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Prebiotic potential of hemp blended drinks fermented by probiotics

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Abstract

Plant-based drinks as substitute for milk consumption are raising striking interest in the food industry. Soy and rice drinks are the most studied and successful milk substitutes. An untapped source is hemp seed, which is a powerhouse of nutrients bearing bioactive compounds, but the production of derived drink is limited. The present work is about introducing new formulations of commercial hemp seed-derived drink to be fermented with probiotics (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lb. plantarum and Bifidobacterium bifidum). In this work for the first time the prebiotic activity of different hemp seed drinks was assessed by cultural and quantitative PCR methods. In addition, to better describe the prebiotic potential, VOCs alkenes and volatile organic acids were characterized by a metabolomic approach via GC-MS SPME. Obtained results showed that the hemp seed drinks had strong prebiotic activity, ability to support probiotics growth and to increase the content of some bioactive compounds. These outputs are in part due to the presence of different terpenes that inhibit the growth of enteropathogens and to high levels of acetate, propionate and butyrate produced during fermentation that support the growth of probiotics. Although the health potential of hemp seed is well known, derived drinks are hitherto scarcely transformed and distributed, thus this work could provide some basics to produce prebiotic and probiotic fermented hemp seed drinks.

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... Over the last several years, hemp and its derivatives (both edible and non-edible) have grown in popularity. The global hemp seed drink market was approximately USD 185 million in 2018 [6]. Since hemp and marijuana are both derived from the same plant, the Latin name Cannabis Sativa is used to describe useful or industrial hemp [7]. ...
... The closest K ratio to cow's milk was in soy milk, followed by hemp seed milk. In addition, plant-based milk containing the most Mg element after soy milk was hemp seed milk [6]. ...
... Furthermore, it was suggested that the specific hemp flavor was caused by different terpenes in that study (Table 7). Nissen et al. [6] conducted a study to improve the taste and aroma of hemp seed drinks by fermentation with beneficial lactobacilli and or probiotic bifidobacteria. The aldehyde ratio was found to be highest in unfermented hemp seed milk. ...
... Over the last several years, hemp and its derivatives (both edible and non-edible) have grown in popularity. The global hemp seed drink market was approximately USD 185 million in 2018 [6]. Since hemp and marijuana are both derived from the same plant, the Latin name Cannabis Sativa is used to describe useful or industrial hemp [7]. ...
... The closest K ratio to cow's milk was in soy milk, followed by hemp seed milk. In addition, plant-based milk containing the most Mg element after soy milk was hemp seed milk [6]. ...
... Furthermore, it was suggested that the specific hemp flavor was caused by different terpenes in that study (Table 7). Nissen et al. [6] conducted a study to improve the taste and aroma of hemp seed drinks by fermentation with beneficial lactobacilli and or probiotic bifidobacteria. The aldehyde ratio was found to be highest in unfermented hemp seed milk. ...
Article
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Plant-based milk industry has been enlarged with increasing demand for plant milk types and their products. Demand is based on some factors such as vegan consumption, nutritional content, carbon emissions, lactose intolerance, and other factors. According to raw material, plant-based vegetable milk types can be divided into five categories as cereal-based (oat, rice, corn and spelt milks), legume-based (soy, peanut, lupine and cowpea milks), nut-based (almond, coconut, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut and cashew milks), seed-based (sesame, flax, hemp and sunflower milks) and pseudo-cereal based (quinoa, teff, amaranth and buckwheat milks). Hemp seed milk is one of the seed-based milks and it has high nutrition values because it is composed of lipids (1.25-5.00%), proteins (0.83-4.00%), carbohydrates (2.5-20.0%), vitamin E, minerals (sodium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulfur, iron, and zinc) and all essential amino acids with high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (linolenic acid and linoleic acid). This review evaluated hemp seed milk in comparing with other plant milk types, presented its nutritional aspect, and formed a perspective with current studies.
... To maintain a proper balance of nutritional and sensorial features we are proposing fermentation with beneficial lactobacilli, which is able not solely to confer a new aromatic profile, but even to augment the content of nutritional compounds and bioactives as well as their bioavailability [8]. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, and Limosilactobacillus fermentum harbor different alpha-glucosidases that make them ideal to ferment plant-based stuffs [9,10]; besides, strains of these species are considered probiotics, such as Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) [11], Lactiplantibacillus plantarum K10 [12], and Limosilactobacillus fermentum ME-3 [13]. Thus, in this work, with the aim of valorizing a hemp industrial byproduct, we fermenteded hemp seed bran with different lactobacilli and their pool, and we characterized their effect on volatilome as contributions given to flavoring and bioactive compounds. ...
... All microbial strains tested belonged to the microbial collection of DISTAL (Dept. of Agricultural and Food Sciences), University of Bologna (Bologna, Italy) and were previously isolated from plant-based products and extensively studied [10,14,15]. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 98b, Limosilactobacillus fermentum PRLF, and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus C1112 (used for hemp bran fermentation) were cultured from 30% (v/v) glycerol stocks stored at −80 • C and were propagated, cultured, and enumerated on de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth (Oxoid, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) at 37 • C in microaerophilic conditions. ...
... Genetic standards were prepared from relative PCR amplicons obtained from the DNA of samples of HSB/water suspensions (1:6 w/v) that had been fermented for 72 h by the pool of lactobacilli, using a Pro-Flex PCR apparatus (Applied Biosystem, Foster City, CA, USA). The standards were extracted and purified using the DNA purification kit as described previously [6,9,10,15]. Bacterial DNA extraction and qPCR reactions were performed according to previous protocols that employed a RotorGene 6000 (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) [6,9,10,15]. ...
Article
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Following the One Health principles in food science, the challenge to valorize byproducts from the industrial sector is open. Hemp (Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) is considered an important icon of sustainability and as an alternative food source. Hemp seed bran, in particular, is a byproduct of industrial hemp seed processing, which is not yet valorized. The success, and a wider market diffusion of hemp seed for food applications, is hindered by its unpleasant taste, which is produced by certain compounds that generally overwhelm the pleasant bouquet of the fresh product. This research concerns the exploration of hemp seed bran through fermentation using beneficial lactobacilli, focusing on the sensorial and bioactive traits of the products when they are subjected to bacterial transformation. By studying of the aromatic profile formation during the fermentation process the aim was to modulate it in order to reduce off-odors without affecting the presence of healthy volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Applying multivariate analyses, it was possible to target the contribution of processing parameters to the generation of flavoring and bioactive compounds. To conclude, the fermentation process proposed was able to reduce unpleasant VOCs, whilst at the same time keeping the healthy ones, and it also improved nutritional quality, depending on time and bacterial starters. The fermentation proposed was a sustainable biotechnological approach that fitted perfectly with the valorization of hemp byproducts from the perspective of a green-oriented industrial process that avoids synthetic masking agents.
... Extraction of bacterial DNA was obtained with Pure Link Microbiome DNA Purification Kit (Invitrogen, USA). Genetic standards were prepared from relative PCR amplicons of the target bacterial species, using GeneJet Genomic DNA purification kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA), as described previously [22,23]. For each of the targets, general qPCR reactions were set as follows: a holding stage at 98 • C for 6 min, and a cycling stage made of 95 • C for 20 sec and 60 • C for 60 sec, repeated for 45 times, followed by melting curve analysis. ...
... Volatile organic compound (VOCs) evaluation was carried out on an Agilent 7890A Gas Chromatograph (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) coupled to an Agilent Technologies 5975 mass spectrometer operating in the electron impact mode (ionization voltage of 70 eV) equipped with a Chrompack CP-Wax 52 CB capillary column (50 m length, 0.32 mm ID) (Chrompack, Middelburg, The Netherlands). The Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) GC-MS protocol and the identification of volatile compounds were done according to previous reports, with minor modifications [23,24]. Briefly, 3 mL of vessel content or fecal slurry were placed into 10-mL glass vials and added to 10 µL of 4-methyl-2-pentanol (final concentration, 4 mg/L), as the internal standard. ...
... Samples were then equilibrated for 10 min at 45 • C. SPME fiber, coated with carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (85 µm), was exposed to each sample for 40 min. Preconditioning, absorption, and desorption phases of SPME-GC analysis, and all data-processing procedures were carried out according to previous publications [23,24]. Briefly, before each head space sampling, the fiber was exposed to the GC inlet for 10 min for thermal desorption at 250 • C in a blank sample. ...
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The use of olive pomace could represent an innovative and low-cost strategy to formulate healthier and value-added foods, and bakery products are good candidates for enrichment. In this work, we explored the prebiotic potential of bread enriched with Polyphenol Rich Fiber (PRF), a defatted olive pomace byproduct previously studied in the European Project H2020 EcoProlive. To this aim, after in vitro digestion, the PRF-enriched bread, its standard control, and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) underwent distal colonic fermentation using the in vitro colon model MICODE (multi-unit colon gut model). Sampling was done prior, over and after 24 h of fermentation, then metabolomic analysis by Solid Phase Micro Extraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (SPME GCMS), 16S-rDNA genomic sequencing of colonic microbiota by MiSeq, and absolute quantification of main bacterial species by qPCR were performed. The results indicated that PRF-enriched bread generated positive effects on the host gut model: (i) surge in eubiosis; (ii) increased abundance of beneficial bacterial groups, such as Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillales; (iii) production of certain bioactive metabolites, such as low organic fatty acids; (iv) reduction in detrimental compounds, such as skatole. Our study not only evidenced the prebiotic role of PRF-enriched bread, thereby paving the road for further use of olive by-products, but also highlighted the potential of the in vitro gut model MICODE in the critical evaluation of functionality of food prototypes as modulators of the gut microbiota.
... Similar results can be achieved by liquid fermentation using Lactobacillus spp., thanks to their safety, efficient proteolytic system, and ability to adapt to different environments and matrices (Rizzello et al. 2016). For example, lactobacilli fermentation can improve the procyanidins and antiradical activity of cocoa bean (Di Mattia et al. 2013), or can improve the prebiotic activity of fibers present in plant-based sources (Sánchez-Zapata et al. 2013;Garcia-Amezquita et al. 2018;Nissen et al. 2020a). During fermentation, the biological activity of lactobacilli or the release of proteolytic enzymes into the media can change the nutritional and bioactive properties of the raw materials, producing peptides with various biological activities (Hafeez et al. 2014;Raveschot et al. 2018). ...
... were selected in a first fermentation (screening fermentation), including L. plantarum LB82, 98b, and 325, L. casei LCD1, L. paracasei LC, L. acidophilus C1272, L. fermentum PRLF, MR13, and BHI6, and L. rhamnosus C1112. All these bacterial strains belong to the microbial collection of the Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences of the University of Bologna (Italy), and have been previously isolated from sourdough and extensively studied (Babini et al. 2017;Taneyo-Saa et al. 2018;Taneyo-Saa et al. 2019;Nissen et al. 2019;Nissen et al. 2020a;Babini et al. 2020). Bacteria were revived from − 80°C glycerol stock by two successive growths in MRS broth (Oxoid, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) at 37°C for at least 24 h. ...
... (forward: 5′-GCAGCAGTAGGGAA TCTTCCA-3′ and reverse: 5′-GCATTYCACCGCTA CACATG-3′) (Castillo et al. 2006). Genetic standards were prepared from relative PCR amplicons from DNA of pure cultures of the target bacteria using a Pro-Flex PCR apparatus (Applied Biosystem, Foster City, CA, USA) as described previously (Nissen et al. , 2020a. Bacterial DNA extraction and qPCR reactions were performed according to previous protocols employing a RotorGene 6000 (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) (Nissen et al. , 2020a. ...
Article
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Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds are considered a nutritional powerhouse, rich in proteins and unsaturated fatty acids. The market for hemp seed food products is growing, due to the loosening of constraints in industrial cultivation. During the food processing chain, the external part of the seed is discarded, although it contains a significant amount of proteins. Converting this material into value-added products with a biorefinery approach could meet the ever-increasing need for sustainable protein sources while reducing food waste. In this study, creating value from hemp byproducts was pursued with three different approaches: (i) chemical extraction followed by enzymatic digestion, (ii) liquid fermentation by strains of Lactobacillus spp., and (iii) solid-state fermentation by Pleurotus ostreatus. The resulting products exhibited a range of in vitro antioxidant and antihypertensive activity, depending on the proteases used for enzymatic digestion, the bacterial strain, and the length of time of the two fermentation processes. These byproducts could be exploited as functional ingredients in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries; the suggested biorefinery processes thus represent potential solutions for the development of other protein-containing byproducts or wastes.
... Soymilk, rice-milk and coconut-milk are the major carrier matrices used in probiotic plant-milk-based food development. However, other matrices such as maize [24,25], oats-milk [26], quinoa-milk [20,27], buckwheat [28], chickpea [29], peanut [5,30], cashew-milk [1,31], hemp-milk [32][33][34] and walnut-milk [35,36] have also been used for extracting and developing plant based milk. Apart from these, some mixed beverages produced by blending soymilk, almondmilk, coconut-milk as well as chickpea and coconut extract were also found to be promising matrices to deliver probiotics with satisfactory viability levels [5, 29,37]. ...
... Moreover, B animalis Bb-12 was more resistant to cold storage than Lb. acidophilus La-5 in a soymilk beverage [33]. Over the storage, Lb. casei 01 in riceberry and sesame-riceberry ice creams exhibited higher resistance to freezing conditions than that of Lb. acidophilus LA5 [46]. ...
... Nissen et al. showed that certain bioactive compounds produced during fermentation (e.g. acetate, propionate and butyrate) fostered the selective growth of beneficial microbes, whereas others such as terpenes inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria [33]. These findings suggest that probiotic fermentation improves microbial safety of the PBMS. ...
Article
At present, there is an increasing demand for probiotic enriched plant-based milk products. Although many varieties of plant-based milk exist, soymilk, rice-milk and coconut-milk are the major carrier matrices used in probiotic food development. In general, these products are safe for consumption and can be considered as a suitable vehicle for delivering probiotics due to their ability in maintaining sufficient probiotic levels during product shelf life. However, studies that are focusing on the evaluation of functional efficacy of probiotics in these products with special reference to gastrointestinal survival, adhesion to intestinal epithelium and immunomodulation are scarce and these aspects need to be further assessed.
... The ability of Z. mobilis to develop volatile compounds in a dough has not been studied yet. Metabolomic profiling has been proposed as a promising tool to assess the traceability and quality of fermented food such as bread [8][9][10], dairy products [11], beverages [12,13], and other traditional fermented foods [14]. ...
... Normality, homoscedasticity, and variance were achieved in accordance to Granato et al. [15]. Principal component analysis (PCA), K-mean clustering, Spearman rank correlations, and two-way joining heatmap were used to study the relationship between variables [12,13]. Targeted categorical ANOVA (P < 0.01) was employed to check contributions promoted by each strain and dough formula. ...
... Organic acids in bread making are principally produced during fermentation and give a large contribute both sensorially and nutritionally. An equilibrium in the content of organic acids is important because some, like short chain organic acids, are considered prebiotics and host healthrelated compounds, but confers a stinky rancid and putrid taste [10,13]. From ANOVA that included leavened samples (n = 36), nine molecules belonging to the class of organic acids (C2-C11) resulted statistically significant (P < 0.05). ...
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This research focuses on the leavening performances and development of volatile compounds of three strains of Zymomonas mobilis in the production of yeast-free doughs. Z. mobilis DSM 3580, 424, and 473 were used in doughs supplemented with glucose and with or without NaCl. Z. mobilis produced about 10 mg ethanol/g dough, with maximum dough volumes (640–680 mL) being reached after 2 h leavening. NaCl addition postponed this parameter up to 6 h. Among organic acids, hexanoic acid resulted the highest produced compound; DSM 424 and 473 formed more propanoic, butanoic and pentanoic acid, being both negatively affected by NaCl. Esters were mainly discriminated on NaCl addition, with octanoic acid (DSM 3580), butanoic acid (DSM 424), and propanoic acid (DSM 473) ethyl esters as main components. DSM 3580 specifically produced 2-heptanal, DSM 424 2-hexadecenal, (E) and DSM 473 octanal, while DSM 424 and DSM 473 produced 2-butanone-4-hydroxy better than DSM 3580. Z. mobilis unique signatures were the production of nonanoic and undecanoic acids, 2-hexadecenal, (E), L(+)-tartaric acid diethyl ester and 3-decen-5-one, 4-methyl, (E). This outcome can pave the way for using Z. mobilis in baking goods, providing innovation possibilities in the area of yeast-free leavened products.
... Sample reactions were conducted in triplicate, with positive, negative, and background control. Quantification was calculated as GCN/mL (Gene Copy Number/mL) and the value divided by three (the presumptive copies of a ribosome per cells), expressed as Log 10 cells/mL [18,19]. ...
... Injections were carried out in splitless mode, and helium (3 mL/min) was used as carrier gas. Identification of molecules was carried out by comparing their retention times with those of pure compounds (Sigma, USA) and confirmed by searching mass spectra in the available databases (NIST version 2005 and Wiley version 1996) and literature [11,15,18,19]. Ethyl alcohol, 1,4-butandiol, acetic acid, and 2-butanone-3-hydroxy were absolutely quantified in mg/kg, while all other VOCs were relatively quantified in percentage. ...
... Except for the quantification in mg/kg of major metabolites, independently normalized data set was proposed for each chemical class of molecules. The data were normalized using the mean centering method [18,19]. All results are expressed as mean values obtained at least from duplicate batches in two independent experiments. ...
Article
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Hemp seed flour represents a potential ingredient for protein enrichment of gluten-free bakery products, the nutritional value of which could be further increased by fermentation with sourdough or with beneficial lactic acid bacteria strains. In this study, a metabolomic approach was used to evaluate the effect of hemp seed flour addition and sourdough fermentation on the production of flavoring and health-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a gluten-free bread. Multivariate analysis of VOCs provided an in-depth description of the effects of hemp seed flour addition and sourdough fermentation on flavoring and bioactive compounds. In particular, an increased concentration of antimicrobial compounds, a larger spectrum of bioactive VOCs and a typical flavoring profile was evidenced in comparison to standard products. Furthermore, an increase of fermentation metabolites was observed in comparison to a standard dough, relating to abundances of 2-butanone-3-hydroxy, acetic acid, ethanol, and 1,4-butanediol. This study provides new insights on the evolution of flavoring and bioactive hemp seed flour constituents during sourdough fermentation, evidencing their retention in baked goods, and describes a new approach that could guide the formulation of innovative, fermented food with enhanced nutritional value.
... pH values on the 1 st and 14 th days of storage were not statistically significant except for the control sample, as shown in Table 2. It can be explained that hemp seed matrices have a buffering capability (Nissen, di Carlo, & Gianotti, 2020). The percentages of titratable acid experienced a significant increase throughout the storage period (P<0.05) ...
... mum hemp seed milk ratio) had a lower rate than the control sample. Nevertheless, as hemp seed milk rate increased in the mixture, the percentage of inhibition was increased. It can be related about that hemp seeds are rich in terpenes and terpenoid compounds, such as 1-(R)-α-pinene, Δ-3-carene, βmyrcene, and β-caryophillene, which are antioxidant (Nissen et. al., 2020). The highest percentage of inhibition belonged to H-coded ayran made of only hemp seed milk. While the total phenolic content of the control sample decreased at the end of the storage period, ayran samples with hemp seed milk showed an increase significantly in total phenolic content (P<0.05) (Appendix B). Antioxidant activity of ayran ...
Article
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Ayran, the fermented product has been produced from animal milk, mixed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of hemp seed milk. Effects of using hemp seed milk on quality parameters as chemical, physicochemical and microbiological were studied. The ayran sample containing 25% hemp seed milk has the highest general acceptability. While the total phenolic content of the control sample decreased at the end of the storage period, ayran samples with hemp seed milk showed an increase significantly in total phenolic content (p
... Enzymes are widely applicable and potent as precursors of nutrient production and initiate the growth of fermentation starter cultures: e.g., Lactobacillus strains L. reuteri L45, L. plantarum L47, and L. johnsonii L63 growth were initiated by cellulase-and pectinase-degraded rapeseed fibers [98]. Nissen et al. [99] identified prebiotic scores with different selectivity of hemp, soy, rice, and their mixtures, where hemp and soy drinks initiated the highest growth of L. plantarum 98b, and for growth B. bifidum B700795 mixture of hemp-rice and hemp-soy drinks, showed the potent scores [99,100]. Five main steps are incorporated in the flow chart for manufacturing enzymatically treated and bythe-step fermented plant-based drinks from plant materials: plant disruption, extraction, formulation, fermentation, and packaging [94]. ...
... Enzymes are widely applicable and potent as precursors of nutrient production and initiate the growth of fermentation starter cultures: e.g., Lactobacillus strains L. reuteri L45, L. plantarum L47, and L. johnsonii L63 growth were initiated by cellulase-and pectinase-degraded rapeseed fibers [98]. Nissen et al. [99] identified prebiotic scores with different selectivity of hemp, soy, rice, and their mixtures, where hemp and soy drinks initiated the highest growth of L. plantarum 98b, and for growth B. bifidum B700795 mixture of hemp-rice and hemp-soy drinks, showed the potent scores [99,100]. Five main steps are incorporated in the flow chart for manufacturing enzymatically treated and bythe-step fermented plant-based drinks from plant materials: plant disruption, extraction, formulation, fermentation, and packaging [94]. ...
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The scientific community and industrial companies have discovered significant enzyme applications to plant material. This rise imparts to changing consumers’ demands while searching for ‘clean label’ food products, boosting the immune system, uprising resistance to bacterial and fungal diseases, and climate change challenges. First, enzymes were used for enhancing production yield with mild and not hazardous applications. However, enzyme specificity, activity, plant origin and characteristics, ratio, and extraction conditions differ depending on the goal. As a result, researchers have gained interest in enzymes’ ability to cleave specific bonds of macroelements and release bioactive compounds by enhancing value and creating novel derivatives in plant extracts. The extract is enriched with reducing sugars, phenolic content, and peptides by disrupting lignocellulose and releasing compounds from the cell wall and cytosolic. Nonetheless, depolymerizing carbohydrates and using specific enzymes form and release various saccharides lengths. The latest studies show that oligosaccharides released and formed by enzymes have a high potential to be slowly digestible starches (SDS) and possibly be labeled as prebiotics. Additionally, they excel in new technological, organoleptic, and physicochemical properties. Released novel derivatives and phenolic compounds have a significant role in human and animal health and gut-microbiota interactions, affecting many metabolic pathways. The latest studies have contributed to enzyme-modified extracts and products used for functional, fermented products development and sustainable processes: in particular, nanocellulose, nanocrystals, nanoparticles green synthesis with drug delivery, wound healing, and antimicrobial properties. Even so, enzymes’ incorporation into processes has limitations and is regulated by national and international levels.
... Fermentation can also employed to create new plant protein based blends (Wuyts et al., 2020). This process presents an opportunity to increase the amount of bioactive compounds beneficial to health, as well as improve digestibility, and it needs further explored in protein blends (Feng et al., 2017;Nissen et al., 2020). The physico-chemical properties of fermented chickpea beverages, as well as mixed hemp-soy, hemp-rice and soy-rice have recently been described (Wang et al., 2018:;Nissen et al., 2020). ...
... This process presents an opportunity to increase the amount of bioactive compounds beneficial to health, as well as improve digestibility, and it needs further explored in protein blends (Feng et al., 2017;Nissen et al., 2020). The physico-chemical properties of fermented chickpea beverages, as well as mixed hemp-soy, hemp-rice and soy-rice have recently been described (Wang et al., 2018:;Nissen et al., 2020). When looking at gelation of plant protein blends, it is critical to understand their behavior in isolation, and mine the synergies by using different processing conditions to obtain various types of aggregated structures (Gygorczyk & Corredig, 2013;Ben-Harb et al., 2018;Nicolai & Chassenieux, 2019;Schmitt et al., 2019). ...
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We are experiencing an increase in the availability of protein ingredients from more sustainable production sources, and we need to learn how to utilize them to create highly nutritional and climate friendly foods. Much work is needed to assist in innovation, by developing principles leading to the design of the best structures to ensure optimal function. We propose a holistic approach to the design of new sustainable proteins for food, so that they may compare favorably to their animal sourced counterparts. While the immediate challenges are related to improving processing functionality and providing the essential amino acids balance, we will soon also need to learn to pay close attention to the molecular interactions occurring during processing, as these can be modulated to form different supramolecular structures. This shift will create new opportunities to innovate and create a new generation of highly nutritious and functional foods. This review focuses on the recent trends on the use of plant protein blends, and highlights the research gaps and challenges related to using ingredients of different composition and history to develop more climate friendly foods.
... DA Webb) have a high content of fatty acids, lipids, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates (including dietary fiber), vitamins, and minerals which contribute to improving artery health, reducing high blood pressure, has positive effects in improving diabetes and metabolic syndrome [7]. In recent years, almond milk beverage is promoted as a healthy alternative to cow's milk have potential prebiotic properties due to the presence of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, especially vitamin E which cannot be synthesized by the body, flavonoids, and polyphenols [8,9]. ...
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This study investigated the potential use of dietary fibers (psyllium and pectin fibers added in different proportions of 0–10%) to improve the rheological, textural, and sensory characteristics of vegetable ice cream using vegetable milk (almond and hemp milk). Hemp milk was obtained from the peeled seeds of the industrial hemp plant, which includes varieties of Cannabis sativa, which have a low content of the psychotropic substance tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and are grown for food. The rheological characteristics of the mix and ice cream were determined by using the Haake Mars rheometer. Compared with the control sample, the viscosities of the mix in all samples analyzed were enhanced with the addition of dietary fibers, due to the occurrence of interactions and stabilizations. The viscoelastic modules G′ G″ were determined on ice cream samples at a temperature of −10 °C. The elastic and viscous modulus showed high values with the increase of the addition of 6% dietary fibers. The textural characteristics were assessed by the shear strength of a layer of ice cream at a temperature of −4 °C. Hardness, firmness, and adhesiveness were influenced by the size of their ice crystals, the fat content, and the percentage of dietary fibers added. The sensory analysis of the ice cream showed higher overall scores for the almond milk ice cream, because the sweet taste was appreciated with a maximum score, while the hemp milk ice cream was evaluated for flavor and taste.
... They suggested that hemp seed drinks with more stable emulsion and the highest overall acceptability (9.6 points) could be obtained using the L. uvum LUHS245 strain and the ultrasonication process. Nissen et al. (2020) produced innovative prebiotic and probiotic plant-based beverages based on hemp seeds and the fermentation process. In this study, new formulations of commercial cannabis seed derived beverage to be fermented with probiotics (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lb. plantarum and B. bifidum) were created. ...
... Nissen et al. [77] showed that certain compounds produced during the fermentation of hemp milk selectively enhance the growth of beneficial microbes such as probiotics (e.g., Lactobacillus fermentum, Lb. plantarum and Bifidobacterium bifidum), whereas certain compounds such as terpenes inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. ...
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Maintaining the overall quality and shelf life of plant-based food and beverages is particularly important yet challenging to the food industry. Demand for natural preservation techniques has increased with the rising concerns over food safety and consumer awareness, e.g., health consciousness and food trends such as veganism and the demand for clean, labelled foods. Thus, a technique such as biopreservation has the potential to enhance food safety while fostering the quality, originality and naturalness of food. The application of probiotic microorganisms to foods and beverages provides various health benefits in addition to improved shelf life, stability and microbial safety of the food. The provision of probiotics is known to deliver various health benefits for the host’s gut health. Therefore, this review aims to investigate the importance of biopreservation and the role of probiotics in the food industry. An attempt was made to explore the various possibilities of shelf-life enhancement through the use of probiotic microorganisms as biopreservatives. Noticeable improvements in the shelf life of plant-based foods and beverages were observed due to the antimicrobial effects exerted by probiotics and potential probiotic strains which make them useful alternatives to artificially synthesized chemical preservatives.
... Hemp seeds can be consumed in various forms; raw, roasted, or in the forms of oil and milk extracted from them [137]. Roasted and ground hemp seeds are sold as a snack by street vendors in China [125]. ...
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Plants represent a significant part of the human diet. Humans have utilized every part of plants for survival, and seeds are no exception. Seeds offer high protein, unsaturated fats, fibre, essential vitamins, and minerals for various food applications. They are also a promising reservoir of bioactive compounds, where various phytochemicals, such as polyphenolic compounds, capable of maintaining and improving well-being, are present in abundant quantities. Plants from Malvaceae and Cannabaceae families are known for their fibre-rich stems that benefit humankind by serving numerous purposes. For many centuries they have been exploited extensively for various commercial and industrial uses. Their seeds, which are often regarded as a by-product of fibre processing, have been scientifically discovered to have an essential role in combating hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, cancer, and oxidative stress. Maximizing the use of these agricultural wastes can be a promising approach to creating a more sustainable world, in accordance with the concept of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
... The opposite results were observed in previous studies for kefir-type beverages based on flaxseed oil cake [7]. According to Nissen et al. [23], this may be because hemp seed matrices have buffering capacity. The authors pointed out that the pH for hemp beverages was typically higher than for other plant-based matrices. ...
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Cannabis sativa (hemp) is a plant considered to be abundant in bioactive compounds. The increasing production of hemp oil is leaving considerable amounts of hemp press cakes (HPC), which have not been sufficiently managed so far. One of the directions of development of plant-based food is the use of by-products of the agri-food industry in accordance with the idea of zero waste and the circular economy, so the purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of HPC fermentation using yogurt and kefir cultures and to determine the effect of the type of starter on the properties of the products. In the present study, starter cultures of yogurt (YO 122) and kefir (commercial grains) were used for HPC fermentation. Changes in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast population, pH, acidity, the content of bioactive compounds by spectrophotometric methods (proteins, amino acids, polyphenols, flavonoids, reducing sugars) and antioxidant activity (DDPH, ABTS, FRAP and reducing power) were determined. The results showed that it was possible to develop high-value beverages based on HPC with high fermentation efficiency: survivability of LAB and yeast (>106 CFU/g) and acidification (pH in a range of 4.82–6.36 and 5.34–6.49 for yogurt and kefir culture, respectively). Moreover, the stability of hemp protein, with its variable free amino acid composition, antioxidant potential and presented changes in polyphenolic content, was observed during storage. The presented results show a new way to manage HPC as an oil industry residue by using it as a raw material for the development of a bioactive food product and illustrate the relationship between applied starter culture, the direction of fermentation and changes in the content of bioactive compounds.
... Furthermore, our analyses did not identify specific genera that can account for the different abundances of the above families. Regardless, our study supports the notion that whole hemp seeds have potentially beneficial prebiotic characteristics, which may be further enhanced through fermentation (84,85). The contribution of individual hemp seed components responsible for the above discussed effects remain to be identified in future studies, however, with SDA and SDA-rich oils being of particular interest to metabolic health and effects on the microbiome (manuscript in preparation). ...
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Omega-3 fatty acids support cardiometabolic health and reduce chronic low-grade inflammation. These fatty acids may impart their health benefits partly by modulating the endocannabinoidome and the gut microbiome, both of which are key regulators of metabolism and the inflammatory response. Whole hemp seeds ( Cannabis sativa ) are of exceptional nutritional value, being rich in omega-3 fatty acids. We assessed the effects of dietary substitution (equivalent to about 2 tablespoons of seeds a day for humans) of whole hemp seeds in comparison with whole linseeds in a diet-induced obesity mouse model and determined their effects on obesity and the gut microbiome-endocannabinoidome axis. We show that whole hemp seed substitution did not affect weigh gain, adiposity, or food intake, whereas linseed substitution did, in association with higher fasting glucose levels, greater insulin release during an oral glucose tolerance test, and higher levels of liver triglycerides than controls. Furthermore, hemp seed substitution mitigated diet-induced obesity-associated increases in intestinal permeability and circulating PAI-1 levels, while having no effects on markers of inflammation in epididymal adipose tissue, which were, however, increased in mice fed linseeds. Both hemp seeds and linseeds were able to modify the expression of several endocannabinoidome genes and markedly increased the levels of several omega-3 fatty acid–derived endocannabinoidome bioactive lipids with previously suggested anti-inflammatory actions in a tissue specific manner, despite the relatively low level of seed substitution. While neither diet markedly modified the gut microbiome, mice on the hemp seed diet had higher abundance of Clostridiaceae 1 and Rikenellaceae than mice fed linseed or control diet, respectively. Thus, hemp seed-containing foods might represent a source of healthy fats that are not likely to exacerbate the metabolic consequences of obesogenic diets while producing intestinal permeability protective effects and some anti-inflammatory actions.
... For instance, yogurt supplemented with hempseed oil contained the characteristic volatile components of hempseed oil such as caryophyllene, D-limonene and β-myrene [45]. In hempseeds drink, large amounts of acetate, propionate and butyrate triggered the selective growth of beneficial microbiota; while the abundance of terpenes, such as Δ-3-carene, 1-(R)-α-pinene and β-myrcene, restrained the growth of bacterial pathogens [60]. In an animal study, hemp milk reduced the thyroid hormones, serum triglycerides and serum cholesterol content including total, free and esterified form of the cholesterol in experimental rats [61]. ...
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Owing to its nutritional and medicinal value, hemp has been cultivated to provide since ancient times. This review aims to map the scientific literature concerning the main functional components and the chemical composition of hemp plant. It is generally acknowledged that each organ of the hemp plant embodies a valuable source, and among them the most pivotal part is the edible fruits hempseeds. Hempseeds are rich in easily digestible proteins, fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and insoluble fiber, which are of high nutritional value. Furthermore, the beneficial effects have increased researchers’ interests in hempseeds-containing foods. Developed as an indispensable ingredient, hempseed is also a significant supplement in various products, such as bakery food, drinks, snacks and culinary products. Overall, this review intends to promote the further in-depth investigation of approved hemp plants and expand the range of hempseeds adoption in the functional foods field.
... Cookies: substitution of wheat flour (up to 20%) with hemp flour (raw or roasted) Hemp flour containing cookies had higher ash, protein, phenolic content and anti-oxidant activity but were softer (Ertaş and Aslan 2020) Starch based gluten free bread: partial substitution of starch in recipe with flour or protein-enriched fractions Part substitution of starch with hemp flour weakened dough structure, while incorporation of hemp protein concentrate (20%) reinforced dough structure. Both incorporation of hemp flour/hemp protein concentrate improved nutritional value and sensory properties (Korus et al. 2017) Bread: partial substitution of wheat flour (up to 80%) with hemp seed flour made from pressed hemp seed cake Bread with hemp seed flour had higher nutritional value; dough stability and strength was not affected by up to 10% substitution of hemp flour (Pojić et al. 2015) Beverages Fermented drinks: hemp drink (containing 3% hemp seed) or 1:1 (v/v) mixtures of hemp-soy or hemp-rice drinks fermented with probiotics Hemp seed fermented drinks had strong prebiotic activity; basis for producing prebiotic and probiotic plant-based drinks for the alternative dairy market by fermentation (Nissen et al. 2020) Hemp seed milk beverage: non-thermal processed hemp milk (4% protein, 5% fat) ...
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Industrial hemp, with low levels of the intoxicating cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is grown for fibre and seeds. The industrial hemp industry is poised for expansion. The legalisation of industrial hemp as an agricultural commodity and the inclusion of hemp seed in foods is helping to drive the expansion of the hemp food ingredients industry. This paper discusses the opportunity to build an industrial hemp industry, with a focus on the prospects of hemp seed and its components in food applications. The market opportunities for industrial hemp products are examined. Various aspects of the science that underpins the development of an industrial hemp industry through the food supply chain are presented. This includes a discussion on the agronomy, on-farm and post-harvest considerations and the various types of food ingredients that can be made from hemp seed. The characteristics of hemp seed meal, hemp seed protein and hemp seed oil are reviewed. Different processes for production of value-added ingredients from hemp seed, hemp seed oil and hemp seed protein, are examined. The applicability of hemp seed ingredients in food applications is reviewed. The design of hemp seed ingredients that are fit-for-purpose for target food applications, through the selection of varieties and processing methods for production of various hemp seed ingredients, needs to consider market-led opportunities. This will require an integrated through chain approach, combined with the development of on-farm and post-farm strategies, to ensure that the hemp seed ingredients and foods containing hemp seed are acceptable to the consumer.
... Hence, SCFAs act at different levels by decreasing the inflammatory state that reduces insulin resistance, increasing the protective glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion that stimulates insulin release and improving β-cell function [123]. Thus, an important target to evaluate in probiotics is the ability to simultaneously produce the previously described SCFAs, which can be determined in vitro by gas chromatography [124]. ...
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Early in the 1900s, it was proposed that health could be improved and senility delayed by manipulating gut microbiota with the host-friendly bacteria found in yogurt. Later, in 1990, the medical community reconsidered this idea and today probiotics represent a developed area of research with a billion-dollar global industry. As a result, in recent decades, increased attention has been paid to the isolation and characterization of novel probiotic bacteria from fermented foods and dairy products. Most of the identified probiotic strains belong to the lactic acid bacteria group and the genus Bifidobacterium. However, current molecular-based knowledge has allowed the identification and culture of obligatory anaerobic commensal bacteria from the human gut, such as Akkermansia spp. and Faecalibacterium spp., among other human symbionts. We are aware that the identification of new strains of these species does not guarantee their probiotic effects and that each effect must be proved through in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies before clinical trials (before even considering it as a probiotic strain). In most cases, the identification and characterization of new probiotic strain candidates may lack the appropriate set of in vitro experiments allowing the next assessment steps. Here, we address some innovative strategies reported in the literature as alternatives to classical characterization: (i) identification of alternatives using whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing, metabolomics, and multi-omics analysis; and (ii) probiotic characterization based on molecular effectors and/or traits to target specific diseases (i.e., inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, allergies, among others).
... To date, only limited efforts have been made to improve the functional potential of hemp seed through fermentation. For example, lactic acid bacteria fermentation was used to improve the antioxidant potential of hemp seed; probiotics were used to ferment a hemp seed-derived drink to enhance its prebiotic activity [40,41]. The present work investigated the effect of fermentation treatment on the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of hemp seed. ...
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The objective of our present work was to explore the possible enhanced anti-neuroinflammatory ability of Aspergillus oryzae fermented hemp seed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated N9 microglial cells and elucidate its underlying mechanism. The water extract of hemp seed was fermented by Aspergillus oryzae. LPS-stimulated N9 microglial cells were employed for the inflammatory cell model. The release of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by Griess assay. The cytokines and inflammatory mediator expression were measured by qPCR and ELISA. The phosphorylated key signaling proteins, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt), were quantified by western blot analysis. The production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by DCFH oxidation. Fermented hemp seed (FHS) reduced NO production by downregulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in LPS-stimulated N9 microglial cells. FHS treatment decreased LPS-stimulated expression of inflammatory cytokines either on mRNA or protein levels. Moreover, FHS inhibited LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Furthermore, FHS significantly reduced the ROS production in the cells. It was concluded that FHS exerted its anti-neuroinflammatory activities by suppressing ROS production, thus inhibiting NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K/Akt activation, consequently decreasing the expression levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines.
... the predominant prebiotic in guava fruit., that is, dietary fiber was responsible for enhancing the growth of probiotic B. lactis BB-12 and L. acidophilus LA-5 and thereby showing a high PAS. Similarly,Nissen et al. (2020), from their study on hemp seed-based drinks, possess strong prebiotic activity and the ability to allow maximum probiotic growth and enhance bioactivity for various components at the same time.Thus, all the developed legume-based synbiotic beverages showed a positive and high PAS suggesting kidney beans and mung beans as a suitable matrix for carrying and enhancing the growth of probiotics and reducing the growth of pathogenic microbes at the same time. Hence, using different plant-based ingredients can be utilized commercially to obtain milk and beverage alternates with good prebiotic activity.3.2 | Probiotic potential3.2.1 | Acid toleranceThe tolerance of probiotic bacteria to the harsh gastrointestinal conditions (acid and bile tolerance) was verified by the endurance of L. casei after incubation in these conditions for 3 h. ...
Article
The prebiotic properties of a set of synbiotic legume beverages were evaluated. The beverages were prepared using five ratios of kidney and mung beans, viz., 100% red kidney bean (RKB); 100% green mung bean (GMB); 1:1 (ZB); 3:7 (MB); and 7:3 (KB) and inoculated with probiotic Lactobacillus casei. The prebiotic activity score (PAS) and gastrointestinal tolerance were assessed spectrophotometrically. The sugar profile (total reducing sugar, TRS and total carbohydrates, TC) was determined gravimetrically. PAS of RKB (0.24) and KB (0.18) was highest; supported probiotic colonization (8.10 and 8.18 log CFU/mL); and inhibited enteric pathogen (5.56 and 5.54 log CFU/mL). L. casei tolerated harsh gastric conditions by exhibiting a reasonable survival rate (82.38 ‐ 93.79 %). TC and TRS were highest in RKB (4.2 and 3.8 mg/mL). However, KB obtained a maximum overall acceptability score (7.06) with least beany flavor. Hence, it can be a potential prebiotic in synbiotic food industry.
... The main prebiotic compounds used were different types of inulin (Esmaeilinezhad et al., 2019;Glibowski et al., 2020;Lightowle et al., 2018;Reimer et al., 2020), FOS (Lasekan et al., 2015;Sengupta et al., 2019), oligofructose (Pol et al., 2018), polydextrose , and XOS (Chang et al., 2020). In addition, some compounds showed potential prebiotic activity, such as Spirulina platensis (Atik et al., 2021), passion fruit by-product (Albuquerque et al., 2017), green coffee spent (Desai et al., 2020), and hemp seeds (Nissen et al., 2020). Table 2 presents the primary studies found in the literature considering the health effects of potentially vegan products added with prebiotics. ...
Article
Vegan consumers look for fresh, tasty, and nutritious products that use eco/animal-friendly ingredients. Prebiotics are substrates selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit. This study aimed to overview the potentially vegan products added with prebiotics, their health benefits, and the main technological and sensory challenges. The main potentially vegan products added with prebiotics studied were based on water-soluble plant-based extracts (fermented beverages, frozen desserts, cheese analog), fruits (fruit juices, fruit jelly, and ready to eat fruits), and cereals (snack bars, granola bars, bread, and cookies). The main prebiotic compounds used were inulin, fructooligosaccharides, oligofructose, polydextrose, and xylooligosaccharides. The effects of prebiotic on food products', host health, and technological and sensory properties depended on the prebiotic type and dosage, food matrix, and subject type. The positive health effects were related to skin health, gut microbiota improvement, hypocholesterolemic impact, reduction of the risk of metabolic diseases, and improvements in postprandial blood glucose and insulin response. Prebiotics could improve vegan products' technological and sensory properties, such as fermentation time, texture and rheological properties, storage length, sensory acceptance, and probiotic survival. Furthermore, they could increase the concentration and/or bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and vitamins. However, it is of paramount importance the determination of prebiotic stability. The trends direct to new prebiotic compounds based on microalgae, fruit and cereal by-products, and seeds. This review provides industries and researchers with important information about prebiotics and vegan products.
... It can be assumed that the BCPC matrix presumably exhibited a buffering effect during the fermentation process, given the high level of lactic acid bacteria. A similar buffering mechanism was observed by Nissen et al. in the case of the hemp seed-based fermented drinks [30]. As presented in Table 1, the RSC on day 1 was 69.19 ± 1.33 mg/g and 83.85 ± 7.42 mg/g (for the BCPC-20 and BCPC-30%, respectively), while on day 28 it was 29.12 ± 0.38 mg/g and 18.49 ± 0.19 mg/g. ...
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In recent years, there has been a growing interest from the food industry in new products that are increasingly desired by consumers because of the functional ingredients they contain. This category certainly includes fermented plant-based beverages, which combine the properties of plant substrates with the beneficial effects of fermentation on human health. In our study, two trial variants containing 20% and 30% black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed press cake (BCPC) were inoculated with kefir grain cultures and then incubated at 25 °C for 24 h. The resulting beverages were stored under refrigeration (6 °C) for 28 days. During storage, pH, total free amino acids, reducing sugars, changes in the microbial population, viscosity, textural parameters, and color were measured on days 1, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Throughout the storage period, the number of lactic acid bacteria, as well as yeasts, exceeded the recommended minimum level. Numerous changes in product parameters were observed in the tested beverages as a result of fermentation compared to non-fermented products. This study indicates the possibility of using BCPC as a valuable matrix for the production of a functional kefir-like beverage
... Non-dairy prebiotic fermented beverages (Table 4), using cereals (oats, wheat, maize, rye, millet, sorghum, barley, or rice), soy milk, fruit, and vegetable juices, have become known for their health-promoting qualities (Nissen et al. 2021(Nissen et al. , 2019(Nissen et al. , 2020Salmerón, 2017;Schwan & Ramos, 2019). Water-soluble and insoluble arabinoxylans, β-glucan, oligosaccharides, and resistant starch are cereal indigestible but fermentable dietary carbohydrates, which are used as fermentation substrates for probiotic lactic acid bacteria and could be used to get the beneficial effect of both the probiotic organisms and confer prebiotic effects (Achi & Asamudo, 2019;Jovanovic-Malinovska et al., 2014;Ripari, 2019;Tangyu, Muller, Bolten, & Wittmann, 2019). ...
Article
Human gut microbiota is a protective agent of intestinal and systemic health, and its modulation is of great interest for human wellbeing. In the world of biotics, besides probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, also appears the denomination of “postbiotics” and “psychobiotics”. Fermented dairy products are, traditionally, the major source of probiotics. Nevertheless, due to the increasing number of lactose-intolerant individuals and strict vegetarians, there is a need for innovative non-dairy products. Non-dairy biotics are being included in the normal diet and due to technological advances, many products are created using non-conventional food matrices like kombucha tea, herbal tea, baking mix, and cereal-based products. The microorganisms most used as probiotics in many of the non-dairy products are strains belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, and Bacillus, and some yeast strains namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Recently, several other yeasts have been described as having probiotic properties. This review describes gut-derived effects in humans of possible microorganisms, such as yeasts, and bacteria, isolated from non-dairy fermented and non-fermented foods and beverages. The microorganisms responsible for the processing of these non-dairy fermented products, together with the prebiotics, form a class of nutrients that have been proven to be beneficial for our gut health.
... The content of biologically active compounds is increased due to the inhibited enteropathogen growth and high levels of acetate, propionate and butyrate produced during fermentation. Nissen et al., 2020 In addition to the foods listed in Table 12, hemp seeds are also used in the production of hemp oil softgel capsules, hemp gummies (Canada), roasted hemp seeds with sea salt, hemp jelly beans, energy drinks, hemp tea, hemp chewing gums, hemp honey, coffee beans and hemp kernel (USA), hemp lager beer, hemp protein bars (UK), hemp candies, hemp chocolate and hemp pads (Netherlands) . ...
... Besides, because it is lactose free and hypoallergenic nature, hemp milk might be an attractive alternative to dairy, soy, and nut milks (Wang, Jiang, & Xiong, 2018). Fermented blended drinks of hemp by probiotics shows strong prebiotic activity which improves the growth of probiotics and the content of certain bioactive compounds (Nissen et al., 2020). ...
Article
Background s: Since the demand of proteins for an ever-growing population keeps increasing worldwide, people are looking for alternative proteins sources. In recent years, plant proteins have drawn scientific and industrial interest because of their health, ethical and/or religious preferences among consumers. Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an annual herbaceous plant characterized with high quality oil, protein, carbohydrates, insoluble fibers, vitamins, and nutritional minerals. Particularly, hemp proteins are recognized with excellent nutritional value. Scope and approach The aim of this study is to provide a critical review on the potential uses and global production of industrial hemp. Additionally, this paper summarizes all the aspects relating to the nutritional value and heath beneficial effects of hemp protein and its hydrolysates and peptides. The structure, functional properties and flavor profiles of hemp protein are illustrated. The applications and challenges of hemp protein in food systems are also presented. Key findings and conclusion Hemp proteins are characterized as good protein source with adequacy essential amino acids and excellent digestibility. The hydrolyzed peptides exhibit various health benefits, such as antioxidant activity, antihypertensive activity, hypoglycaemic activity, etc. The functional properties of hemp proteins are to some extent related with their structure, which may be altered by isolation methods, pre-treatment and chemical modifications. Despite the progress in the characterization of hemp proteins, a deep understanding is needed to improve their functional properties and flavor profile with the purpose of expanding their utilization as valuable food ingredients in the food industry.
... Evaluation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was carried out on an Agilent 7890A Gas Chromatograph (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) coupled to an Agilent Technologies 5975 mass spectrometer operating in the electron impact mode (ionization voltage of 70 eV), equipped with a Chrompack CP-Wax 52 CB capillary column (50 m length, 0.32 mm ID) (Chrompack, Middelburg, Nederlands). The SPME-GC-MS (solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) protocol and the identification of volatile compounds were done according to previous reports, with minor modifications [16,17]. Briefly, once samples were received, 3 g or mL of solid or liquid samples were aseptically transferred onto a 10 mL borosilicate glass GC/Headspace vial (LLG GmbH, Meckenheim, Germany), the cap was sealed with a ferrule and the vials eventually stored at −80 • C. The solid samples were homogeneously selected from different parts of the specimen. ...
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In this work, an aquaponic cultivation system for Lactuca sativa (L.) and Chicorium intybus (L.) was compared to a hydroponic one, focusing on the main microbial populations related to food safety and their volatile compounds (VOCs), concluding with Spearman correlations among the microbes and VOCs. Different sections of both systems were sampled at the end of the commercial development of the plants. Plants cultivated in aquaponics were in general more contaminated than those from hydroponics, while for the cultivation waters a higher contamination of the hydroponics than aquaponics system was unexpectedly observed. Furthermore, the chicory exhibited higher levels of all microbial groups compared to lettuce grown under the same cultivation system. The results obtained also showed correlations between the distribution of some VOCs and microbial groups in the phyllosphere, while some examples of positive correlations between 2-nonanone (a positive phytostimulant compound) and anaerobic bacilli of the rhizosphere in lettuce were reported. So far, multivariate analysis of VOCs was able to discriminate on the basis of varieties but not on the cultivation systems. In conclusion, the microbial characteristics of the two ecosystems depended both on plant variety and cultivation method but further studies will need to deeply investigate the variables influencing the microbial quality of vegetable foods obtained by aquaponics. On the other hand, the analysis of the VOCs was more related to the microbial community of each plant variety considered, whatever the cultivation system. In precision agriculture, metabolomics may represent an opportunity to study the holobiome and through it the interactions between plants and their microbial populations, to possibly provide for a tool to assess the microbiological quality of vegetable foods obtained by aquaponic systems.
... Em preparos de bebidas à base de vegetais, além da soja e arroz, o cânhamo vem sendo empregado como um substituto inovador ao leite de origem animal(NISSEN et al., 2020). Na tabela 4 é possível observar as principais aplicações biotecnológicas entre outras diferentes fontes prebióticas. ...
Chapter
Human health primarily depends on the diet, as diet plays a fundamental role in revamping the population of intestinal microbiota, which assists in maintaining equanimity of various biological processes in the human body and also prevents diseases. Hence consumers are in demand for food that beneficially affects intestinal microbiota and improves human health. In this vein, prebiotic foods portray the most important foods which are known to perpetuate the load of beneficial microbiota and promote human health. Prebiotics are the fermentable fiber that fastidiously nourishes healthy bacteria and conserves beneficial microbiota habitat in the human gut. The beneficial effect of prebiotics can be enhanced and maintained for a longer time if they are taken in combination with probiotics. Probiotics are live microbes that improve flora in the gut and positively improve human health. The synergistic effect of both prebiotic and probiotic is synbiotic in which a population of live microbes (probiotics) is maintained/increased by using nondigestible fermentable fiber (prebiotics) and is an asset for human health. This chapter brings forth the inexorable background and important details on the sources, characteristics, potential health benefits, and future trends of prebiotic and synbiotic foods across the globe.
Article
The aim of this study was to develop a new formulation of soybean and hemp protein fermented yogurt (SHY) and to evaluate the effects of hemp protein concentration on the physicochemical and flavor properties of yogurts. The results indicated that hemp protein rapidly reduced the pH, and increased total titratable acidity of yogurts due to the propagation of lactic acid bacteria. Stronger influence on the parameters was detected at higher hemp protein concentration. Yogurt with hemp protein has the potential to reduce the whey precipitation and improve texture and rheology compared to those of control yogurt. The key volatile components, including alcohols, esters, alkanes, and aldehydes, may be conducive to the flavor optimization of SHYs. The results of physicochemical properties and flavor substance selection also supported the high liking scores of 10% SHY in sensory evaluation. These findings demonstrated that hemp protein has great development potency as a nutritional source to produce functional dairy products with optimum quality.
Article
In this research, five commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were selected for the fermentation of blended edible rose and shiitake beverage for their frequent application and strong adaptability in plant-based beverages. The viable counts of all strains reached above 10.0 log CFU/mL in the blended beverage after fermentation (48 h). Meanwhile, higher contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, free amino acids, and flavor nucleotide as well as stronger antioxidant capacity were observed in the fermented samples than the control. The results of electronic tongue (E-tongue) analysis showed that LAB fermentation significantly (p<0.05) lowered the signals of bitterness, astringency, aftertaste-A, and aftertaste-B, which ultimately improved the taste profiles of the fermented samples. Additionally, a total of 76 volatiles compounds were detected, among which alcohols were the dominant compounds. LAB fermentation also enriched the aroma complex of the fresh beverage, which resulted in new compounds, including 13 alcohols, 9 acids, 6 ketones, 4 esters, and 5 hydrocarbons in the fermented samples.
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Hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) is a high-yielding annual crop farmed for its stalk fiber and oil-producing seeds. This specialized crop is currently experiencing a revival in production. Hemp fiber contains pectin, hemicellulose and lignin with superior strength, while hemp seed oil contains unsaturated triglycerides with well-established nutritional and physiological properties. Therefore, focus on the utilization of hemp in various industries is increasing globally. This study reviewed recent applications of hemp components, including fiber and extract, in food, textile and packaging applications. Hemp fibers mainly consisting of cellulose derivatives have superior strength to be used as reinforcements in thermoplastic packaging and paper. Combined physical and chemical modifications of hemp fibers improved mechanical and barrier properties of composite materials. Physically and chemically processed hemp extracts have been used in food and non-food applications. Functional foods containing hemp oils deliver nutrients by their unsaturated lipids. High-quality hemp fiber with several fiber modifications has been applied in garments. Innovative applications of hemp components and by-products are increasing, thereby facilitating utilization of green sustainable biomaterials.
Chapter
Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa), a member of the family that includes marijuana, has great potentials as a renewable feedstock for a sustainable society. Unlike marijuana, industrial hemp has a high cannabidiol (CBD) content and only < 0.3% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive compound in marijuana. Moreover, every part of hemp can be used. For instance, hemp bast can be used as a fiber source for textile and paper production. Hemp seeds are a good source of oil, which is rich in omega-3, omega-6, and unsaturated fatty acids for cooking and supplements. Hemp flowering materials (leaves and flowers) are rich in CBD oil, which has medicinal properties for the treatment of Dravet syndrome, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorder. Last but not least, hemp hurd, a soft inner core of hemp stalks and stems, can be used as a starting material for biofuel, bioproducts, and construction materials. Considering the hemp's versatility, the cultivation of industrial hemp and hemp-derived products have increased rapidly. In this chapter, we described selected potential uses of industrial hemp in the following aspects: (1) value-added materials, (2) foods and bioproducts, and (3) biofuels and biochemicals.
Article
Background Fermented plant products (FPP) are functional liquids or solids produced by probiotics by fermentation of one or more fresh vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, herbs, etc. They have enriched nutritional value due to presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, organic acids, probiotics, prebiotics, vitamins, minerals and biological enzymes. This is an area of rapidly increasing interest around the world. Scope and approach This review elucidates recent studies of fermented plant products from the viewpoints of fermentation technology, functional properties, defects and remedy technologies to overcome potential defects. Several existing problems and development prospects for fermented plant products are discussed. Key findings and conclusions Fermented plant products possess many functional properties, such as antioxidation, bacteriostasis, improving intestinal function and immunity, antialcohol, protecting liver etc. Particularly, there are many defects in production of FPP, including possible generation of biogenic amines, methanol, formaldehyde and nitrite during fermentation, safe control of microorganisms, deficiency of trace elements, as well as stability in storage. Moreover, many technologies have been proposed to remedy the defects of FPP. This review contributes to a deeper understanding of fermented plant products as well as processing and utilization of plants and modernization of their production.
Article
Gluten free (GF) foods, designed and marketed for the needs of people who are unable to metabolize gluten, in recent years have aroused growing interest that has led to the conquest of important market segments, with a strongly growing trend. Given the low protein content of standard GF flours, it is particularly important to fortify GF foods, and to study the effect that this process exerts on functional and sensorial characteristics. In this work, fortification of GF bakery goods was done with the addition of Arthrospira platensis (spirulina) flour. Two different dough formulations (with and without fortification) were fermented by four different processes, including spontaneous, single strains and sourdough starters. The baked products were then subjected to "consumer's tests". During the process, fermentation performances, prebiotic activity, and the VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) profiles were analyzed and compared through robust multivariate statistics. The results obtained evidenced that fortification led to a product with more abundant (medium organic acids) and exclusive bioactives (thymol, borneol, and nicotinic acid), which were correlated to the prebiotic activity of spirulina breads. This work, for the first time indicates that spirulina can be used to fortify GF bakery, improving also its functional potential.
Chapter
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a commonly used biowaste treatment technology. Biogas and digestate (also known as digestate) are two products. Digestate contains nutrients such as ammonia nitrogen. Recovering nutrients from digestate as marketable products are critical for AD plants to meet regulatory and market demands while generating additional revenue. Traditional digestate processing technologies, i.e., land application, require energy inputs and raise environmental risks. Alternatively, microalgae can remove various nutrients from digestate, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, while generating biomass for biochemicals and biofuels production. Microalgae can biosynthesize both inorganic and organic carbons derived from AD and sequestrate atmospheric CO2. Combining digestate treatment and microalgal cultivation has become a topic of interest in the past years, although the economic feasibility of such a project remains a challenge. This chapter covers the background, technology principles, and application schemes of integrating AD digestate treatment with microalgae cultivation.
Article
Plant-based feedstock nutritionally and functionally rich are evermore requested in the food industry, although sustainability is a must. An untapped and sustainable source is hemp seed bran (HPB), which is a byproduct of industrial hemp seed flour. In this research we have studied the fermentation of HPB with different beneficial bacteria with the intention to valorize HPB for further food applications as a fiber supplement. Prebiotic activity was tested in vitro, and microbiological features were monitored and studied, as fermentation process and release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results indicate that when HPB is fermented there is an in increase in the number of terpenes (7 compounds more at the end of fermentation) and in the abundance of organic acids (26.0-fold more of Butyric acid), particularly when fermentation is conducted by a bacterial pool. Besides, p-Cymene, Myrcene, and Eugenol are the VOCs majorly correlated to prebiotic activity. Although other studies must be conducted, this paper suggests that HPB should be valorized as a substrate to produce sustainable and chemical free prebiotics.
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Background Packed ready-to drink non-alcoholic beverages are grouped mainly as carbonated soft drinks, still drinks, juices and bottled waters. This industry has a considerable effect on global economy with a revenue of 1038054 million US $ and average volume per person of 109.5 L in 2020. Volume of this market is expected to be 935758.3 million liters by 2025. Although there is a pressure of global trends such as sugar reduction on this business, beverages will stay in market as they provide people hydration with enjoyment; however, product development has started to move from standard sugary formulations to the functional ones with added functional ingredients and/or reduction/removal of undesirable ingredients with satisfying tastes and prices. Actions of addition and/or reduction/removals in formulations are not easy tasks due to the possible losses in desired sensorial properties especially taste and mouthfeel, possible quality and stability problems during storage and difficulties in ensuring efficacy of the claimed function till the end of shelf-life. To solve these issues and be successful in this consumer-led industry, it is important to know the technical fundamentals of beverages for future opportunities shaped by global consumer and product trends. Scope and approach As packed non-alcoholic beverages are one of the biggest and most preferred product categories for refreshment, hydration, enjoyment, recently functional properties and for other reasons. We generally see the effects of trends in beverage product development much earlier than other food product categories when new product introductions to the market are analysed. In this review, important points in production and emulsion technology for incorporating functional ingredients in beverage body were included with the objective to indicate future ingredients and product development areas and points that should be watched out to both academia and industrial professionals since the studies are scarce. Classification of non-alcoholic beverages, production, ingredients, trends, challenges and future opportunities were given with a special emphasis on the functional product development in a compact way. Key findings and conclusions Global outbreak of Covid-19 has caused variations in the path but not the contents of the global consumer trends in food industry. Functional beverages have started to be placed in the modern medicine cabinet of today's people and consumer interest for functional products is predicted to persist in long-term. Hence, it is important for food companies and technologists, especially who are working in research and development area, to catch up with trends shaping their future product development agendas. Sweetspot of sensory, cost, sustainability and trends pillars should also be considered for innovation achievements in these agendas. Moreover, innovative functional beverage development generally requires emulsion production to incorporate functional ingredients into beverages as they are non-soluble in water. Emulsification is a complicated process and requires technical knowledge. Usage of high quality emulsion in a beverage ensures stability and consequently consumer satisfaction. Thus, food scientists and technologists should give importance to this special topic to develop their technical background and skills.
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The probiotic sector witnessed a surge in research on the role of plant-based nondairy matrices in the creation of novel functional beverages for improving human health. Dairy products are excellent vehicles for the delivery of probiotics; however, lactose intolerance and cow’s milk allergy were the two main important drivers for the creation of plant-based probiotic beverages. The consumption of probiotics and synbiotics exert an advantageous effect on host gut microflora, and they are capable of treating diarrheal diseases. However, the development of such type of functional beverages or milk alternatives is very challenging owing to the wide variation in the composition of plant matrices and higher consumer expectations for palatability and well-being. Other technological challenges in the development of plant-based probiotics include maintaining the viability of the probiotic culture throughout the storage, preventing the generation of off-flavor and odor during the storage, and maintaining the textural stability. Fermentation, germination, roasting, and enzymatic treatments proved beneficial in improving the textural stability and flavor profile of the plant-based probiotic products. Legumes, cereals, seeds, and nuts are an important source of prebiotics and can offer newer approaches in the development of affordable probiotic functional beverages. Micro- and nanoencapsulation technologies expressed a potential in maintaining the viability of culture in probiotic formulations by creating a suitable biological carrier; however, further innovative technological interventions might represent an important solution for the stability and viability of probiotics in newer food matrices. Also, advanced food processing technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, high-pressure homogenization, pulsed electric field processing, and ultrasonication offer suitable approaches for processing and preservation of probiotic beverages in replacement to thermal processing.
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Plant-based drinks as a substitute for animal milk consumption are crucial products in the food industry. Soy and rice drinks are the most successful milk substitutes but are low in fiber and protein contents, respectively, whilst rich in sugars. Generally, an improvement is foreseen; thus, apart from supplements addition, a natural occurring strategy is functionalizing the drinks by beneficial bacteria fermentation. The aim of this work is to develop novel plant-based drinks assessing different mixtures of soy and rice milks fermented with single or multi-strains probiotics (Lactobacillus fermentum, L. plantarum, L. helveticus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and B. longum). The drinks were characterized to study bacterial performances, by means of culture-dependent and -independent techniques, and their volatilome, by means of solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis. Through multivariate analysis, these features were investigated and correlated to define accurate descriptors of the produced functional drinks. The results showed that combined drinks and multi-strains fermentation generated higher-value products. For example, blended drinks in comparison to single ones had lower amount of toxic 2-acetyl-3,5-dimethylfuran and higher abundances of desirable compounds as 2-butanone, 3-hydroxy and butanoic acid. Multivariate analysis of volatile metabolites and physiological parameters could offer a novel approach to assess the quality of functional plant-based drinks and result in a decisional tool for industrial applications.
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Non-dairy milk alternatives (or milk analogues) are water extracts of plants and have become increasingly popular for human nutrition. Over the years, the global market for these products has become a multi-billion dollar business and will reach a value of approximately 26 billion USD within the next 5 years. Moreover, many consumers demand plant-based milk alternatives for sustainability, health-related, lifestyle and dietary reasons, resulting in an abundance of products based on nuts, seeds or beans. Unfortunately, plant-based milk alternatives are often nutritionally unbalanced, and their flavour profiles limit their acceptance. With the goal of producing more valuable and tasty products, fermentation can help to the improve sensory profiles, nutritional properties, texture and microbial safety of plant-based milk alternatives so that the amendment with additional ingredients, often perceived as artificial, can be avoided. To date, plant-based milk fermentation mainly uses mono-cultures of microbes, such as lactic acid bacteria, bacilli and yeasts, for this purpose. More recently, new concepts have proposed mixed-culture fermentations with two or more microbial species. These approaches promise synergistic effects to enhance the fermentation process and improve the quality of the final products. Here, we review the plant-based milk market, including nutritional, sensory and manufacturing aspects. In addition, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art fermentation of plant materials using mono- and mixed-cultures. Due to the rapid progress in this field, we can expect well-balanced and naturally fermented plant-based milk alternatives in the coming years.
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A diversity of commercial food products can be made from cannabis and hemp extracts, using both crude or winterized ‘oils’, distillates, and isolates, as documented in the literature. The manufacturing of these food-related end products involves processes such as extraction, phase separation, and distillation under vacuum. There is preference for consumer-friendly solvents that are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) such carbon dioxide, ethanol, water, and propane or butane; and triglyceride-based oils. Frequently CO2 is preferred as a solvent because it is environmentally benign, consumer-friendly, and selective as an extraction solvent. Here, we invoke solubility parameter theory (SPT) to explain the solubility/miscibility behavior of the above solvents toward cannabinoid, terpene, and non-polar contaminating solutes that must be removed using the above processes. This approach can also be used in formulating various food products, in which cannabis extracts and distillated are infused into a food matrix. Note is made of the fact that the infused cannabinoids are converted under the influence of heat and over time to other cannabinoids. Considering the difficulty of retaining terpenes during the above processing steps, back-addition of terpenes is frequently practiced. Numerous examples are provided of foods that are infused with defined cannabis/hemp extracts and distillates, and an example of an appropriate analysis and requisite labeling associated with a cannabinoid-infused product provided.
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The evolving public and regulatory outlook concerning the health and nutritional properties of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) products has prompted recent research to focus on developing new methods for isolation and oral delivery of bioactive constituents present in hemp extracts. While cannabinoid extracts derived from hemp are renowned for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of the cannabinoids; however, other functional properties attributed to the nutritional value of the hemp seed oil, and, the anti-microbial properties of hemp extract are often overlooked. Isolation of the bioactive compounds from hemp and conversion into products that can be useful for a variety of applications, ranging from nutritional supplements to antimicrobials, as well as new developments in the delivery of medicinal bioactives, are areas of considerable interest for both the cannabis and hemp industries. This review examines these topics and moreover, critiques methods used for the extraction of cannabinoids and hempseed oil bioactives. Finally, novel advances in technologies designed to use nano-carriers for oral delivery of cannabinoids are introduced with the goal to highlight the latest developments in hemp extract processing and delivery.
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Cannabis sativa (cannabis) produces a resin that is valued for its psychoactive and medicinal properties. Despite being the foundation of a multi-billion dollar global industry, scientific knowledge and research on cannabis is lagging behind compared to other high-value crops. This is largely due to legal restrictions that have prevented many researchers from studying cannabis, its products, and their effects in humans. Cannabis resin contains hundreds of different terpene and cannabinoid metabolites. Many of these metabolites have not been conclusively identified. Our understanding of the genomic and biosynthetic systems of these metabolites in cannabis, and the factors that affect their variability, is rudimentary. As a consequence, there is concern about lack of consistency with regard to the terpene and cannabinoid composition of different cannabis ‘strains’. Likewise, claims of some of the medicinal properties attributed to cannabis metabolites would benefit from thorough scientific validation.
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Poorly formulated probiotic supplements intended for oral administration often fail to protect bacteria from the challenges of human digestion, meaning bacteria do not reach the small intestine in a viable state. As a result, the ability of probiotics to influence the human gut microbiota has not been proven. Here we show how (i) considered formulation of an aqueous probiotic suspension can facilitate delivery of viable probiotic bacteria to the gut and (ii) quantitate the effect of colonisation and proliferation of specific probiotic species on the human gut microbiota, using an in-vitro gut model. Our data revealed immediate colonisation and growth of three probiotic species in the luminal and mucosal compartments of the proximal and distal colon, and growth of a fourth species in the luminal proximal colon, leading to higher proximal and distal colonic lactate concentrations. The lactate stimulated growth of lactate-consuming bacteria, altering the bacterial diversity of the microbiota and resulting in increased short-chain fatty acid production, especially butyrate. Additionally, an immunomodulatory effect of the probiotics was seen; production of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10) was increased and production of inflammatory chemokines (MCP-1, CXCL 10 and IL-8.) was reduced. The results indicate that the probiotic species alone do not result in a clinical effect; rather, they facilitate modulation of the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity thereby influencing the immune response.
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The antibacterial effects of essential oils and their components (EOCs) are usually attributed to effects on membranes and metabolism. Studies of the effects of EOCs on protein expression have primarily analysed proteins larger than 10 kDa using gel electrophoresis. In the present study, we used MALDI-TOF-MS to investigate the effects of EOCs on low-molecular-weight proteins. From 297 m/z features, we identified 94 proteins with important differences in expression among untreated samples, samples treated with EOCs, and samples treated with antibiotics, peroxide, or chlorine. The targets of these treatments obviously differ, even among EOCs. In addition to ribosomal proteins, stress-, membrane- and biofilm-related proteins were affected. These findings may provide a basis for identifying new targets of essential oils and synergies with other antibiotics.
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The gut bacteria producing metabolites like short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.g., acetate, propionate and butyrate), are frequently reduced in Patients with diabetes, obesity, autoimmune disorders, and cancers. Hence, microbiome modulators such as probiotics may be helpful in maintaining or even restoring normal gut microbiome composition to benefit host health. Herein, we developed a human-origin probiotic cocktail with the ability to modulate gut microbiota to increase native SCFA production. Following a robust protocol of isolation, characterization and safety validation of infant gut-origin Lactobacillus and Enterococcus strains with probiotic attributes (tolerance to simulated gastric and intestinal conditions, adherence to intestinal epithelial cells, absence of potential virulence genes, cell-surface hydrophobicity, and susceptibility to common antibiotics), we select 10 strains (5 from each genera) out of total 321 isolates. A single dose (oral gavage) as well as 5 consecutive doses of this 10-strain probiotic cocktail in mice modulates gut microbiome and increases SCFA production (particularly propionate and butyrate). Inoculation of these probiotics in human feces also increases SCFA production along with microbiome modulation. Results indicate that human-origin probiotic lactobacilli and enterococci could ameliorate gut microbiome dysbiosis and hence may prove to be a potential therapy for diseases involving reduced SCFAs production in the gut.
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The present work was conducted to study the antioxidant activity and to determine for the first time the antimicrobial potential of Moroccan Cannabis sativa essential oil (EO)singly or in combination with two conventional antibiotics (fluconazol and ciprofloxacin)against some resistant and pathogenic microorganisms. The chemical composition analyzed by means of GC/MS showed that C. sativa EO was characterized by the dominance of (E)-caryophyllene (35.0%), α-humulene (12.8%)and caryophyllene oxide (10.6%). Results from antioxidant tests showed that C. sativa EO exhibit a moderate potency (IC 50 = 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/m L for 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)assay, IC 50 = 1.8 ± 0.2 mg/mL for β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and IC 50 = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg/m L for ferric reducing power assay). Regarding antimicrobial assays, the results demonstrated that C. sativa EO displayed interesting antimicrobial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)values in the range from (1.2 to 37.8)mg/m L for tested microorganisms. The combination of the studied EO with fluconazol and ciprofloxacin showed a significant decrease in their individual MICs. In fact, at sub-inhibitory concentrations, C. sativa EO contributed to the decrease of ciprofloxacin MICs of bacterial strains by 2- to 64-fold and by16-fold regarding fluconazol MICs against Candida spp. These findings suggest that C. sativa EO can be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobials, and constitute in combinational treatments a promising strategy to overcome the intense use of antibiotics against some infectious diseases.
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Ammonia toxicity is common and risk factor in aquaculture, deteriorating fish health. Phytochemicals might attenuate adverse effects of ammonia toxicity in fish. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary myrcene and menthol administration on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) health in response to ammonia toxicity. The fish were fed with either myrcene- or menthol-supplemented diets for 30 days before exposure to 0.5 mg/L unionized ammonia for 24 h. The experimental diets contained 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1% of either myrcene or menthol. Growth performance was determined after the 30-d feeding trial and the fish were blood-sampled before and after the ammonia challenge. The results showed that myrcene at 0.5% significantly improved the fish growth performance compared to the control diet (29.3 vs. 41.2% weight gain); however, menthol had no significant effects on the fish growth performance. Ammonia exposure led to significant decrease in plasma catalase, glutathione peroxidase, blood RBC and hemoglobin and significant increase in plasma superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, which are indicators of oxidative stress, tissue damage and anemia. Myrcene at 0.25-1% and menthol at 0.25% levels significantly improved most of the tested parameters. Moreover, myrcene at 0.5 and 1% significantly inhibited the adverse effects of ammonia exposure on the fish antioxidant responses, tissue health and anemia; however, menthol was less effective compared to myrcene and the most effective concentration was 0.25%, which mitigated the adverse effects of ammonia exposure. In conclusion, myrcene at 0.5% and menthol at 0.25% levels are effective in reducing the adverse effects of ammonia toxicity in common carp. Such effects seem to be related to the compounds antioxidant effects, which mitigated ammonia-induced tissue damage and anemia.
Article
Background Dietary fiber is the undigested carbohydrate that escapes small intestinal digestion and absorption, and then reaches the large intestine for partial or complete fermentation by the colonic microbiota. Fermentation of dietary fiber into short-chain fatty acids (i.e., acetic, propionic, and butyric particularly) in the colon has been reported to bring about positive changes in microbiota composition and reduce the risk of colon-related diseases as well as some metabolic syndromes, such as obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and systemic inflammation. Scope and approach There is a growing interest in the fate of different dietary fibers in the gastrointestinal tract regarding their rate and extent (location) of fermentation and microbiota changes, particularly from data obtained with static and dynamic in vitro models. These models provide information on the fermentation performance and microbiota modulation by dietary fibers with diverse structures and enable the formulation of functional foods with health benefits. Key findings and conclusions This review summarizes the fermentation performance of various dietary fibers using in vitro models. Both the physical and chemical structures of dietary fibers are critical factors that determine fermentation rate, short-chain fatty acid profiles and growth of different bacterial groups. Considering the potential relationship between fermentation performance and health, three principles for designing fermentable dietary fiber are proposed: slow fermentation in the colon; high butyrate and/or propionate production; and selective bacterial growth, promoting the beneficial bacteria that improve the intestinal barrier function.
Article
Background A high EPS‐producing Lactobacillus pentosus SLC 13 strain was isolated from mustard pickles and showed the characteristic of probiotic. Orange peel fiber powder (OPFP) and Tremella flava fermented powder (TFP) were showed to be potential prebiotics for L. pentosus SLC 13. The aim of this study was to further develop new symbiotic fermented lactic acid beverages by SLC 13 with different proportions of cow milk and soymilk as food substrates, and that with OPFP or TFP as prebiotics. Results Acidification rate (soymilk groups, 3.02–4.37 mU/min; soymilk/milk mixture groups, 1.33–2.84 mU/min) and fermentation time (soymilk groups, 7.09–9.25 h; soymilk/milk mixture groups, 12.51–27.34 h) indicated that soymilk represents a suitable substrate for SLC 13‐mediated fermentation. Moreover, OPFP and TFP induced higher EPS production of SLC 13 and higher WHC of fermented beverages. Sensory evaluations suggested that soymilk groups fermented with 10 g kg ‐1 OPFP (SF‐1.0P) and that with 5 g kg ‐1 TFP (SF‐0.5T); soymilk/milk mixture groups fermented with 5 g kg ‐1 OPFP (HSMF‐0.5P) and that with 10 g kg ‐1 TFP (HSMF‐1.0T) represent potential fermented drinks. Additionally, SF‐1.0P and SF‐0.5T products could be preserved for at least 21 days at 4 °C, with high viable cell counts (> 8.8 log10 cfu/ml) and WHC. Conclusion In this study, we developed SF‐1.0P and SF‐0.5T products as new symbiotic fermented lactic acid beverage. However, consumer acceptability could be improved by properly regulating the ratio of sugar to acid or seasoning in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Metabolomic approaches applied to fermented foods are at the state of the science and represent a robust and reliable approach to identify, quantify and characterise the biochemical profiles of raw materials and transformed products. The outcomes so far obtained are cornerstones to understand mainly nutritional and sensorial inherent features. Formulations of new bakery products with increased nutritional values is trending the market, but sensorial attributes still need to be improved to reach a wider audience. The present work describes the application of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and electronic nose analyses, to investigate over the volatilome of different bakery products, obtained from mature and immature grains (KAMUT® khorasan and durum wheat) and transformed by a sourdough made of Lactobacillus spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From the recipient results has emerged that the sensors used can distinguish the KAMUT® khorasan doughs fermented industrially at the fully ripe stage, the same doughs at the milky stage and KAMUT® khorasan sourdough at the fully ripe stage. Electronic nose allowed discriminating between different types of flours and GC–MS indicated the volatilome of sourdough KAMUT® khorasan case as the most promising. Thus, the combination of different independent variables in the bread process to improve the sensorial quality of the product, when is backed by metabolomics, represents an effective approach to study, characterise and exploit the sensorial quality of breads.
Article
Myelin loss subsequent to oligodendrocyte death has been reported in a variety of myelin-associated disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to elicit cellular responses in the central nervous system (CNS) and trigger immune infiltrates and glial cells to release a variety of inflammatory cytokines and mediators. LPS-induced oligodendrocytes toxicity may be chosen as an efficient model to evaluate the role of oligodendrocytes in neuroprotective activities of compounds. β-Caryophyllene (BCP) is a selective type 2 cannabinoid (CB2) receptor agonist. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of BCP are not completely understood. On this basis, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of a wide range of BCP concentrations against LPS-induced toxicity in a proliferative oligodendrocyte cell line (OLN-93) and evaluate the possible correlation between BCP concentration and selective modulation of CB2, Nrf2, sphingomyelinase (SMase) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-γ signaling pathways. We found that LPS significantly increases the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) metabolite and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production while decreases the level of GSH. BCP could prevent LPS-induced cytotoxicity and excessive production of NO, ROS, and TNF-α. Also, we demonstrated that BCP's protective effects against LPS-induced oligodendrocytes toxicity were mediated via the CB2 receptor through different pathways including Nrf2/HO-1/anti-oxidant axis, and PPAR-γ at low (0.2 and 1 µM), and high (10–50 µM) concentrations, respectively. Additionally, we observed that the addition of SMase inhibitors imipramine (IMP) and fluoxetine (FLX) synergistically increased the protective effects of BCP. Finally, BCP at low concentrations exerted promising protective effects that could be considered for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as MS. However, more studies using other models of neurodegenerative diseases should be undertaken to assess different parameters such as the activity or expression of SMase.
Article
Cannabaceae plants Cannabis sativa L. and Humulus lupulus L. are rich in terpenes-both are typically comprised of terpenes as up to 3-5% of the dry-mass of the female inflorescence. Terpenes of cannabis and hops are typically simple mono-and sesquiterpenes derived from two and three isoprene units, respectively. Some terpenes are relatively well known for their potential in biomedicine and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, while others are yet to be studied in detail. The current, comprehensive review presents terpenes found in cannabis and hops. Terpenes' medicinal properties are supported by numerous in vitro, animal and clinical trials and show anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anticancer, antitumor, neuroprotective, anti-mutagenic, anti-allergic, antibiotic and anti-diabetic attributes, among others. Because of the very low toxicity, these terpenes are already widely used as food additives and in cosmetic products. Thus, they have been proven safe and well-tolerated.
Article
Hemp milk, an emerging beverage with high nutritional value and low allergenicity, is an attractive alternative to dairy, soy, and nut milks. To obtain a non-thermally processed, physically and oxidatively stable hemp milk, high pressure homogenization (HPH) combined with pH shift treatment was investigated. For hemp milk (4% protein, 5% fat) without pH shift, increasing the homogenization pressure (up to 60 MPa) resulted in a more uniform distribution of emulsion droplets (2.2–2.7 μm). When pH shift was applied prior to HPH, large clusters and aggregates of oil droplets (3.5–8.2 μm) were formed. Interestingly, hemp milk with such interactive structures was remarkably stable, showing negligible phase separation within 3-day storage at 4 °C. Moreover, hemp milk made by combined pH shift and HPH exhibited delayed hydroperoxides (expressed as peroxide value, PV) and malondialdehyde (expressed as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) production, suggesting the resistance of such emulsion cluster structures to radicals. On the other hand, a significant reduction of microbial population was observed in hemp milk prepared by pH shift combined with HPH. The results indicate that the pH shift + HPH combination treatment may potentially be employed for the production of non-thermally processed hemp milk.
Article
Pearl millet dietary fibre fermentation using four co-culture of three probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidus was studied for production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). All co-cultures were grown on specific medium containing pearl millet fibre fractions; IDF, SDF, TDF as a main carbon source. SCFA production of the probiotics co-cultures was measured at 0, 6, 24, and 48 h using gas liquid chromatography. SCFA formation among the fibre fractions followed the pattern of TDF>SDF>IDF irrespective of co-cultures, indicated that TDF is the best possible dietary fibre for SCFA production. During all co-cultures fermentation with pearl millet fibre fractions, quantity of different SCFA’s produced was acetate>propionate >butyrate. The SCFA quantity was observed low with co-culture of probiotic comprised of same genus (p < 0.05). During 48 h fermentation, co-cultures (BL+BB, BB+LR and BL+LR) digested 81-88 % of the millet fibre fractions. Bifidobacterium bifidum + Bifidobacterium longum + Lactobacillus rhamnosus co-culture was found most efficient during pearl millet fermentation which digested the 97% fibre fractions and produced more SCFA than other combinations in the study. These findings conferred pearl millet dietary fibre fractions as new potential prebiotic for tested probiotic co-cultures.
Article
The dietary fiber complex of cereal whole grain is an important source of host beneficial molecules, such as: beta-glucans, fructans, resistant starch and arabinoxylans. The bioavailability of these compounds from whole grain products is generally dependent to different physiological and technological issues, likewise: genotype and maturation stage, dough preparation, fermentation options and baking process. This study regards the production of breads from cereal whole grains, taking into account two wheat genotypes harvested at mature and immature stages and processed through different conditions, varying temperature, time of baking and fermentation parameters. The aim is to highlight the different impact of these aspects on the amount and the bioavailability of the aforementioned four bioactive molecules. Our results showed that the best product, in terms of content of beneficial compounds, is that obtained from the flour of advanced maturation stage processed with brewer's yeast fermentation. Given the great interest in finding better technological processes to increase the daily dietary fiber intake, our findings could be very useful for the food industry to design the exact formulation and best process for the increase of bio-active molecules concentration in cereal whole grains products.
Article
The ability of different fruit by-products, okara, and amaranth flour, to support the growth of probiotic and non-probiotic strains was evaluated. The tests were conducted with three commercial starter cultures (Streptococcus thermophilus), ten probiotic strains (seven Lactobacillus spp. and three Bifidobacterium spp. strains), and two harmful bacteria representative of the intestinal microbiota (Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens). In vitro fermentability assays were performed using a modified MRS broth supplemented with different fruits (acerola, orange, passion fruit, and mango), and soy (okara) by-products or amaranth flour. Orange and passion-fruit by-products were the substrates that most promoted the growth of bacterial populations, including pathogenic strains. On the other hand, the acerola by-product was the substrate that showed the highest selectivity for beneficial bacteria, since the E. coli and Cl. perfringens populations were lower in the presence of this fruit by-product. Although the passion fruit by-product, okara, and amaranth stimulated the probiotic strains, the growth of the pathogenic strains studied was higher compared to other substrates. Different growth profiles were verified for each substrate when the different strains were compared. Although pure culture models do not reflect bacterial interaction in the host, this study reinforces the fact that the ability to metabolize different substrates is strain-dependent, and acerola, mango, and orange by-products are the substrates with the greatest potential to be used as prebiotic ingredients.
Article
Bioactive antioxidant peptides are more and more attracting the attention of food manufacturers for their potential to transform food in functional food, able to prevent a variety of chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress. In the present study proteins extracted from different vegetable sources (KAMUT® khorasan wheat, emmer, lupine and pea) were hydrolyzed with commercial enzymes and Lactobacillus spp. strains. Hydrolysates were separated by size exclusion chromatography and purified fractions were analyzed for their antioxidant activity. Peptides from the fractions with the highest activity were identified by nanoLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and thirteen peptides were selected for synthesis on the basis of their sequence. Four peptides (VLPPQQQY, TVTSLDLPVLRW, VTSLDLPVLRW, FVPY) were found able to scavenge superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals, organic nitro-radicals (ABTS, DPPH) and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. The impact of this work is targeted to add hydrolysed vegetable proteins to reformulated functional food or to produce health-promoting ingredients and nutraceuticals.
Article
The gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to many environmental factors that influence intestinal epithelial cells and the underlying mucosal immune system. In this article, we demonstrate that dietary fiber and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) induced the expression of the vitamin A-converting enzyme RALDH1 in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed that the expression levels of RALDH1 in small intestinal epithelial cells correlated with the activity of vitamin A-converting enzymes in mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells, along with increased numbers of intestinal regulatory T cells and a higher production of luminal IgA. Moreover, we show that the consumption of dietary fiber can alter the composition of SCFA-producing microbiota and SCFA production in the small intestines. In conclusion, our data illustrate that dietary adjustments affect small intestinal epithelial cells and can be used to modulate the mucosal immune system.