The Role of Blockchain in 6G: Challenges,
Opportunities and Research Directions
Tharaka Hewa∗, G¨
ur†, Anshuman Kalla‡, Mika Ylianttila§, An Braeken¶, Madhusanka Liyanagek
∗§ kCentre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland
†Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur, Switzerland
‡School of Computing and Information Technology, Manipal University Jaipur, India
¶Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Anderlecht, Belgium
kSchool of Computer Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Email: ∗§ k[ﬁrstname.lastname]@oulu.ﬁ, †firstname.lastname@example.org, ‡email@example.com,
Abstract—The world is going through a fundamental trans-
formation with the emergence of the intelligent information era.
The key domains linked with human life such as healthcare,
transport, entertainment, and smart cities are expected to elevate
the quality of service with high-end user experience. Therefore,
the telecommunication infrastructure has to meet unprecedented
service level requirements such as ultra high data rates and trafﬁc
volume for the prominent future applications such as Virtual
Reality (VR), holographic communications, and massive Machine
Type Communications (mMTC). There are signiﬁcant challenges
identiﬁable in the communication context to match the envisaged
demand surge. The blockchain and distributed ledger technology
is one of the most disruptive technology enablers to address most
of the current limitations and facilitate the functional standards
of 6G. In this work, we explore the role of blockchain to address
formidable challenges in 6G, future application opportunities and
potential research directions.
Index Terms—6G Networks, Blockchain, Distributed Ledger
Technology, massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC),
6G mobile networks are envisioned to nurture the future
of ubiquitously connected data-intensive intelligent society 
powered with complete automation by seamless integration of
all sorts of wireless networks spread over ground, underwater,
air and space . Moreover, 6G is also envisaged to keep up
with the explosive growth in mobile trafﬁc which is estimated
to be 607 Exabyte/month by 2025 and 5016 Exabyte/month
by 2030  for the emerging applications such as –.
By and large, the next generation of mobile networks are
expected to be innately softwarized, virtualized and cloudiﬁed
systems ,  with the motive to interconnect seamlessly a
staggering number of heterogeneous devices including massive
IoT/IoE devices, to cater anticipated explosive growth in data
trafﬁc at ultra-high data rates along with ultra-low latency ,
to create incredible range of new vertical network services
, , and to support the development of brand-new set of
real-time  and data-intensive  applications.
Undoubtedly, softwarization, virtualization and cloudiﬁca-
tion of next generation mobile networks lead to enormous ad-
vantages like micro operator based business models , agile
and efﬁcient management and network orchestration (MANO),
Fig. 1. The role of blockchain in 6G networks.
on-the-ﬂy creation of vertical services, differentiated services
with network slicing , etc. However, they tend to exacer-
bate the issues like network reliability, security vulnerability,
data privacy and immutability , soft spectrum sharing,
multiple access control, authentic Virtual Network Functions
(VNFs) , legitimate resource utilization, and differential
security for differentiated services offered by different virtual
Lately, blockchain technology and in general distributed
ledger technology have gained momentum and have been
embraced by the industry and research communities across
the globe. Some of the offerings of blockchain technology
are: (i) decentralization by eliminating the need of central
trusted third parties and intermediaries, (ii) transparency with
anonymity, (iii) provenance and non-repudiation of the trans-
actions made, (iv) immutability and tamper-prooﬁng of the
distributed ledger’s content, (v) elimination of single point-
of-failure (improving resiliency and resistance to attacks like
DDoS), (vi) comparatively less processing delay as well as
processing fee. Thus blockchain is regarded as an indispens-
able technology to establish trust in future networks.
Since blockchain has been envisioned as one of the key
enabling technologies for 6G mobile networks , , ,
it is imperative to explore various beneﬁts, opportunities and
challenges foreseen with its exploitation. Fig. 1 depicts the
role of blockchain in the 6G networks while the following
sections elaborate on identiﬁed aspects of that integration.
II. GE NE RA L CHALLENGES IN 6G
Some of the perceptible challenges in 6G are expounded by
Behnaam et al. in . Moreover, challenges pertinent to M2M
communications are presented by Biral et al. .
A. Massive connectivity in future systems
1) Scalability: The industrial IoT enthusiasts predict that
billions of devices will be connected and operated in the future
industrial ecosystems with the emergence of concepts such
as massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC). Thus it
would be challenging to tailor the design of 6G systems for
such an unprecedented trafﬁc demand.
2) Real-time communication with minimal latency: The
real-time communication is a crucial requirement in future
computing ecosystems. The device-to-device and machine-
to-machine communications require a robust accuracy with
near zero delays for precise operation. The use cases such as
autonomous driving and AR assisted healthcare systems may
require a consistent minimal delay communication enabled in
large-scale data exchange.
3) Higher throughput: The mission critical systems which
utilize the future 5G and beyond communication ecosystems
require concurrent connectivity of billions of devices. The
network infrastructure such as base stations should handle the
enormous volume of transactions in real time.
4) Synchronization: The synchronization is a signiﬁcant
requirement in time critical industrial applications. The mis-
sion critical backbone systems of a country, including power
distribution systems and vehicular networks must synchronize
in real time for accurate operation.
B. Security requirements in future computing ecosystems
1) Conﬁdentiality: The future computing infrastructure
such as IoT exposes immense threat surfaces with wireless
connectivity. The encryption techniques such as symmetric key
encryption algorithms require to be lightweight for the low
power IoT devices. However, the lightweight cryptographic
techniques may expose the data into privacy risks due to
computational restrictions .
2) Integrity: The massive volume of data produced by the
future systems require the data to be accessed and modiﬁed
by the authorized users when the data in transit. The eaves-
dropping and modiﬁcation of data in transit will deviate the
system functionality from the expected behavior.
3) Availability: The service availability is a principal re-
quirement in future networks. Especially, the sophistication of
5G ecosystems with a large volume of interconnected devices
expands the risk of DDoS attacks. The speciality of the current
network security tools cannot directly apply into the 5G and
beyond networks to detect threats and breach attempts .
4) Authentication and access control: The data, either in
transit or store requires to secure with the access control
mechanisms in order to prevent unauthorized manipulations.
The conventional centralized authentication and access control
mechanisms will restrain in terms of scalability in the massive
futuristic demands anticipated in 6G.The sophisticated access
control requirements to match the diversiﬁcation of future
tenants in the 6G ecosystem will be resource-intensive and
cause bottlenecks in the associated services.
5) Audit: An audit is required to evaluate the compliance
of the behavior of the tenants in the network ecosystem. For
the elevated security standards, deep packet level audit may
require to identify and ﬂag the behavior of those tenants. The
auditing of a massive number of tenants will be challenging
from the perspective of enforcing security.
C. Higher data consumption in sophisticated solutions
The higher data rate is one of the most signiﬁcant expecta-
tion in the future network ecosystems. The applications such
as VR, holographic communications, 16K video and 3D ultra
video require a higher data rate and data consumption.
D. Device resource restrictions
The computational and storage restrictions are anticipated
to limit the capabilities of cryptographic algorithms and even-
tually lead to deviation from the standard mechanisms. The
standard adoption of the security is harder with such device
III. WHAT BLOCKCHAIN CAN BR IN G TO 6G
The blockchain is one of the most prominent technologies
to unleash the potential of 6G systems. The capabilities
and strengths of the blockchain technology to eliminate the
potential challenges discussed in Section II are explored in
A. Intelligent resource management
The network resource management is challenging in the
envisaged massive connectivity demands in the future telecom-
munication ecosystems. The resource management operations
such as spectrum sharing, orchestration and decentralized
computation requires to be compatible with massively-large
infrastructure. Zhang et al.  presented an edge intelli-
gence and IIoT framework with secured and ﬂexible service
management in Beyond 5G. Maksymyuk et al.  proposed
an intelligent network architecture which utilizes blockchain
technology by handling the relationship between operators
and users applying smart contracts. The authors developed an
unlicensed spectrum sharing algorithm based on game theory.
Dai et al.  presented the application of blockchain and
deep reinforcement learning for efﬁcient resource management
services including spectrum sharing and energy management.
Mafakheri1 et al.  applied blockchain for resource sharing
and demonstrated the utilization of smart contracts to provide
self-organizing network features.
B. Elevated security features
1) Privacy: The privacy is a signiﬁcant consideration in the
perspective of security. Application of data privacy is diverse
in the complex security requirements in the future 6G network
ecosystem. In that regard, Fan et al.  proposed a privacy
preservation scheme based on blockchain for content-centric
2) Authentication and access control: The access control
of centralized systems suffer scalability limitations. Therefore,
access control with centralization is a signiﬁcant challenge
in the design of future networks. Yang et al.  presented
blockchain based authentication and access control mecha-
nisms for cloud radio over ﬁber network in 5G.
3) Integrity: The data integrity of massive data volume
generated in the future computing ecosystems is a principal
concern. Adat et al.  presented a blockchain based solution
to prevent pollution attacks which violate the integrity of data.
Ortega et al.  proposed a blockchain based framework
to ensure the integrity of information exchanged over the
4) Availability: The service availability is a signiﬁcant
requirement in the future communication ecosystems. Espe-
cially, with the broader threat surface and massive connectivity
in the 5G ecosystem, the risk for DDoS attacks is comparably
higher. Rodrigues et al.  presented a DDoS prevention
mechanism with the support of blockchain. Sharma et al. 
proposed the applicability of blockchain and SDN for the
enforcement of signiﬁcant security services including DDoS
attack prevention, data protection, and access control.
5) Accountability: The accountability of the 5G and beyond
network ecosystem is a key requirement. The security, surveil-
lance, and governance of the network can be implemented
through the blockchain and distributed ledger technology in
general. The distributed ledger remains as an immutable and
transparent log for each event which can be utilized in the
auditing of events.
The scalability is a major requirement in 5G and beyond
systems. The scalability limitations of centralized systems can
be eradicated by the blockchain and smart contracts to face
the envisaged massive connectivity demand in future. The
decentralized nature and the integration convenience of edge
and fog computing nodes will improve the service strengths
in those networks.
IV. APPLICATION AND SERVICE OPPORTUNITIES VIA
BLOCKCHAINS IN 6G SYS TE MS
As listed in Section I, 6G vision entails a multitude of
applications which can be enabled or improved via utiliza-
tion of blockchains. The premise of blockchains for provid-
ing/improving such applications in 6G stem from the capa-
bilities listed in Section III which are enabled by its core
attributes, i.e., decentralization, transparency, immutability,
availability and security.
A. Industrial Applications for Beyond Industry 4.0
In 6G, the industrial applications will be important drivers
for exploiting the envisaged 6G capabilities. The key attributes
of blockchains and the challenges discussed in Section II are
especially applicable to industrial environments. For example,
holographic communications for industrial use-cases such as
remote maintenance or massive connectivity of industrial
manufacturing equipment requires decentralized architectures
which are trustworthy at the same time . Blockchains can
provide these capabilities when they are integrated into these
applications or use-cases. However, there are also impor-
tant research challenges regarding blockchain-based solutions,
namely latency and scalability. They are formidable due to
stringent performance requirements in industrial applications
and valid for industrial networks and IoT .
B. Seamless Environmental Monitoring and Protection
Blockchains allow decentralized cooperative environmental
sensing applications which can be realized in global scale
with 6G. Such capabilities can serve use-cases such as smart
cities or transportation as well as environmental protection for
green economy. Blockchains also facilitate secure data sharing
among parties (ranging from IoT devices to organizations).
Such massive scale trusted sensing and data sharing solutions
enabled by blockchains are crucial for environmental monitor-
ing . Moreover, federated and shared learning implemented
via blockchains support the data analytics and inference pro-
cesses for environmental protection in a decentralized manner.
C. Smart Healthcare
Smart healthcare in 6G will need to take one step further
to solve incumbent issues in 5G networks. The deeper and
ubiquitous integration of blockchains in future networks can
advance current healthcare systems and improve performance
in terms of better decentralization, security, and privacy. The
forthcoming among these technical challenges is the privacy
issue. Moreover, integrity of healthcare data is possible due to
the immutability capability provided by blockchains. Speciﬁ-
cally, user controlled privacy and secure data storage can be
enabled with blockchains without a centralized trusted third-
party . In Europe, GDPR directives are important drivers
which will become more stringent in the coming years. Better
decentralization will enable higher security especially in terms
of availability for this critical domain.
D. Decentralized and Trustworthy 6G Communications In-
frastructure and Solutions
There is a plethora of application opportunities for exploit-
ing blockchains in 6G infrastructure itself for performance
gains or enabling new services/use-cases. Namely,
•Decentralized network management structures: The de-
centralized blockchain-based network management will
provide better resource management and more efﬁcient
system management .
•Pricing, charging and billing of network services:
Blockchains can enable charging and billing without a
centralized infrastructure which is a more ﬂexible and
efﬁcient architecture compared to conventional systems.
•Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA):
When massive scale connectivity with heterogeneous and
fragmented network elements are in place in 6G net-
works, AAA functions need to be decentralized and much
more robust for service continuity . For instance,
(group) key management and access control mechanisms
can be ofﬂoaded to blockchain platforms for better scala-
bility (especially for resource-constrained end points) and
•Service Level Agreement (SLA) management: 6G net-
works will build on virtualized and sliced network ar-
chitecture similar to 5G networks but yet implement that
at a extremely large scale. Moreover, these networks
are expected to serve a very wide spectrum of use-
cases with diverse service level guarantees. Therefore,
SLA management is an important system requirement.
Blockchains will enable decentralized and secure SLA
management in this complex setting.
•Spectrum sharing: Capacity expansion and spectrum
agility for 6G radio access (for bands ranging from
MHz to THz bands) is not evident with centralized man-
agement structures and uncoordinated sharing schemes.
Blockchains and smart contracts can alleviate the spec-
trum sharing related cooperation and tranparency issues
•“Extreme edge”: 6G networks need to facilitate the
spatial translation of many core services from the cloud
to the edge networks for achieving extremely low latency
communications and instant networks. The trustworthy
coordination and transparent resource bookkeeping can
be attained with blockchains in these systems .
V. FUTURE RESEARCH OP PO RTU NI TIES
The research scope of 6G is immense with diverse combina-
tions of the computer science and telecommunication research
avenues. The most prominent research opportunities for 6G
with blockchain technology are discussed in this section.
A. Internet of Everything (IoE)
The IoE is more general than IoT and has the purpose to
seamlessly connect people, processes, data and things in an
intelligent way . The distinguishing role of IoE discussed
in  It is expected that the IoE will re-invent business
processes and business models. First, processes are optimized
and automatized thanks to digital technology. Second, due
to the usage of digital technology, new business models in
different industries become possible.
It will be interesting to investigate from a business point
of view the consequences of the numerous possibilities when
introducing IoE. In particular, there will be a high need to
compete with unprecedented business velocity and agility.
Moreover, the impact of adding blockchain based technologies
for the purpose of interoperability among different businesses,
e.g. billing, requires further research.
B. Data storage and analytics
By implementing the IoE, millions of things and objects
will continuously generate real-time streams of new data.
As a consequence, in the ﬁrst place sufﬁcient and efﬁcient
centralized and decentralized data storage technologies are
required. It is clear that blockchain enabled technologies can
play a major role there. However, it is not yet clear how to
distribute and combine these technologies in different domains
(edge, fog, and cloud).
Second, research on methods for data analytics will be
highly needed in order to analyze and extract the essential el-
ements out of this large heap of data for efﬁcient and accurate
decision processing. The four main categories of methods are
descriptive analytics, diagnostic analytics, predictive analytics,
and prescriptive analytics, and mainly depend on the type
of application. Again, it will be interesting to investigate the
possibilities to combine these data analytics methods with a
distributed blockchain based data storage, where advantage of
the smart contracts can be exploited to automate the processes.
C. Artiﬁcial Intelligence (AI)
In 4G, AI was not yet applied, while in 5G there is already
a limited partial use. We expect a much deeper integration of
AI on all levels of the 6G network communications with the
ultimate goal to make our society super smart, super efﬁcient
and more green.
First, at the physical layer, AI and machine learning tech-
niques have been shown to improve channel coding ,
ranging and obstacle detection , and physical layer security
. Research in each of these domains is still in a preliminary
stage and requires further investigations. Next, at the network
layer, the currently applied 5G technologies like SDN, NFV,
and network slicing will need to be further improved in order
to obtain a more ﬂexible and self-learning adaptive architecture
able to support the more complex and heterogeneous networks,
which are often also dynamically changing.
The role of the blockchain in this domain will mainly be
to make the decision process of the machine learning meth-
ods more understandable and coherent as all the underlying
elements on which the decisions are made can be traced back.
D. Dedicated applications
1) Vehicle to Vehicle Communications: Intelligent Trans-
port Systems (ITS) are certainly one of the important appli-
cations that will break through in the next decade and will
require the technical capabilities offered by a 6G network. A
blockchain based approach to deﬁne the trust management of
vehicles has been demonstrated and evaluated through simula-
tion in . The main shortcoming of their approach was the
limitation to ad hoc networks, and thus further investigation
is required to ensure also the deployment in an autonomous
way, including challenging mobility settings such as a multi-
junction road network.
2) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV): UAVs or drones will
also present an important part in 6G as high-data-rate wireless
connectivity will be required. Here, blockchain can play a
major role to contribute to the protection of the security and
privacy of the drones and thereby collected information .
Li et al.  also illustrate the signiﬁcance of 5G in UAV
context. IBM has even ﬁled a blockchain patent to address
drone ﬂeet security . There are several blockchain based
application for drones. First of all, the blockchain technology
can help to arrange identity management. Next, air trafﬁc
management can be arranged in a secure, accurate and efﬁcient
way. Finally, insurance companies can use trusted records for
The design of 6G wireless networks, driven by the enormous
and heterogeneous demands of hyper-connected existence of
everything, will indeed give rise to new business avenues. Ac-
cordingly, this paper highlights the new intriguing challenges
and canvassed the key role of blockchain to mitigate some of
them. Moreover, plausible future research directions are also
ACK NOWLED GE ME NT
This work is partly supported by European Union in RE-
SPONSE 5G (Grant No: 789658), Academy of Finland in
6Genesis (grant no. 318927) and Secure Connect projects.
The research leading to these results partly received funding
from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and inno-
vation programme under grant agreement no 871808 (5G PPP
project INSPIRE-5Gplus). The paper reﬂects only the authors’
views. The Commission is not responsible for any use that may
be made of the information it contains.
 B. Aazhang and et al, Key Drivers and Research Challenges for
6G Ubiquitous Wireless Intelligence (white paper), 09 2019. [Online].
 M. Z. Chowdhury, M. Shahjalal, S. Ahmed, and Y. M. Jang, “6G wire-
less communication systems: Applications, Requirements, Technologies,
Challenges, and Research Directions,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1909.11315,
 ITU, “IMT Trafﬁc Estimates for the Years 2020 to 2030,” Report ITU-R
M. 2370–0, ITU-R Radiocommunication Sector of ITU, 2015.
 M. Piran, D. Y. Suh et al., “Learning-Driven Wireless Communications,
towards 6G,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1908.07335, 2019.
 F. Tariq, M. Khandaker, K.-K. Wong, M. Imran, M. Bennis, and M. Deb-
bah, “A Speculative Study on 6G,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1902.06700,
 J. Fleetwood, “Public Health, Ethics, and Autonomous Vehicles,” Amer-
ican Journal of Public Health, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 532–537, 2017.
 W. Saad, M. Bennis, and M. Chen, “A Vision of 6G Wireless Systems:
Applications, Trends, Technologies, and Open Research Problems,”
arXiv preprint arXiv:1902.10265, 2019.
 Z. Zhang, Y. Xiao, Z. Ma, M. Xiao, Z. Ding, X. Lei, G. K. Karagiannidis,
and P. Fan, “6G Wireless Networks: Vision, Requirements, Architecture,
and Key Technologies,” IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, vol. 14,
no. 3, pp. 28–41, 2019.
 N. H. Mahmood, H. Alves, O. A. L´
opez, M. Shehab, D. P. M. Osorio,
and M. Latva-aho, “Six Key Enablers for Machine Type Communication
in 6G,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1903.05406, 2019.
 S. Yrj¨
a, “Decentralized 6G Business Models,” in 2019 6G Wireless
 X. Li, M. Samaka, H. A. Chan, D. Bhamare, L. Gupta, C. Guo, and
R. Jain, “Network Slicing for 5G: Challenges and Opportunities,” IEEE
Internet Computing, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 20–27, 2017.
 D. C. Nguyen, P. N. Pathirana, M. Ding, and A. Seneviratne,
“Blockchain for 5G and Beyond Networks: A State of the Art Survey,”
arXiv preprint arXiv:1912.05062, 2019.
 A. Nag, A. Kalla, and M. Liyanage, “Blockchain-over-Optical Networks:
A Trusted Virtual Network Function (VNF) Management Proposition
for 5G Optical Networks,” in Asia Communications and Photonics
Conference, 2019, pp. M4A–222.
 A. Biral, M. Centenaro, A. Zanella, L. Vangelista, and M. Zorzi, “The
Challenges of M2M Massive Access in Wireless Cellular Networks,”
Digital Communications and Networks, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–19, 2015.
 M. Liyanage, A. Braeken, P. Kumar, and M. Ylianttila, IoT Security:
Advances in Authentication. John Wiley & Sons, 2020.
 M. Liyanage, I. Ahmad, A. B. Abro, A. Gurtov, and M. Ylianttila, A
Comprehensive Guide to 5G Security. John Wiley & Sons, 2018.
 K. Zhang, Y. Zhu, S. Maharjan, and Y. Zhang, “Edge Intelligence
and Blockchain Empowered 5G Beyond for the Industrial Internet of
Things,” IEEE Network, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 12–19, 2019.
 T. Maksymyuk, J. Gazda, L. Han, and M. Jo, “Blockchain-Based
Intelligent Network Management for 5G and Beyond,” in 2019 3rd
Int. Conf. on Advanced Information and Communications Technologies
(AICT), 2019, pp. 36–39.
 Y. Dai, D. Xu, S. Maharjan, Z. Chen, Q. He, and Y. Zhang, “Blockchain
and Deep Reinforcement Learning Empowered Intelligent 5G Beyond,”
IEEE Network, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 10–17, 2019.
 B. Mafakheri, T. Subramanya, L. Goratti, and R. Riggio, “Blockchain-
based Infrastructure Sharing in 5G Small Cell Networks,” in 2018 14th
International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM).
IEEE, 2018, pp. 313–317.
 K. Fan, Y. Ren, Y. Wang, H. Li, and Y. Yang, “Blockchain-based
Efﬁcient Privacy Preserving and Data Sharing Scheme of Content-centric
Network in 5G,” IET Communications, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 527–532, 2017.
 H. Yang, H. Zheng, J. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Lee, and Y. Ji, “Blockchain-
based Trusted Authentication in Cloud Radio over Fiber Network for
5G,” in 2017 16th International Conference on Optical Communications
and Networks (ICOCN). IEEE, 2017, pp. 1–3.
 V. Adat, I. Politis, C. Tselios, and S. Kotsopoulos, “Blockchain En-
hanced SECRET Small Cells for the 5G Environment,” in 2019 IEEE
24th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design
of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), 2019, pp. 1–6.
 V. Ortega, F. Bouchmal, and J. F. Monserrat, “Trusted 5G Vehicular net-
works: Blockchains and Content-centric Networking,” IEEE Vehicular
Technology Magazine, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 121–127, 2018.
 B. Rodrigues, T. Bocek, A. Lareida, D. Hausheer, S. Rafati, and
B. Stiller, “A Blockchain-based Architecture for Collaborative DDoS
Mitigation with Smart Contracts,” in IFIP International Conference on
Autonomous Infrastructure, Management and Security. Springer, Cham,
2017, pp. 16–29.
 P. K. Sharma, S. Singh, Y.-S. Jeong, and J. H. Park, “Distblocknet:
A Distributed Blockchains-based Secure SDN Architecture for IoT
Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 78–
 M. H. Miraz, M. Ali, P. S. Excell, and R. Picking, “A review on internet
of things (iot), internet of everything (ioe) and internet of nano things
(iont),” in 2015 Internet Technologies and Applications (ITA). IEEE,
2015, pp. 219–224.
 A. W. R. Sattiraju and H. D. Schotten, “Performance Analysis of Deep
Learning Based on Recurrent Neural Networks for Channel Coding,” in
2018 IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications
Systems (ANTS), 2018.
 J. K. R. Sattiraju and H. D. Schotten, “Machine Learning Based Obstacle
Detection for Automatic Train Pairing,” in IEEE 13th Int. Workshop on
Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), 2017, pp. 1–4.
 A. Weinand, M. Karrenbauer, J. Lianghai, and H. D. Schotten, “Physical
Layer Authentication for Mission Critical Machine Type Communication
Using Gaussian Mixture Model Based Clustering,” in 2017 IEEE 85th
Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2017, pp. 1–5.
 A. S. Khan, K. Balan, Y. Javed, S. Tarmizi, and J. Abdullah, “Secure
Trust-Based Blockchain Architecture to Prevent Attacks in VANET,”
Sensors, vol. 19, no. 22, p. 4954, 2019.
 T. Rana, A. Shankar, M. K. Sultan, R. Patan, and B. Balusamy,
“An Intelligent Approach for UAV and Drone Privacy Security Using
Blockchain Methodology,” in 2019 9th International Conference on
Cloud Computing, Data Science & Engineering (Conﬂuence). IEEE,
2019, pp. 162–167.
 B. Li, Z. Fei, and Y. Zhang, “UAV Communications for 5G and Beyond:
Recent Advances and Future Trends,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal,
vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 2241–2263, 2018.
 A. Douglas, IBM applies for blockchain patent to address
drone ﬂeet security, 2018 (accessed February 3, 2020).
[Online]. Available: https://www.commercialdroneprofessional.com/
ibm-applies- for-blockchain- to-address- drone-ﬂeet- security/