Conference Paper

Identification of performance limitations of sensing technologies for automated driving

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... They can cause errors in the world model if corresponding functional insufficiencies in the perception subsystem exist [21]. Once triggering events for the perception subsystem have been identified (see Refs. [8,40]) as part of the so-called sensor verification strategy [8], they can also serve as test scenarios for it. Furthermore, Ref. [8] lists non-comprehensive example aspects to consider in verification testing of the perception subsystem, but leaves open the concrete realization of those tests. ...
... A specific identification of triggering events according to ISO/PAS 21448 is provided in Ref. [40] by means of a hazard and operability study (HAZOP). The approach is applied to the used sensor modalities camera and lidar as part of an extended automated emergency braking system. ...
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Full-text available
Safety assurance of automated driving systems must consider uncertain environment perception. This paper reviews literature addressing how perception testing is realized as part of safety assurance. The paper focuses on testing for verification and validation purposes at the interface between perception and planning, and structures the analysis along the three axes (1) test criteria and metrics, (2) test scenarios, and (3) reference data. Furthermore, the analyzed literature includes related safety standards, safety-independent perception algorithm benchmarking, and sensor modeling. It is found that the realization of safety-oriented perception testing remains an open issue since challenges concerning the three testing axes and their interdependencies currently do not appear to be sufficiently solved.
... Once triggering events for the perception subsystem have been identified (see e.g. [40], [7, Annex F]) as part of the so-called sensor verification strategy [7, Sub-Clause 10.2], they can also serve as test scenarios for it. Furthermore, [7, Annex D] lists non-comprehensive example aspects to consider in verification testing of the perception subsystem, but leaves open the concrete realization of those tests. ...
... A specific identification of triggering events according to ISO/PAS 21448 is provided in [40] by means of a hazard and operability study (HAZOP). The approach is applied to the used sensor modalities camera and lidar as part of an extended automated emergency braking system. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Safety assurance of automated driving systems must consider uncertain environment perception. This paper reviews literature addressing how perception testing is realized as part of safety assurance. We focus on testing for verification and validation purposes at the interface between perception and planning, and structure our analysis along the three axes 1) test criteria and metrics, 2) test scenarios, and 3) reference data. Furthermore, the analyzed literature includes related safety standards, safety-independent perception algorithm benchmarking, and sensor modeling. We find that the realization of safety-aware perception testing remains an open issue since challenges concerning the three testing axes and their interdependencies currently do not appear to be sufficiently solved.
... Software applications run with different criticality such as scheduling, sharing computation, communication delays, communication links, and communication resources. These issues become challenges at an operating system (OS) level in today's multicore environments [8,9]. ...
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Over the decades, autonomous vehicles have been developed and qualified using variant single-core architectures. With the evolutionary trend of safety critical applications, innovative safety design methodologies have raised present requirements constraints and limitations to mitigate such design complexity deviations. The main objectives of this work are to investigate, evaluate and introduce an efficient safety-critical multi-cache multicore architecture, that is fully compliant with methods and principles of ISO 26262. Moreover, this paper presents new safety design choices applied to timing monitoring, temporal protection, runtime monitoring and services protection to overcome multicore processor challenges in runtime that eventually decay the worst case execution time and the interconnections (symmetric and asymmetric processors, critical timing, data coherency and synchronization predictability, core interconnects, etc.), as well as to tolerate real-time interference faults.
... Software applications run with different criticality such as: scheduling, sharing computation, concurrent resource sharing, memory inter-core communication, communication delays, communication links, and communication resources. These issues become challenges at an operating system (OS) level in today's multicore architectures [12,13]. Figure 1. ...
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... [164] can be seen as a starting point for verifying the perception system with barrier certificates. Even in scenario-based testing, there are not many publications that focus particularly on the evaluation of perception [171,172]. However, the perception is a very important module of AVs [173]. ...
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When will automated vehicles come onto the market? This question has puzzled the automotive industry and society for years. The technology and its implementation have made rapid progress over the last decade, but the challenge of how to prove the safety of these systems has not yet been solved. Since a market launch without proof of safety would neither be accepted by society nor by legislators, much time and many resources have been invested into safety assessment in recent years in order to develop new approaches for an efficient assessment. This paper therefore provides an overview of various approaches, and gives a comprehensive survey of the so-called scenario-based approach. The scenario-based approach is a promising method, in which individual traffic situations are typically tested by means of virtual simulation. Since an infinite number of different scenarios can theoretically occur in real-world traffic, even the scenario-based approach leaves the question unanswered as to how to break these down into a finite set of scenarios, and find those which are representative in order to render testing more manageable. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of related safety-assessment publications that deal precisely with this question. Therefore, this paper develops a novel taxonomy for the scenario-based approach, and classifies all literature sources. Based on this, the existing methods will be compared with each other and, as one conclusion, the alternative concept of formal verification will be combined with the scenario-based approach. Finally, future research priorities are derived.
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