan, resulted in the identication and investigation of the
settlements of Tincova, Românești and Coşava19.
e impending ooding caused by the construction of the Iron Gates dam
during the 1960s provided major stimulus for Banat Paleolithic research as
archaeologists focused on rescuing at-risk archaeological heritage20. During this
time, four Paleolithic settlements were excavated: Băile Herculane (F.Mogoşanu,
1968–1970, 1972), Gornea–Căuniţa and Gornea–Păzărişte (F. Mogoşanu,
1969–1970 and V.Boroneanţ, 1970) and Climente I (V.Boroneanţ, 1965) culmi-
nating in the publication of several reports and articles21.
Paleolithic research was rejuvenated in 2002 with the discovery of modern
human remains from the Peștera cu Oase. is nding initiated a large, interna-
tional multidisciplinary research project22 during which archeological, sedimen-
tological and paleontological research was carried out both within the chambers
of the Peștera cu Oase but also in the multi-layered site from the Peștera La
Hoţu and the Plopa Ponor rock shelter23. Since then, Paleolithic research in the
Banathas been steady and a number of exploratory excavations24have led to a
synthetic publication of Paleolithic and Mesolithic research25.
a) e site of Tincova
e archaeological site of Tincova is situated on a wide terrace structure
southeast of the village of Tincova (Caraș-Severin, Romania) at the western
edge of the Poiana Ruscă Mountains. e Paleolithic settlement of Tincova
is composed of two distinct archaeological locations. e rst, Selişte I is
located approximately 400m south of the village and 300m East-southeast of
the Orthodox cemetery. e second, Selişte II is approximately 100m South-
southwest of Selişte I, near the same cemetery.
e Aurignacian site was rst discovered in 1958 in the eroding sediments
Jungbert 1978; Nicolăescu-Plopșor, Mateescu 1955.
e.g. Mogoșanu 1978; Boroneanţ 2000.
Trinkaus et alii 2012.
Băltean et alii 2008.
e.g. Tureau et alii 2007.
Tasić et alii 2011.
of a steep alluvial cone 60m above the right bank of the Timiş River26. Formal
archaeological research began in 1958 under the supervision of C.S.Nicolăescu-
Plopşor and I. Stratan27. Later excavations were continued by F. Mogoşanu
e majority of lithics at Tincova are manufactured from a local “Banat
int” of variable quality though it is not clear if this material is indeed int.
Petrochemical analyses indicate a probable local source likely from uvial
cobbles of the local rivers (Leonard in prep). Like the other Banat sites of
Românești and Coșava, less than 5% of the Banat tools and other artifacts were
made from other potentially semi-exotic raw materials. However, their small
number and their unknown provenience suggests that they may be local,having
been transported from unknown sources.
It is thought that the main aim at Tincova was to manufacture light,
unretouched blades and elongated rectilinear bladelets possibly through a
continuous core reduction sequence29. Among bladelet forms, Krems points and
Dufour bladelets (Dufour sub-type) are the most abundant. Simple endscrapers
and retouched blades are present though carinated scrapers are rare and scaled
retouch is absent30.
Citing these typo-technological attributes, as well as temporal and spatial
proximity, the original researchers suggested homologies between Tincova and
the “classical” Krems-Dufour Aurignacian collections at Krems-Hundssteig in
Lower Austria31. is connectionhas recently been resurrected placing Tincova
(and the other Banat sites as well) within a specic Aurignacian facies, itself a
part of a discrete European typo-technocomplex32.
However, the Tincova assemblagehas also been used in the past as evidence
that the earliest hominins reached the Banat during MIS 3. Both Teyssandier
and Zilhãohave suggested that the collection assemblage is “strongly suggestive
of the Proto-aurignacian based on the targeted production of elongated recti-
linear bladeforms.” ey compare it to Geißenklösterle and other early Swabian
Jura assemblages and have additionally encouraged comparisons with the
Kozarnikian further east in Bulgaria33, implying that its position mighthave
served as an intermediary waypoint between Southeastern and Central
Sitlivy et alii 2014b.
Nicolăescu-Plopșor, Stratan 1961; Stratan 1962.
cf. Sitlivy et alii 2014b.
Teyssandier 2008; cf. Sitlivy et alii 2014b.
Hahn 1977; Mogoșanu 1978.
Demidenko, Noiret 2012.
Europe34. Still, no direct comparative study between any of these siteshas been
made and the Tincova site remains undated. If correct however, these compar-
isons raise important questions as to Tincova’s association with the other Banat
sites and may be critical to unravelling the truth surrounding the validity of the
Proto-aurignacian and other various Aurignacian subtypes.
Resolving the exact nature of the Tincova assemblages is therefore a main
goal in understanding its relevance to the Danube Corridor Hypothesis. It is
with this in mind that we posited the following questions:
1. What is the extent of the site of Tincova and;
2. Could the site represent multiple layers not observed by Mogoșanu and
the other excavators?
b) Material and Methods
Small “keyhole” trenches were dug by a mechanical excavator in eight
dierent locations predetermined by the excavation team (Table 1; Fig 1).
Aer the topsoil was removed, trenches were dug in approximately 5cm spits.
Sediments in each spit was carefully examined for archaeological material
but not sieved. When artifacts were found in situ, their depth was recorded;
otherwise, depths recorded give an approximate depth and location within the
trench. Trench proles were manually trowel cleaned and described. Sediment
samples were taken from stratigraphic levels integrating 5cm intervals. Samples
were taken using a trowel, and were stored in plastic bags.
Additionally, we were able to identify and interview Dănilă Gheorghiţa
from the village of Tincova who worked as one of approximately twenty other
locals as an excavator in archaeological excavations of Selişte I for two months.
rough her, we were able to conrm the exact position of the former excava-
tions. Additionally, she alerted us to an eroding surface where she collected
large quantities of lithic surface nds which she donated to the Lugoj Museum.
More than 3m (Trench 1) of sediment overlay coarse terrace sediments
cropping out at the terrace edge. From eight trenches, seven were described in
the eld. Table 2 gives summarized descriptions from top to bottom.
Trenches 2–7 show similar build-ups (Table 1). We found a humic upper
soil (Ah) of 12–25cm thickness that gradually grades into a denser, grayer and
less organic-rich horizon, interpreted as an Ae/Bv/Sd horizon thathas been
bleached by water stagnation. In all of the trenches, a compact and colorful
(orangish, blackish, and ochre) horizon follows, which has a (sub)polyedric
Teyssandier 2006; 2008; Zilhão 2006.
structure and black (Mn) coatings partly composed of fossil root channels
(but not only of fossil root channels) and polyedric soil/sediment structures. It
continues to the bottom of the prole with varying amounts of sand and ne
pebbles, and with varying intensity in color and black stains and coatings. No
clear dierences in the sediment composition was visible.
e deeper trenches, 1 and 8, are somewhat dierent. Trench 1 was dug the
deepest and the closest to the terrace edge; it shows less colorful redoximorphic
features than Trenches 2–7. Trench 8 was excavated on the hillslope east of
Trenches 2–7. ough its stratigraphy is similar, ithas more and coarser sand
and gravels are embedded in the ne sediment. e sediment itself is sandier
and also more brown-gray, and shows less colorful redoximorphic features.
A total of ve artifacts were found during the test trenches in Trenches 3 and
6. In Trench 3, a carinated core was found as well (Fig.3–1) as an unambiguous
quartzite endscraper (Fig.3–4). ese artifacts were found in the back dirt of the
excavation so their depths were not recorded, however from our observations,
they came from a depth of between 80–90cm. In Trench 6, three artifacts were
found: a single blade, a large ake, and a small debitage piece (Fig.3). Again,
the depths of the blade and ake were not recorded, however, the debitage piece
was found in situ at a recorded depth of 75cm (Fig.4). Additionally, a number
of surface nds including a carinated core (Fig.3–2), were found in the dirt
path near Trenches 3 and 4.
Previous archaeological excavations by Mogoșanu (1978) have suggested
a generalized ~3 m deep stratigraphy consisting of an upper yellowish grey
vegetated soil (sol vegetal gri-gălbui), a yellowish white ne powder with iron
oxide concretions (praf n gălbui-albicios cu concrețiuni de oxizi de er), a
compact yellowish brown clay (argilă brun-galbuie compactă) and a reddish
clay (argilă de culoare roșcată). e sediment proles we found at Tincova
are similar to the original descriptions by Mogoșanu (1978). Kels et al. (2014)
described similar sediments and stratigraphies from Coșava and Românești,
ca. 30–40km further northeast and were described showing similar fragipan
features, restricting water inltration and root penetration.
We agree with the interpretation of Kels et al. (2014), that water inl-
tration is limited as the soil is extremely wet and shows colorful redoxi-
morphic features from ~40cm downward. Water stagnation is also visible in
the landscape by the frequent occurrence of standing surface water puddles
and of hydrophilic sedges (sp� carex). Similar sedimentshave been observed by
the authors southeast of Vršac (Serbia), and it is posited that their continuous
distribution along the Banat hillslopes towards the Carpathians is likely, though
more observations are required. Kels et al. (2014) also ‘assume a wider distri-
bution of [these] fragic horizons in comparable altitudes and morphological
positions along the Carpathian arc’. e observations at Tincova support this
statement. e Tincova site seems quite similar in its sedimentary composition
and geomorphologic position to the Românești site, where probably no or only
minor erosion took place as opposed to Coșava where sediments were highly
eroded35. Less intense redoximorphic features in trenches one and eight may be
associated with less stagnant water through better drainage at the hillslope and
near the terrace edge.
e origins of the ne sediment and its several coarser components may
be of aeolian or colluvial genesis; they may also represent a former ood plain
of the Mureş River. We suggest a combination of aeolian loess deposition
combined with colluvial sediment input from the adjacent upland hills accumu-
lated during heavy rain events alongside carbonate dissolution to be respon-
sible for the present soils. e coarser particles (in the sand fraction and the
ne pebbles) support an alluvial or colluvial origin of parts of the deposits; an
aeolian origin is at this point speculative. e absence of clear stratied sand and
coarse material speaks against oodplain sediments and testies to aeolian and
colluvial deposition. Further evidence for a colluvial origin is in the abundance
of coarse material in Trench 8 excavated at the hillslope. In summary, we suggest
a combination of colluvial and aeolian sediment to be present at Tincova.
As loess covers wide parts of the Carpathian Basin and also the Banat
least some aeolian loess deposition may be expected at Tincova. Where Kels et
al. (2014) found three discrete sedimentological units at Coșava and Românești,
Tincova does not show clear separations (however there are variations in coarse
sediment fraction). Rather it shows dierent degrees of post-depositional alter-
ation through soil formation and geochemical processes. At Coșava, ne sediments
with a high proportion of coarser sediment from the underlying sediments are
. e trenches at Tincova did not reach the underlying coarser sediments,
which crop out at the edge of the terrace-plateau-like landform where the archae-
ological site Tincova site is located. e sediments, including the high amount of
clay and stagnic features found at Tincova, Coșava and Românești are dissimilar
from last glacial sedimentary deposits in the Carpathian Basin, which mainly
consist of loess, sometimes including a sandy component
Kels et alii 2014.
e.g. Haase et alii 2007; Kels et alii 2014; Lukić et alii 2014; Marković et alii 2014; Obreht et
alii 2015; Schulte et alii 2014.
Kels et alii 2014.
Obreht et alii 2015.
e artifacts found at Tincova are identical to those found by previous
excavations. Clearly the presence of in situ lithic artifacts conrm Băltean’s
(2011) suspicion that the archaeological site at Tincovahad not been exhaus-
tively excavated as Mogoșanu (1978) posited. Although few artifacts were found
in these test trenches, the cores conrm that the artifacts are unambiguously
early Aurignacian in nature but are unable to add to the discussion as to whether
Tincova is part of a Proto-aurignacian, or Krems-Dufour typo-technocomplex.
Nevertheless, the addition of two cores to the small collection of carinated cores
(n=9) from Tincova represents a gain of over 20% and eventually may be able to
help sort out the “mixed” signal currently given by the collection39.
From the initial results it appears that the Banat and the Paleolithic
site of Tincova have a long history of human occupation, and still have
much potential to help clarify the picture of the Late Pleistocene modern
human dispersals into southeastern Europe. e generalized stratigraphy
and Paleolithic ndings devised by Mogoșanu for Tincova largely conforms
that the occupied area was much wider than previously thought. A quarter
of the trenches tested in this eldwork yielded at least traces of Paleolithic
occupation, and techno-typological observations conrm that the area was
occupied in the Late Pleistocene. Sediments are probably the combined result
of aeolian deposition and colluvial input; post-depositional disturbances
of the archaeological layers were not observed. We were unable to recover
enough artifacts to conrm Mogoșanu’s archaeological stratigraphy however,
all the artifacts we found were ~80cm below the surface. It is unclear if this
represented multiple layers, but understanding if the site is comprised of a
single or multiple early Aurignacian occupations would be important to our
understanding of the Tincova assemblage and modern human migrations in
Europe and it is clear that this is an aim for future work. Due to the low nd
density excavations would require a large area for recovering a signicant
amount of in-situ archaeological material.
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ÎNCEPUTURILE PALEOLITICULUI SUPERIOR ÎN BANAT ȘI
CERCETĂRI RECENTE ÎN SITUL PALEOLITIC DE LA TINCOVA
Pe măsură ce datele despre răspândirea urmelor umane moderne în Europa în timpul
paleoliticul superior se acumulează, scenariile devin din ce în ce mai complicate. Banatul,
integrat în Bazinul sud-vest Panonic, unde numeroasele fosile și dovezile arheologice indică
o prezenţă timpurie a oamenilor moderni, a devenit o regiune-cheie în această discuţie.
Unul dintre cele mai importante situri este cel de la Tincova, care reprezintă un sit
aurignacian bogat, a cărui asociere cu paleoliticul superior de est și de vest a fost pe larg
discutată. In ciuda acestui fapt, vârsta și formarea sitului sunt încă puţin înţelese.
Cu aceste idei la bază, în primăvara anului 2016, am iniţiat un proiect de mică anver-
gură de diagnoză și excavare arheologică preliminară (1) menit să identice întinderea
spaţială a sitului și (2) pentru a reexamina sedimentele din jur.
Aproape jumătate din sondajele efectuate în acest loc pe teren au dat cel puţin semnalul
unor urme de ocupaţie antropică paleolitică și observaţiile tehno-tipologice conrmă faptul
că zona a fost ocupată în Pleistocenul Târziu.
Nu s-au observat tulburări post-depoziţionale ale straturilor arheologice. Nu am
reușit să recuperăm destule artefacte pentru a conrma stratigraa arheologică propusă de
Fl.Mogoșanu dar, cu toate acestea, toate artefactele au fost descoperite la -80cm sub supra-
faţă. Nu este clar dacă acest lucru a reprezentat mai multe nivele, dar înţelegerea în cazul
în care situl este format dintr-o singură sau mai multe ocupaţii specice aurignacianului
timpuriu ar importantă pentru noi în ceea ce privește integrarea sitului de la Tincova
înharta migraţiilor umane moderne în Europa și este clar că acesta este un obiectiv pentru
munca noastră viitoare.
Sedimentele, inclusiv cantitatea mare de argilă cu caracteristici minerale prezente la
Tincova, dar și la Coșava și Românești, sunt deosebite de ultimele depozite sedimentare
glaciare din Bazinul Carpatic, care constau în principal din loess, uneori, inclusiv o compo-
nentă de nisip.
Descrierea sedimentului este doar descriptivă aici și iniţial se evită o interpretare știin-
ţică a solului. În plus, noi am fost capabili să identicăm și să intervievăm o persoană din
satul Tincova care a lucrat cu alţi aproximativ douăzeci de localnici la săpăturile arheologice
din Seliște I timp de două luni în anii ‘70.
Astfel, am fost capabili de a localiza poziţia fostelor săpături. În plus, persoana inter-
vievată ne-a avertizat cu privire la o suprafaţă de erodare din islazul satului, zonă în care
ea a colectat de-a lungul anilor de la suprafaţă cantităţi mari de piese litice din silex pe care
le-a donat Muzeului din Lugoj. Descoperirile noastre conrmă prezenţa unui sit aparţinând
paleoliticului superior, aat într-o stratigrae similară cu cea găsită în context, de către
Fl.Mogoșanu, stratigrae și secvenţă sedimentară care sunt similare cu cele observate în
alte situri aparţinând aurignacianului timpuriu din regiune.
Figure 1: Location of the test trenches from the 2016 eld campaign. Imagery ©2016 CNES/Astrium,
DigitalGlobe, Map data ©2016 Google / Campania din 2016 – Amplasamentul secţiunii de examinare
preliminară� Imagery ©2016 CNES/Astrium, DigitalGlobe, Map data ©2016 Google�
Figure 2: Simplied prole sketch of Trench 2, representative for Trenches 2–7, compared to
the gure by Mogoșanu 1978 (right panel). In agreement with Mogoșanu’s observations, we
found a humic upper soil (Ah) of 12–25cm thickness that gradually grades into a denser,
grayer and less organic-rich horizon (here down to 70cm). In all trenches a compact and
more or less colorful (orangish, blackish, and ochre) horizon follows, whichhas a (sub)
polyedric structure and black (Mn) coatings of fossil root channels and polyedric sediment
structures. It continues to the bottom of the prole with varying amounts of sand and ne
pebbles, and with varying intensity in color and black stains and coatings. Table 1 gives a
simplied overview of the proles found in trenches /
Schiţa simplicată a prolului secţiunii 2, reprezentativă pentru secţiunile 2–7, comparată cu
imaginea dată de Mogoşanu 1978 (panoul din dreapta)� În acord cu observaţiile lui Moroşanu,
am descoperit un strat superior de humus (Ah), de 12 – 25cm, care se dezvoltă treptat într-un
orizont mai dens, mai cenuşiu şi mai puţin bogat în elemente organice (aici, la o adâncime
de 70cm)� La nivelul tuturor secţiunilor urmează un orizont mai mult sau mai puţin colorat
(portocaliu, negru şi ocru), cu o structură subpoliedrică şi straturi negre (Mn) de caneluri
de rădăcină fosilă şi structuri de sediment poliedric� Acesta continuă spre baza prolului cu
diferite cantităţi de nisip şi prundiş şi, de asemenea, cu pete şi straturi cu o intensitate diferită
a culorii sau negre� Tabelul 1 oferă o prezentare generală simplicată a prolurilor descoperite
Figure 3: Artifacts recovered from Tincova 2016 /Artefacte descoperite la Tincova 2016�
Figure 4: South prole of Trench 6 with the position of an artifact recovered in situ
indicated / Prolul sudic al secţiunii 6, cu indicarea poziţiei unui artefact in situ�
Table 1: Location and sizes of the trenches from the 2016 eld campaign. Note that all points
indicate the SW most corner of the trench. All trenches were 60 cm wide / Amplasamentul
şi dimensiunile secţiunilor din campania 2016� A se observa că toate punctele indică cel mai
sud-vestic colţ al secţiunii� Toate secţiunile au avut lăţimea de 60 cm�
Length [m] Orien-
Trench 1 3 4 SSW 1 sediment sample taken
Trench 2 2.15 10 SW
Trench 3 .83 4 N core, quartzite retouched ake
Trench 4 1 4 SSE
Trench 5 .95 4 N
Trench 6 1.15 T-shaped 7X4 N blade, ake, debitage,
sediment samples taken
Trench 7 1.2 4 N
Trench 8 1.9 4 SSW
Table 2: Simplied stratigraphy of the eight investigated trenches from Tincova / Stratigraa
simplicată a celor opt secţiuni cercetate la Tincova�
Topsoil with many
roots and organic
brown in color,
0–15/20 0–25 0–12 0–20 0–15 0–15 As 6, (not
(bleached) and more
clay rich horizon,
few roots. Crum-
ble to subangular
20–70 25–70 12–33 20–40 15–19 15–27 18–49,
up to ca.
Very compact and
blackish, and ochre)
horizon. Very clay
rich with black spots
and a (sub)polyedreic
structure. Black (Mn)
20–230 70–130 33–83 40–100 19–95 27–115 49–102,
As above, but more
coarse sand and
small pebbles in
the clay matrix
- - - - 102–
up to ca.
Some quartz as
coarse sand (and