Article

Back Squat vs. Hip Thrust Resistance-training Programs in Well-trained Women

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Abstract

The study compared the effects of back squat (BS) and hip thrust (HT) exercises on muscle strength and hypertrophy in well-trained women. Twenty-two participants were divided in two groups: BS group (n=12, 26.4±1.32 years, 171.8±3.79 cm, and 69.5±4.9 kg) performed the BS exercise and HT group (n=10, 27.5±1.42 years, 170.8±4.4 cm, 67.5±4.7 kg) performed the HT exercise. Training was performed for 12 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were assessed for quadriceps femoris and gluteus maximus muscle thickness (MT) and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test on the BS and HT. Both groups significantly increased hip extensors MT and HT 1RM; however, the improvements in BS group were higher than in HT group on quadriceps femoris (12.2% for BS and 2% for HT, P<0.001) and gluteus maximus MT (9.4% for BS and 3.7% for HT, P=0.001) and BS 1 RM (35.9% for BS and 4.3% for HT, P<0.001). BS was more efficient than HT, since it resulted in greater muscle hypertrophy of the quadriceps femoris and gluteus maximus, increases in BS 1RM and similar increases in HT.

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... Of note, there were three out-101 comes in Barbalho et al. [74] for which the standard de-102 viation of change scores was zero (i.e., perfectly homoge-103 neous effects), meaning d z was undefined and could not be 104 included. We observed z-scores as high as 34 1. Volume women [69] 2. Volume men [70] 3. Squat vs. hip thrust [71] 4. MJ/SJ Untrained women [72] 5. MJ/SJ Trained women 2 [73] 6. MJ/SJ Trained women [74] 7. MJ/SJ Men [75] 8. MJ/SJ Bodybuilders [76] [62]. than what was observed in the real data (i.e., P < 1×10 −6 ). ...
... ond study. The probability of obtaining data with these 255 characteristics in both studies is [73] (thin, colored bars) and the squat group average from [71] (thick, black bar). (B) This results in high z-scores for all three groups from [73] and the squat group average from [71], but especially so for those who performed multi-joint movements. ...
... The probability of obtaining data with these 255 characteristics in both studies is [73] (thin, colored bars) and the squat group average from [71] (thick, black bar). (B) This results in high z-scores for all three groups from [73] and the squat group average from [71], but especially so for those who performed multi-joint movements. ...
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We describe improbable data patterns in the work of Barbalho et al.
... RT programs usually involve many exercises, including isolated exercises for specific muscles; this would require the practitioner to manipulate many different implements, which could lead to a higher risk of contamination. However, the use of multijoint exercises seems to be sufficient to promote gains in muscle strength and size in most muscles involved in movement (i.e., biceps, gluteus, quadriceps, triceps, and biceps brachii) [83][84][85][86][87] and the use of isolated exercises does not seem to bring additional benefits [86,88,89]. Therefore, the use of a few complex exercises combined with low-volume approaches might be particularly convenient, since this will involve less manipulation of objects and reduce the 3 BioMed Research International need of remaining and displacing inside exercise facilities, which reduced the exposure to infection and decrease the need to constant disinfection. ...
... RT programs usually involve many exercises, including isolated exercises for specific muscles; this would require the practitioner to manipulate many different implements, which could lead to a higher risk of contamination. However, the use of multijoint exercises seems to be sufficient to promote gains in muscle strength and size in most muscles involved in movement (i.e., biceps, gluteus, quadriceps, triceps, and biceps brachii) [83][84][85][86][87] and the use of isolated exercises does not seem to bring additional benefits [86,88,89]. Therefore, the use of a few complex exercises combined with low-volume approaches might be particularly convenient, since this will involve less manipulation of objects and reduce the 3 BioMed Research International need of remaining and displacing inside exercise facilities, which reduced the exposure to infection and decrease the need to constant disinfection. ...
Article
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In December of 2019, there was an outbreak of a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) in China. The virus rapidly spread into the whole world causing an unprecedented pandemic and forcing governments to impose a global quarantine, entering an extreme unknown situation. The organizational consequences of quarantine/isolation are absence of organized training and competition, lack of communication among athletes and coaches, inability to move freely, lack of adequate sunlight exposure, and inappropriate training conditions. The reduction of mobility imposed to contain the advance of the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic can negatively affect the physical condition and health of individuals leading to muscle atrophy, progressive loss of muscle strength, and reductions in neuromuscular and mechanical capacities. Resistance training (RT) might be an effective tool to counteract these adverse consequences. RT is considered an essential part of an exercise program due to its numerous health and athletic benefits. However, in the face of the SARS-Cov-2 outbreak, many people might be concerned with safety issues regarding its practice, especially in indoor exercise facilities, such as gyms and fitness centers. These concerns might be associated with RT impact in the immune system, respiratory changes, and contamination due to equipment sharing and agglomeration. In this current opinion article, we provide insights to address these issues to facilitate the return of RT practices under the new logistical and health challenges. We understand that RT can be adapted to allow its performance with measures adopted to control coronavirus outbreak such that the benefits would largely overcome the potential risks. The article provides some practical information to help on its implementation.
... Another important limitation was that most of the studies were conducted in subjects with no prior training experience (or training experience not reported). This may have affected the results because of the differences in the hypertrophic response depending on the training experience (2). Experience may also have affected the growth potential of the exercise because novice lifters lack the ability to internally focus while training, which may lead to a diminished growth potential (6). ...
... Even if novice lifters are more likely to experience hypertrophy, they do not experience hypertrophy until at least 3 weeks after the onset of the resistance training stimulus (40). This may also depend on the difficulty of the exercise because exercises that are easy to learn may promote muscle growth earlier than those that take longer to perform correctly (2). However, most of the studies included in this review performed monoarticular exercises like leg extensions of biceps preacher curls, and all of them lasted at least 4 weeks; so the impact of the subjects' training experience was minimal. ...
... For example, previous studies have shown that bodyweight exercises [66][67][68], stationary bike training [69], plyometric training [70], elastic band training [71][72][73], and even exercises with no external load [74][75][76] promote similar responses to traditional RT. These exercises might be performed as basic multi-joint exercises (i.e., squats, pushups, pullups, rows, etc.) as this has been shown to be sufficient to promote gains in muscle strength and size in most muscles involved [77][78][79][80][81]; the addition of isolated exercises, in general, does not seem to bring benefits [80,82,83]. This allows the possibility to exercise at parks, outdoors, and even at home, and still obtain relevant results [63,84]. ...
Article
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By the end of 2019 a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the SARS-CoV-2 started a pandemic, leading to millions of deaths and many important political and social changes. Even in the absence of contamination, the mobility reduction, social distancing and closing of exercise facilities negatively affected physical activity and conditioning, which is associated to muscle atrophy, loss of muscle strength and reductions in functional capacity. In case of infection, it has been shown that increased physical capacity is associated with decreased hospitalization and mortality risk. Although millions of people died from COVID-19, most contaminated individu-als survived from the infection, but carried different sequelae, like severe loss of physical func-tion and reduced quality of life. Among different physical exercise models that might help to prevent and treat COVID-19 outcomes, resistance training (RT) might be particularly relevant. Among its benefits, RT can be adapted to be performed in many different situations, even with limited space and equipment, and it is easily adapted to individual characteristics and health status. The current narrative review aims to provide insights on how RT can be used in different scenarios to counteract the negative effects of COVID-19. By this, the authors expect to provide insights do deal with the current pandemic and also in case the World has to deal with similar events in the future.
... As for the type of exercise included in the conditioning activities, the squat (SQ) is commonly used to improve jumping ability since athletes have to apply strength in the vertical vector [13,17]. The SQ also has a greater range of motion than the hip thrust (HT), which can result in greater muscle tension [18]. However, in the case of running, the hip thrust (HT) exercise (which involves greater activation of the hip extensor muscles) has higher specificity and transferability to activities that require applying strength on a horizontal vector, such as sprinting [19][20][21]. ...
Article
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Objective: This study aimed to compare the acute effects of a full squat (SQ) or hip thrust (HT) with two different loading intensities (60% and 85% 1 RM) on sprint ability in junior male tennis players. Methods: Nineteen tennis players were included in this research. They underwent four different experimental conditions: HT at 60% 1 RM, HT at 85% 1 RM, SQ at 60% 1 RM, or SQ at 85%. The force–velocity (F–V) profile was used to assess tennis players’ sprint acceleration ability before and after applying the conditioning stimulus. The variables registered were as follows: 5 m test (5 m), 10 m test (10 m), maximum theoretical force (F0), maximum power (Pmax), and the maximal ratio of horizontal-to-resultant force (RFpeak). Results: Significant improvements in 5 m, Pmax, and RFpeak were observed when the conditioning stimulus was performing one set of seven reps of HT at 60% 1 RM. When the activation protocol was one set of seven reps of SQ at 60% 1 RM, significant improvements in 5 m, 10 m, F0, Pmax (N), and RFpeak were detected. Additionally, performing one set of three reps of SQ at 85% 1 RM as an activation protocol provided significant improvements in F0. Conclusion: The use of HT and SQ with a load of 60% 1 RM improved the sprint F–V profile components related to the acceleration phase of the sprint in junior tennis players. Using intensity loads of 85% 1 RM is not adequate to increase acute sprint performance in this population. HT presents a higher transferability to sprinting in the first 5 m of sprinting, whereas SQ provides acute improvements in different sprinting phases.
... In addition, Yasuda et al. (53) submitted healthy older adults to a 10-week low-load blood-flowrestriction lower-limb training, which included inclined leg-press exercise performed up to 1258 of hip flexion (this hip angle is similarly obtained with a barbell parallel back squat) and observed an increase of 6% in MRI-assessed gluteus maximus CSA compared with a nontraining control group (22%). Despite considering the differences in the designs among the 3 studies (e.g., concerning exercise selection), taken together, they vaguely indicate that greater hip ROM seems to be preferred for gluteus hypertrophy (2,21,26,53). ...
Article
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The squat is one of the most widely used exercises in resistance-training programs. The aim of the present narrative review was to analyze the effect of the squat on lower-limb muscle hypertrophy. Briefly, the available literature indicates that the squat is an effective exercise for inducing hypertrophy of the quadriceps, mainly the vastii, but also the rectus femoris, although to a reduced magnitude. Multiple lines of evidence suggest little to no hamstring hypertrophy from the back squat. While the gluteus maximus clearly participates mechanically in the back squat, few longitudinal studies exist on the topic. The limited evidence available on this topic suggests deeper squats may be more hypertrophic for the gluteus maximus, and that squat depth beyond 90 degrees of knee flexion may not provide further hypertrophy of the knee flexors. Despite the popularity of the many squat variations, there are still controversies surrounding their hypertrophic potential for lower-limb musculature. Further studies are needed to investigate the hypertrophic effects of different squat variations, as well as differences in hypertrophy due to squat depth, stance, barbell position, and different squat apparatuses/machines.
... This brought the suggestion that one can chose between SJ and MJ based on personal preferences and practical aspects, without any negative impact on the results obtained from the intervention. Although less evidence is available for the lower body, studies about muscle activation [25,26], muscle strength [18], and hypertrophy [27] showed the same trends for thighs and hip muscles. However, information for calf muscles is scarce and controversial. ...
Article
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Resistance exercises can be considered to be multi-joint (MJ) or single-joint (SJ) in nature. Many strength coaches, trainers, and trainees believe that adding SJ exercises to a resistance training (RT) program may be required to optimize muscular size and strength. However, given that lack of time is a frequently cited barrier to exercise adoption, the time commitment resulting from these recommendations may not be convenient for many people. Therefore, it is important to find strategies that reduce the time commitment without negatively affecting results. The aim of this review was to analyze and discuss the present body of literature considering the acute responses to and long-term adaptations resulting from SJ and MJ exercise selection. Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they were experimental studies comparing the effects of MJ, SJ, or MJ ? SJ on dependent variables; studies were excluded if they were reviews or abstracts only, if they involved clinical populations or persons with articular or musculoskeletal problems, or if the RT intervention was confounded by other factors. Taking these factors into account, a total of 23 studies were included. For the upper and lower limbs, analysis of surface electromyographic (sEMG) activation suggests that there are no differences between SJ and MJ exercises when comparing the prime movers. However, evidence is contrasting when considering the trunk extensor musculature. Only one study directly compared the effects of MJ and SJ on muscle recovery and the results suggest that SJ exercises resulted in increased muscle fatigue and soreness. Long-term studies comparing increases in muscle size and strength in the upper limbs reported no difference between SJ and MJ exercises and no additional effects when SJ exercises were included in an MJ exercise program. For the lumbar extensors, the studies reviewed tend to support the view that this muscle group may benefit from SJ exercise. People performing RT may not need to include SJ exercises in their program to obtain equivalent results in terms of muscle activation and long-term adaptations such as hypertrophy and strength. SJ exercises may only be necessary to strengthen lumbar extensors and to correct muscular imbalances.
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Our current state of knowledge regarding the load (lighter or heavier) lifted in resistance training programmes that will result in ‘optimal’ strength and hypertrophic adaptations is unclear. Despite this, position stands and recommendations are made based on, we propose, limited evidence to lift heavier weights. Here we discuss the state of evidence on the impact of load and how it, as a single variable, stimulates adaptations to take place and whether evidence for recommending heavier loads is available, well-defined, currently correctly interpreted or has been overlooked. Areas of discussion include electromyography amplitude, in vivo and in vitro methods of measuring hypertrophy, and motor schema and skill acquisition. The present piece clarifies to trainers and trainees the impact of these variables by discussing interpretation of synchronous and sequential motor unit recruitment and revisiting the size principle, poor agreement between whole-muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and biopsy-determined changes in myofibril CSA, and neural adaptations around task specificity. Our opinion is that the practical implications of being able to self-select external load include reducing the need for specific facility memberships, motivating older persons or those who might be less confident using heavy loads, and allowing people to undertake home- or field-based resistance training intervention strategies that might ultimately improve exercise adherence.
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The barbell hip thrust may be an effective exercise for increasing horizontal force production and may thereby enhance performance in athletic movements requiring a horizontal force vector, such as horizontal jumping and sprint running. The ergogenic ability of the squat is well known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of six-week front squat and hip thrust programs in adolescent male athletes. Vertical jump height, horizontal jump distance, 10 m and 20 m sprint times, and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force were among the measured performance variables, in addition to front squat and hip thrust three-repetition maximum (3 RM) strength. Magnitude-based effect-sizes revealed potentially beneficial effects for the front squat in both front squat 3 RM strength and vertical jump height when compared to the hip thrust. No clear benefit for one intervention was observed for horizontal jump performance. Potentially beneficial effects were observed for the hip thrust compared to the front squat in 10 m and 20 m sprint times. The hip thrust was likely superior for improving normalized isometric mid-thigh pull strength, and very likely superior for improving hip thrust 3 RM and isometric mid-thigh pull strength. These results support the force vector theory.
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Front, full, and parallel squats are some of the most popular squat variations. The purpose of this investigation was to compare mean and peak electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the upper gluteus maximus, lower gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis of front, full, and parallel squats. Thirteen healthy women (age = 28.9 ± 5.1 years; height = 164 ± 6.3 cm; body mass = 58.2 ± 6.4 kg) performed ten repetitions of their estimated 10-repetition maximum of each respective variation. There were no significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences between full, front and parallel squats in any of the tested muscles. Given these findings, it can be concluded that the front, full, or parallel squat can be performed for similar levels of EMG activity. However, given the results of previous research, it is recommended that individuals utilize a full range of motion when squatting, assuming full range can be safely achieved, in order to promote more favorable training adaptations. Furthermore, despite requiring lower loads, the front squat may provide a similar training stimulus to the back squat.
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It has been reported that hypertrophy gains is greater in upper body compared to lower body, however, there is no consensus that muscular strength gains are greater in upper body than in lower body. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the strength gains between knee extensors and elbow flexors in response to similar resistance training regimens. Fifty five untrained young women (age: 21.6 ± 2.9 years, weight: 58.3 ± 9.0 kg and height: 163.6 ± 7.5 cm (Mean±SD)) participated in the study as volunteers. Resistance training was performed twice a week for 10 weeks. All subjects performed three sets of 8-12 maximum repetitions for leg press, knee flexion, lat pull down and bench press exercises. Unilateral knee extensors and elbow flexors peak torque (PT) were measured before and after the training period by performing two sets of four repetitions at 60°s-1 , on an isokinetic dynamometer. There were significant increases in PT for both elbow flexors (11.74% [8.0, 17.7], p< 0.05) and knee extensors (11.45% [9.2, 15.3], p< 0.05) with no differences between muscle groups p> 0.05). However, there was no correlation between gains in knee extensors and elbow flexors PT. The analysis of knee extensors PT lead to the formation of two clusters groups: 1) High responders (n=10): 28.29 ± 8.74% and 2) Low-responders (n=37): 7.94 ± 5.95%. Both groups had significant increases in knee extensors PT, however, increases in the high responders were higher than in low responders (p< 0.05).These results suggest that upper-and lower body muscles present similar strength gains after similar resistance training regimens in untrained young women, although individual muscle response may vary in upper and lower body muscles.
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Background: Some authors suggest that single joint (SJ) exercises promote greater muscle hypertrophy because they are easier to be learned and therefore have less reliance on neural factors. On the other hand, some authors recommend an emphasis on multi-joint (MJ) exercises for maximizing muscle strength, assuming that MJ exercises are more effective than SJ execises because they enable a greater magnitude of weight to be lifted. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of MJ vs. SJ exercises on muscle size and strength gains in untrained young men. Patients and Methods: Twenty-nine young men, without prior resistance training experience, were randomly divided into two groups. One group performed (n = 14) only MJ exercises involving the elbow flexors (lat. pull downs), while the other (n = 15) trained the elbow flexors muscles using only SJ exercises (biceps curls). Both groups trained twice a week for a period of ten weeks. The volunteers were evaluated for peak torque of elbow flexors (PT) in an isokinetic dynamometer and for muscle thickness (MT) by ultrasonography. Results: There were significant increases in MT of 6.10% and 5.83% for MJ and SJ, respectively; and there were also significant increases in PT for MJ (10.40%) and SJ (11.87%). However, the results showed no difference between groups pre or post training for MT or PT. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that MJ and SJ exercises are equally effective for promoting increases in upper body muscle strength and size in untrained men. Therefore, the selection between SJ and MJ exercises should be based on individual and practical aspects, such as, equipment availability, movement specificity, individual preferences and time commitment.
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To consider the efficacy of 10 weeks of Romanian deadlift (DL) training in increasing lumbar extension strength compared to isolated lumbar extension (LUMX) training. Comparison of pre- and post-test data for Romanian deadlift 1RM, and lumbar extension torque between and within groups. Male trained subjects (n = 36; (x¯±SD) 24.9 ± 6.5 years; 178.5 ± 5.2 cm; 81.6 ± 10.0 kg). Pre- and post-testing included a Romanian deadlift 1RM and isometric strength tests every 12° through full range of motion on the MedX lumbar extension machine (MedX, Ocala, FL). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni adjustments revealed that 1RM Romanian deadlift significantly increased from pre- to post-test in the DL group (p < 0.008; 143.3 ± 23.4 kg to 166.3 ± 21.9 kg) and the LUMX group (p < 0.008; 135.8 ± 23.1 kg to 146.0 ± 25.5 kg). In contrast, tested functional torque (TFT) significantly increased at 6 out of 7 joint angles (p < 0.008) for the LUMX group only. The control group showed no significant differences pre- to post-test. These data suggest that the Romanian deadlift does not enhance lumbar extension torque. However, performing specific isolated lumbar extension training appears to improve both lumbar extension torque and Romanian deadlift 1RM.
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Training attendance is an important variable for attaining optimal results after a resistance training (RT) program, however, the association of attendance with the gains of muscle strength is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to verify if attendance would affect muscle strength gains in healthy young males. Ninety two young males with no previous RT experience volunteered to participate in the study. RT was performed 2 days a week for 11 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press and knee extensors peak torque (PT) were measured before and after the training period. After the training period, a two step cluster analysis was used to classify the participants in accordance to training attendance, resulting in three groups, defined as high (92 to 100%), intermediate (80 to 91%) and low (60 to 79%) training attendance. According to the results, there were no significant correlations between strength gains and training attendance, however, when attendance groups were compared, the low training attendance group showed lower increases in 1RM bench press (8.8%) than the other two groups (17.6% and 18.0% for high and intermediate attendance, respectively). Although there is not a direct correlation between training attendance and muscle strength gains, it is suggested that a minimum attendance of 80% is necessary to ensure optimal gains in upper body strength.
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Manipulating joint range of motion during squat training may have differential effects on adaptations to strength training with implications for sports and rehabilitation. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of squat training with a short vs. a long range of motion. Male students (n = 17) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of progressive squat training (repetition matched, repetition maximum sets) performed as either a) deep squat (0-120° of knee flexion); n = 8 (DS) or (b) shallow squat (0-60 of knee flexion); n = 9 (SS). Strength (1 RM and isometric strength), jump performance, muscle architecture and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscles, as well as CSA and collagen synthesis in the patellar tendon, were assessed before and after the intervention. The DS group increased 1 RM in both the SS and DS with ~20 ± 3 %, while the SS group achieved a 36 ± 4 % increase in the SS, and 9 ± 2 % in the DS (P < 0.05). However, the main finding was that DS training resulted in superior increases in front thigh muscle CSA (4-7 %) compared to SS training, whereas no differences were observed in patellar tendon CSA. In parallel with the larger increase in front thigh muscle CSA, a superior increase in isometric knee extension strength at 75° (6 ± 2 %) and 105° (8 ± 1 %) knee flexion, and squat-jump performance (15 ± 3 %) were observed in the DS group compared to the SS group. Training deep squats elicited favourable adaptations on knee extensor muscle size and function compared to training shallow squats.
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Comparisons between men and women of time course responses of strength, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and muscle swelling after a resistance training session are still controversial. Therefore, this study examined gender differences in strength loss, muscle thickness (MT), and DOMS between young men and women. Thirty apparently healthy, untrained volunteers (14 women and 16 men) participated in the study protocol. The resistance exercise session consisted of 8 sets at 10 repetition maximum load of the elbow flexor muscles of their dominant arm. Maximum isokinetic peak torque (PT), MT, and DOMS were recorded at baseline (TB), immediately after exercise (T0), and at 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 3 (T3), and 4 (T4) days after exercise. Baseline strength was expressed as 100%. There were no significant differences between the sexes for relative PT loss immediately after exercise (T0 = 74.31 ± 8.26% for men and 76.00 ± 6.31% for women). Also, PT was still significantly less than baseline from T1 to T4 for both genders. In contrast, recovery from PT was longer in women when compared with that in men. Muscle thickness responded similarly to PT in both genders. However, there was no significant difference between genders for DOMS at any time point. The time point that showed the greatest degree of mean soreness was T2 (4.94 ± 2.38 mm for men and 4.45 ± 2.07 mm for women). Our data suggest that after resistance exercise, women and men experience similar immediate strength loss; however they have dissimilar strength recovery across 4 days of recovery. Likewise, both genders experience a different time course of MT response after a traditional resistance exercise protocol. In contrast, men and women develop and dissipate muscle soreness in a similar manner.
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Numerous factors have been identified as potentially increasing the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the female athlete. However, differences between the sexes in lower extremity coordination, particularly hip control, are only minimally understood. There is no difference in kinematic or electromyographic data during the single-legged squat between men and women. Descriptive comparison study. We kinematically and electromyographically analyzed the single-legged squat in 18 intercollegiate athletes (9 male, 9 female). Subjects performed five single-legged squats on their dominant leg, lowering themselves as far as possible and then returning to a standing position without losing balance. Women demonstrated significantly more ankle dorsiflexion, ankle pronation, hip adduction, hip flexion, hip external rotation, and less trunk lateral flexion than men. These factors were associated with a decreased ability of the women to maintain a varus knee position during the squat as compared with the men. Analysis of all eight tested muscles demonstrated that women had greater muscle activation compared with men. When each muscle was analyzed separately, the rectus femoris muscle activation was found to be statistically greater in women in both the area under the linear envelope and maximal activation data. Under a physiologic load in a position commonly assumed in sports, women tend to position their entire lower extremity and activate muscles in a manner that could increase strain on the anterior cruciate ligament.
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Background: The present study's aim was to compare the changes in muscle performance and anthropometric measures in trained women performing RT programs composed only of MJ exercises or programmes that involve the addition of SJ exercises. Methods: Seventeen trained women were randomised to MJ or MJ+SJ. Both groups performed the same MJ exercises following a nonlinear periodisation model for 8 weeks. The only difference was that the MJ+SJ group also performed SJ exercises. The participants were tested for 10 repetition maximum (10 RM), flexed arm circumference, and both biceps and triceps skinfold. Results: Both groups significantly increased 10 RM load for the bench press (12.6% MJ and 9.2% MJ+SJ), triceps (15.6% MJ and 17.9% MJ+SJ), pull down (9.8% MJ and 8.3% MJ+SJ), biceps (14.0% MJ and 13.0% MJ+SJ), leg press (15.2% MJ and 12.8% MJ+SJ) and knee extension (10.2% MJ and 9.1% MJ+SJ). The decreases in triceps (−5.1% MJ and −5.3% MJ+SJ) and biceps (−6.5% MJ and −5.7% MJ+SJ) skinfolds were also significant as were the increases in arm circumference (1.47% MJ and 1.58% MJ+SJ). In all tests there was nothing significantly different between groups. Conclusions: The use of SJ exercises as a complement to a RT programme containing MJ exercises brings no additional benefit to trained women.
Article
The aim of the study was to compare the muscle activation level of the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris and erector spinae in the hip thrust, barbell deadlift and hex bar deadlift; each of which are compound resisted hip-extension exercises. After two familiarization sessions, 13 resistance-trained men performed a 1-RM in all three exercises in one session, in randomized and counterbalanced order. The whole ascending movement (concentric phase), as well as its lower and upper part (whole movement divided in two), were analyzed. The hip thrust induced greater activation of the gluteus maximus compared to the hex bar deadlift in the whole (16%, p=0.025) and the upper part (26%, p=0.015) of the movement. For the whole movement, the biceps femoris was more activated during barbell deadlift compared to both the hex bar deadlift (28%, p<0.001) and hip thrust (20%, p=0.005). In the lower part of the movement, biceps femoris activation was respectively 48% and 26% higher for the barbell deadlift (p<0.001) and hex bar deadlift (p=0.049) compared to hip thrust. Biceps femoris activation in the upper part of the movement was 39% higher for the barbell deadlift compared to the hex bar deadlift (p=0.001) and 34% higher for the hip thrust compared to the hex bar deadlift (p=0.002). No differences were displayed for erector spinae activation (p=0.312-0.859). In conclusion, the barbell deadlift was clearly superior in activating the biceps femoris compared to the hex bar deadlift and hip thrust, whereas the hip thrust provided the highest gluteus maximus activation.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine whether inter- and intramuscular differences in hypertrophy induced by resistance training correspond to differences in muscle activation during the first training session. Eleven young men completed 12 weeks of training intervention for knee extension. Before and after the intervention, T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were recorded to determine the volume and anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA) along the length of the individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris. The T2-weighted MR images were also acquired before and immediately after the first training session. The T2 was calculated for each pixel within the quadriceps femoris, from which the muscle activation was evaluated as %activated volume and area. The results showed that the %activated volume after the first training session was significantly higher in the vastus intermedius than the vastus medialis. However, the relative change in muscle volume after the training intervention was significantly greater in the rectus femoris than the vasti muscles (vastus lateralis, intermedius and medialis). Within the rectus femoris, both the %activated area and relative increase in CSA were significantly greater in the distal region than the proximal region. In contrast, the %activated area and relative increase in CSA of the vasti were nearly uniform along each muscle. These results suggest that the muscle activation during the first training session is associated with the intramuscular difference in hypertrophy induced by training intervention, but not with the intermuscular difference.
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Objectifs Étudier les effets du volume d’entraînement en résistance sur les adaptations des différents groupements musculaires chez des jeunes gens non-entraînés. Équipements et méthodes Les volontaires ont été répartis aléatoirement en deux groupes : (1) trois séries d’extension du genou et une unique série de flexion du coude (3G-1C, n = 11), ou (2) une unique série d’extension du genou et trois séries de flexion du coude (1G-3C ; n = 13). Les volontaires ont été entraînés deux jours par semaine pendant 12 semaines. Le pic du torque (PT) a été mesuré à 60° s−1. L’épaisseur musculaire (EM) a été mesurée par échographie. Résultats L’EM des fléchisseurs du coude a augmenté de manière significative pour les deux groupes (7,2 % pour 3G-1C et 5,9 % pour 1G-3C), tandis que les changements dans les EM des quadriceps ne sont pas significatifs pour les deux groupes (2,5 % pour 3G-1C et 2,9 % pour 1G-3C). Les augmentations de PT des fléchisseurs du coude ont été de 11,2 % pour 3G-1C et 12,5 % pour 1G-3C (p < 0,05 pour les deux). Les changements des PT des extenseurs du genou ont été significatifs pour 3G-1C (10,9 %, p < 0,05) mais pas pour 1G-3C (5,1 %, p > 0,05). Conclusion Les protocoles d’entraînement avec des séries simples peuvent être suffisants pour augmenter la force et l’EM des fléchisseurs du coude et la force musculaire des extenseurs du genou chez les personnes non-entraînées. Par ailleurs, aucune des stimulations de l’entraînement (une ou trois séries) n’a été suffisante pour améliorer l’EM des extenseurs du genou.
Article
The purpose of the present study was to compare the changes in muscle strength in nontrained young males performing resistance training under different supervision ratios. One hundred twenty-four young men were randomly assigned to groups trained under a high (HS, 1:5 coach to athlete ratio) or low (LS, 1:25) supervision ratio. Both groups performed identical resistance training programs. Subjects were tested for maximum bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and knee extensor torque before and after 11 weeks of training. According to the results, only HS lead to a significant increase (11.8%) in knee extensor torque. Both groups significantly increased bench press 1RM load; the increases were 10.22% for LS and 15.9% for HS. The results revealed significant differences between groups for changes in knee extensor torque and 1RM bench press, with higher values for the HS group. There were no differences between groups for the increases in bench press and leg press work volume or training attendance. The proportion of subjects training with maximum intensity was higher in HS for both bench press and leg press exercises. In addition, the distribution of subjects training with maximal intensity was higher for the bench press than for the leg press exercise in both groups. The primary findings of the present study are that the strength gains for both lower- and upper-body muscles are greater in subjects training under higher supervision ratios, and this is probably because of higher exercise intensity. These results confirm the importance of direct supervision during resistance training.
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises. This study also sought to assess differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps muscle activation ratios and gender differences therein. A randomized repeated measures design was used to compare six resistance training exercises that are commonly believed to train the hamstrings, including the squat, seated leg curl, stiff leg dead lift, single leg stiff leg dead lift, good morning, and Russian curl. Subjects included 34 college athletes. Outcome measures included the biceps femoris (H) and rectus femoris (Q) electromyography (EMG) and the H-to-Q EMG ratio, for each exercise. Main effects were found for the H (P < 0.001) and Q (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis identified the specific differences between exercises. In addition, main effects were found for the H-to-Q ratio when analyzed for all subjects (P < 0.001). Further analysis revealed that women achieved between 53.9 to 89.5% of the H-to-Q activation ratios of men, for the exercises assessed. In a separate analysis of strength matched women and men, women achieved between 35.9 to 76.0% of the H-to-Q ratios of men, for these exercises. Hamstring resistance training exercises offer differing degrees of H and Q activation and ratios. Women compared with men, are less able to activate the hamstrings and/or more able to activate the quadriceps. Women may require disproportionately greater training for the hamstrings compared with the quadriceps.
Article
It has been shown that eccentric actions at a long muscle length result in a larger decrease in force and more muscle tenderness compared with those at a short muscle length. To further investigate the effect of elbow joint angle on the development of muscle damage, this study compared two maximal eccentric exercise regimens in which the starting position of the action was different, but the range of movement was the same. One arm of 10 male students performed 24 maximal eccentric actions of the elbow flexors at the elbow joint angle from 0.87 to 2.27 rad (50-130 degrees: S condition) and the other arm at the elbow joint angle from 1.74 to 3.14 rad (100-180 degrees: L condition). Maximal isometric force, range of motion, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity, upper arm circumference, and B-mode ultrasound pictures of the elbow flexors (US) were measured before and for 5 d postexercise in both conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the transverse scans of the upper arm was taken at 4 d after exercise. All measures changed significantly (P < 0.01) after exercise for both conditions; however, significantly (P < 0.01) larger changes in the measures were found in the L condition compared with the S condition. MRI and US displayed that only the brachialis was damaged for the S condition but the biceps brachii was also damaged for the L condition. The greater development of muscle damage in the L condition compared with the S condition is likely to be associated with the elbow flexors muscles affected by the exercise.
Article
The purposes of this study were 1) to evaluate gender differences in back extensor endurance capacity during isometric and isotonic muscular contractions, 2) to determine the relation between absolute load and endurance time, and 3) to compare men [n = 10, age 22.4 +/- 0.69 (SE) yr] and women (n = 10, age 21.7 +/- 1.07 yr) in terms of neuromuscular activation patterns and median frequency (MF) shifts in the electromyogram (EMG) power spectrum of the lumbar and hip extensor muscles during fatiguing submaximal isometric trunk extension exercise. Subjects performed isotonic and isometric trunk extension exercise to muscular failure at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction force. Women exhibited a longer endurance time than men during the isometric task (146.0 +/- 10.9 vs. 105.4 +/- 7.9 s), but there was no difference in endurance performance during the isotonic exercise (24.3 +/- 3.4 vs. 24.0 +/- 2.8 repetitions). Absolute load was significantly related to isometric endurance time in the pooled sample (R(2) = 0.34) but not when men and women were analyzed separately (R(2) = 0.05 and 0.04, respectively). EMG data showed no differences in neuromuscular activation patterns; however, gender differences in MF shifts were observed. Women demonstrated a similar fatigability in the biceps femoris and lumbar extensors, whereas in men, the fatigability was more pronounced in the lumbar musculature than in the biceps femoris. Additionally, the MF of the lumbar extensors demonstrated a greater association with endurance time in men than in women (R(2) = 0.45 vs. 0.19). These findings suggest that gender differences in muscle fatigue are influenced by muscle contraction type and frequency shifts in the EMG signal but not by alterations in the synergistic activation patterns.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of isometric training at different joint angles on the muscle size and function of the human muscle-tendon complex in vivo. Furthermore, we tried to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in angle specificity after isometric training from the aspect of neuromuscular adaptation and the changes in the properties of the muscle-tendon complex. Nine males completed 12-week unilateral training program (70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) x 15 s x six sets) on the knee extensors at 50 degrees (shorter muscle length: ST) and 100 degrees (longer muscle length: LT). The internal muscle force (mechanical stress) is higher at 100 degrees than at 50 degrees because of the difference in the moment arm length, although there were no difference in the relative torque level, contraction and relaxation times, and repetition between ST and LT. Before and after training, isometric strength at eight angles and muscle volume were determined. Tendon elongation of knee extensors was measured by ultrasonography. There was no significant difference in the rate of increment of muscle volume between the protocols. Tendon stiffness increased significantly for LT, but not for ST. Although significant gain was limited to angles at or near the training angle for ST, increases in MVC at all angles were found for LT. These results suggest that only mechanical stress (internal muscle force imposed on muscle and tendon) contributes to adaptation in the tendon stiffness, although metabolic (relative torque level, etc.) and mechanical stress relate to muscle hypertrophy. Furthermore, increment of tendon stiffness for LT might contribute to increase torque output at smaller angles other than the training angle.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine if women are quadriceps dominant and men are hamstring dominant during the performance of a partial single-leg squat (SLS) on both a stable and labile ground surface against body weight resistance. Thirty healthy participants (15 men and 15 women) performed an SLS on both a stable surface and a 6.4-cm-thick vinyl pad. Surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles during the extension phase of the SLS. Statistical analysis revealed that women produced 14% more EMG activity (p = 0.04) in their quadriceps than the men during the SLS on a stable surface, whereas the men generated 18% more EMG activity (p = 0.04) in their hamstrings than the women during the SLS on a labile surface. Additionally, we found a statistically significant sex effect (p = 0.048) for the hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) EMG ratio, which was 2.25 and 0.62, respectively, for men and women on the stable surface and 2.52 and 0.71, respectively, on the labile surface. We concluded that women are quadriceps dominant and men are hamstring dominant during the performance of SLS against body weight resistance on either a stable or labile surface condition. During an SLS, men showed an H/Q ratio approximately 3.5 times larger than their female counterparts, suggesting that men activate their hamstrings more effectively than women during an SLS. According to our data, the SLS may not be an ideal exercise for activating the hamstring muscles in women without additional neuromuscular training techniques, because women are quadriceps dominant during the SLS.
American College of Sports Medicine Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults
American College of Sports Medicine Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009; 41: 687-708
The effects of adding single-joint exercises to a multi-joint exercise resistance training program on upper body muscle strength and size in trained men
  • H S De França
  • Pan Branco
  • Guedes Junior
de França HS, Branco PAN, Guedes Junior DP et al. The effects of adding single-joint exercises to a multi-joint exercise resistance training program on upper body muscle strength and size in trained men. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2015; 40: 822-826
Impact of range of motion during ecologically valid resistance training protocols on muscle size, subcutaneous fat, and strength
  • G Mcmahon
  • C Morse
  • A Burden
McMahon G, Morse C, Burden A et al. Impact of range of motion during ecologically valid resistance training protocols on muscle size, subcutaneous fat, and strength. J Strength Cond Res 2014; 28: 245-255