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This work aims to determine the relationship between the emotional development variables and later adaptation in society for preschoolers living in Omdurman, Sudan. The secondary objective is to study the socio-emotional problems the 4-year-old boys and girls coming from families with different structure deal with. The article is based on a study that involved 300 children aged 4–5 years, attending Omdurman twon kindergartens. The children’s emotion knowledge was measured through the Emotion Matching Task and the social competence was measured using the shortened version of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation scale, introduced by LaFreniere. The research results may be utilized for the creation of emotional development programmes for Sudan kindergartens. These findings allow preventing the development of abnormal behavioural tendencies, which are linked to the emotional intelligence, social adaptation, and anxiety in preschoolers.
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Emotional development in preschoolers and socialization
Suad Abdalkareem Alwaely
, Nagwa Babiker Abdalla Yousif
and Alexey Mikhaylov
Department of Preparation of Arabic language teacher and Islamic education, Al Ain University, Abu Dhabi, United
Arab Emirates;
Department of Sociology, College of Humanities and Sciences, Ajman University, Ajman, United Arab
Research Center of Monetary Relations, Financial University under the Government of the Russian
Federation, Moscow, Russia
This work aims to determine the relationship between the emotional
development variables and later adaptation in society for preschoolers
living in Omdurman, Sudan. The secondary objective is to study the
socio-emotional problems the 4-year-old boys and girls coming from
families with dierent structure deal with. The article is based on a study
that involved 300 children aged 45 years, attending Omdurman twon
kindergartens. The childrens emotion knowledge was measured
through the Emotion Matching Task and the social competence was
measured using the shortened version of the Social Competence and
Behavior Evaluation scale, introduced by LaFreniere. The research results
may be utilized for the creation of emotional development programmes
for Sudan kindergartens. These ndings allow preventing the
development of abnormal behavioural tendencies, which are linked to
the emotional intelligence, social adaptation, and anxiety in preschoolers.
Received 30 November 2019
Accepted 14 January 2020
Emotions; preschool age;
social competence; anxiety;
socio-emotional problems;
The emotional development of preschool children is a subject of strong debate among scientists
(Denham, Bassett, Zinsser, & Wyatt, 2014; Rademacher & Koglin, 2019). Child development specialists
from various elds (e.g. education, medicine, child welfare) recognize the crucial role of positive social
and emotional development in the childs welfare (Darling-Churchill & Lippman, 2016; Isakson,
Higgins, Davidson, & Cooper, 2009).
Emotional knowledge and emotional self-regulation both aect the ability of preschool children to
adapt to the social standards of behaviour (Di Maggio, Zappulla, Pace, & Izard, 2016). A child is
immersed into the system of relations from a very early age in and through which (s)he acquires
emotional experience and forms ones own pattern of behaviour (Kiernan & Huerta, 2008). The
ability to understand the very concept of emotions, or emotional knowledge, represents a multicom-
ponent construct, which embraces (1) the childrens knowledge about the nature of emotions and
factors inuencing the presence of positivity/negativity resonance; and (2) the childrens realization
of their ability to keep ones own emotions under control (Ewing, Herres, Dilks, Rahim, & Trentacosta,
2019; Molina et al., 2014). The studies reveal a positive connection between self-regulation and devel-
opmental abilities such as emotional and social competencies (van der Pol et al., 2016). You can start
building a foundation for emotional development in children when they hit the age of four. At this
age, they learn the essential and begin to dene emotions (Powell & Dunlap, 2009). This is the stage
known as the initiative vs guilt stage, according to the Ericksons 8 Stages of Psychosocial Develop-
ment, at which the preschooler learns how to take the initiative, make decisions independently,
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CONTACT Nagwa Abdalla Yousif Babiker ϔχύϝχϟмрЮύϓχϏϒͨωϕϓͥϔχύϝχψόχϚϏϓχЮύϓχϏϒͨωϕϓ
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and be in charge of something (McLeod & Erikson, 2008). Preschoolers (34 years old) begin to build
emotional contacts outside the family by entering in friendship relations. They are learning the dier-
ence between socially acceptable and unacceptable behaviour and gain specic skills like persever-
ance when completing dicult tasks; endurance (i.e. paying attention for longer periods of time;
expressing emotions in a socially acceptable manner; and resolving social issues independently
(Hemmeter, Ostrosky, & Fox, 2006; Jones, Greenberg, & Crowley, 2015)). Emotional self-regulation
is a component of emotional development, which allows for the promotion of specic abilities.
Among these, self-distancing, empathy, and sympathy. For instance, as the child copes better with
ones own emotions, (s)he enters into an empathic state by passing three distinct psychological
stages: mentalizing; aect matching; and empathic motivation (Yi, Gentzler, Ramsey, & Root, 2016).
The emotional development of a 34 year-old is characterized by the expression of aection for
family members and a friendly attitude towards others. An emphatic child is capable of understand-
ing the feelings of another and emotively respond to them (e.g. console and help a peer in the
moment of emotional suering). Such a child may be ashamed that his/her deeds are badbut
this and abovementioned feelings do not last long (Johnson, Hawes, Eisenberg, Kohlho,&
Dudeney, 2017).
Empirical evidence indicates that the childparent relationships in Russa adoptive and birth
families have similarities in the degree of parental care for children, and dierences in the quality
of positive emotions, their direction and parenting empathy channels (Yashkova, Buyanova, Sukhar-
eva, & Alaeva, 2019).
Today, children are emotionally immature and this sets a challenge. The childs best friends these
days are digital gadgets and TV, and their favourite ways to spend time are to watch animation
movies and to play computer games. The extended screen time may result in little to zero communi-
cation with adults and peers in the future. In so far as it concerns the preschoolersleisure activity, one
should keep in mind that children may become insensitive and incapable of controlling onesown
emotions at an early age (Poletaeva & Merzlyakova, 2018; Watanabe et al., 2019). Alongside the per-
sonal characteristics of preschoolers, a bunch of external factors such as family relations, the teachers
behaviour, and the country in which they live inuence the socioemotional development (Breaux,
Harvey, & Lugo-Candelas, 2016). In recent studies, it was shown that children who do not live with
both parents together deal with more problems compared to those who live in full families. Addition-
ally, when stratifying by custody arrangement, girls in rural areas living alternately with each parent
had more problems compared to those in urban areas (Eurenius et al., 2019).
The problem of making preschoolers tap into the social norms remains one of the leading ones in
personality development. The accumulation of social experience accomplished by the child indepen-
dently and under the guidance of adults contributes to the exploitation of potential. It also allows for
the development of school readiness skills and lifetime abilities necessary to cope with the adult life.
Hence, the preschool years represent a period during which the foundations for childs social maturity
(competence) are laid down (Garner & Parker, 2018). This preconditions his/her development path
and facilitates the adaptation eorts (Zakharova, 2011). Social development is a complex process
during which the child appropriates the objectively set norms of behaviour and constantly discovers
oneself as a social subject (Garner & Estep, 2001).
For preschoolers, the main mechanisms of socialization are social orientation (time spend in
contact with a social partner), reex regulation, mimicry/imitation tasks, and normative regulation
(refers to the set of social rules that a child must follow). To ensure successful socialization,
parents must take an active part in this process, adjusting the behaviour of their child (van der Pol
et al., 2015).
Social experience is one of the leading mechanisms in socialization and it plays a signicant role in
the emotional and cognitive development. It also serves as a major factor inuencing the formation
of values, attitudes, and a behavioural style (Warren & Stifter, 2008).
Between 2010 and 2015, the United Arab Emirates has been putting into action the Friendship
Program, designed to provide social skills training to schoolchildren in the community that are
referred to it. Such programmes address psychosocial concerns reported by them and their families
that are typical to those experienced in a Western culture such as having few or no friends, shyness
and/or anxiety, dealing with bullying, diculty with peer or teacher relationships, and various other
issues of simply not tting in. Families in UAE are generally enthusiastic about enrolling their chil-
dren in this social skills programme, as any potential stigma in attending a therapy groupis mini-
mized (including changing the marketed name to Friendship Groupinstead of Social Skills Group
Therapy(Rios-Habib, 2015)).
In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), preschool institutions should focus on the socio-emotional
component of development more in order to prepare children for school. The social-emotional com-
petence is a crucial marker of school readiness. As of late, the UAE is going through changes in the
preschool education (Al-Momani, Ihmeideh, & Momani, 2008). Parents are increasingly taking active
participation in the upbringing of children. The supportive eorts vary though, depending on the
educational background, curriculum complexity, and the school, which their children attend
(Mahmoud, 2018). The UAE recognizes the role of moral education in helping young children
develop their own values and beliefs and lays the groundwork for a sustainable society based on
respect and tolerance.
In Sudan, there is large group of children that should be in pre-primary school but are not. Sudan
has both the largest number and the highest out-of-school children rate in the Middle East and North
Africa region. The 2010 Education Management Information System data indicates that a total of 3
million children between the ages 513 are out of school in Sudan. This comprises 490,673 children
of pre-primary age (5 years), (UNICEF, 2015). Exclusion of pre-primary children from access to quality
education was based on their socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity, language, disability and
funding allocations.
In Sudanese kindergartens, there are children from three years and nine months to ve years and
ten months. Besides, the number of children in a kindergarten classroom could range from ve to
sixty children. In addition, one teacher can be responsible for six and up to thirty-eight children.
From an educators point of view, one might argue that it is a dicult task for any teacher to
provide developmentally appropriate teaching for that wide range of age and number of children.
Pre-primary is ocially recognized as a subsystem of the general education system that must full
the following criteria:
.be oered for two years for children aged 35 years;
.ensure that children are ready for primary school;
.provide quality learning opportunities;
.be widely available;
.provide two classrooms in each public primary school;
.be suciently nanced by the government (Habib, 2005).
In order to teach in pre-primary school, a teacher must have a secondary school certicate or
diploma and teaching qualication from a recognized teacher training institute (Ministry of
General Education and Instruction, 2012). Policy requires that every pre-primary school should be
attached to a primary school (with some physical separation between the two), have a secure play-
ground equipped with outdoor play equipment, and that the distance to pre-primary schools should
not exceed one kilometre. Further, the teacher to learner ratio should be 1:20, and pre-primary
schools should conduct regular assessments of student learning outcomes to guide grading and pro-
motion. There are currently seven learning areas (subjects) in the pre-primary curriculum including:
language activities, creative activities, mathematics activities, outdoor and physical activities, musical
activities, environmental, personal and social activities and religious education activities (Saima,
This work aims to determine the relationship between the emotional development variables and
later adaptation in society for preschoolers living in the Omdurman, Sudan, having dierent gender,
age, and family structure of households.
To achieve the research objectives, the following tasks were set:
(1) Measure the emotion knowledge in children.
(2) Explore the childrens social adaptation.
(3) Identify if these children deal with socio-emotional problems.
(4) Determine the psychometric characteristics of preschool children.
The childrens emotion knowledge is expected to be positively related to emotional self-regulation
and, consequently, to social adaptation.
The study involved 300 children, 142 boys and 158 girls, at the age of four (N= 199) to ve (N= 111),
recruited from two state kindergartens in Omdurman, Sudan. The mean age of this group was 4.36;
SD, 0.76. Ninety-six children were excluded from the study due to a missing parental consent. Of
these 300 children, 97 were raised in single-parent households (51 boys and 46 girls).
Before the beginning of the study, parents and teachers were invited to a preliminary meeting
with the researchers at which they were informed about the research goals and methods. Demo-
graphic information was obtained through a short list of questions attached to the said form. The
pre-school director and the kindergarten teachers were assisting throughout the course of the
study. None of the parents was against the participation of their child in the study and everyone com-
pleted the informed consent form)
The emotion knowledge testing
To measure the emotion knowledge (EK) of each child individually, an Emotion Matching Task (EMT)
was performed, as suggested in (Di Maggio et al., 2016; Izard, Haskins, Schultz, Trentacosta, & King,
2003) and translated and adapted for Arab children. This measure allows evaluating the childs
ability to recognize happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and surprise. The EMT consists of four parts:
(1) emotion expression matching; (2) emotion situation knowledge; (3) expressive EK; and (4) recep-
tive EK. It allows for the overall assessment of EK as well as the assessment of individual EK com-
ponents. Each EMT part consists of 12 items, scoring 0 or 1 so that the overall score can vary
between 0 and 12. Higher score indicates better EK. The composite ENT score (48 tops) can be
obtained by summing the four separate scores.
Social competence
To measure the social competence of children, a 30-item version of the Social Competence and Behavior
Evaluation (SCBE-30) Scale (LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996) was used with Arabic translation. Teachers were
asked to ll out the SCBE-30 questionnaire, which was composed of three factors, among which social com-
petence (pro-social behaviour), anxiety-withdrawal (internalizing behaviour), and anger-aggression (exter-
nalizing behaviour). Items were rated on a 6-point Likert-type scale, where 1 wasnever,and 6 was always.
Social-emotional problems of children aged 4253 months
The socio-emotional screening was performed using the ASQ:SE questionnaire, developed by
Squires, Bricker, Heo, and Twombly (2002), namely the adapted Arabic version of A-ASQ-3 Squires
et al. (2018)Q5
. Studies have shown that A-ASQ-3 has sucient reliability (Charafeddine et al., 2019). All
items on the A-ASQ-3 were reviewed and discussed with a child psychologist, a pediatric occu-
pational therapist, and an early child education expert. Items that were found to be culturally sensi-
tive were modied; for example, the item shopping cartwas removed and replaced by other toys on
For this study, children at the age between 42 and 53 months were selected, 91 boys and 105 girls
(total, 196 subjects). The questionnaire consists of 36 items. Out of these, 33 items are divided into the
following psychological domains: self-regulation, compliance, adaptive functioning, autonomy,
aect, communication and interaction (Squires et al, 2018). For 33 items, the parent indicated on a
three-point Likert scale how they perceived their childs behaviour. This leads to a total score of 0
495 points. If the score was higher than 70, then the child was considered as one that has social
and emotional problems (Squires et al., 2018). The ASQ:SE Users Guide was followed when calculat-
ing the total mean score for all children. For each item, the distribution of responses was calculated,
separately for boys and for girls.
Data processing
Data obtained during the study were analysed using the cross-sectional descriptive and comparative
statistical methods. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to explore the relationship between
age, EK, and socio-emotional problems. The Fisher t-test was used to analysedierences between
variables. For this study, the signicance level was set 0.05 and the corresponding condence
level was 95%. Data was analysed using the Statsoft Statistica version 6.0 and the SPSS Statistics
version 10.
Translation and back-translation of instruments
At the rst stage of the research process translation of the SCBE-30, an Emotion Matching Task and
back-translation for maintaining conceptual equivalence was done. The original English versions of
both instruments were translated into Arabic by the rst author. The back-translation was done by
a native speaker of English and uent in Arabic. Independent back-translations were compared
with the original to identify any items that might not be comparable. These items (11%) were dis-
cussed by a team of bilinguals in order to resolve any translation problems. As a nal step, these
items were resubmitted to an independent back-translation until all problems were resolved.
Special attention was focused on culturally sensitive items; in addition, the perceived necessary
modications were made after reaching a consensus.
Recruits in the study are representatives of urban population only. In addition, we did not take into
account certain dierences between children such as race and social status. Scale of SCBE-30 was not
adapted for Arab children.
Table 1 shows the means and standard deviations for EMT total and SCBE-30 subscales in groups
divided by gender, age, and custody arrangements.
The EK correlated signicantly with gender (t= 1.45; p< 0.001) and age (t= 2.02, p< 0.001) vari-
ables. The gender had a signicant eect on both externalizing (t= 0.2, p< 0.05) and pro-social (t
= 0.18, p< 0.05) behaviour, with boys showing higher scores on anger-aggression and lower on
social competence. A signicant eect of age was found (t= 0.06, p< 0.001). Hence, 4-year-old chil-
dren are less emotionally and pro-socially competent compared to older children.
No statistically signicant eects of gender were found on the measure of internalizing behaviour
(t= 0.38, p< 0.001) but such an eect of age was clearly observed. Older children demonstrated
higher scores on anxiety-withdrawal (p< 0.001) (Table 1).
Children in nuclear families had signicantly higher EMT total (t= 1.45, p< 0.05) and a higher level
of social competence. The analysis revealed an indirect connection between EK and pro-social behav-
iour (95% CI = 0.020.05).
Using the correlation analysis, we studied the relationship between the mean age, the EK measure,
and SCBE-30 subscales. The analysis showed that EK is positively associated with social competence
(Table 2) and negatively with the measure of internalizing behaviour. Age is positively correlated with
EK and social competence. A negative correlation was found between social competence and the
anxiety-withdrawal subscale, between age and the measure of internalizing behaviour.
Table 3 provides details regarding the parent-reported social and emotional problems of the 4-
year-old children. The ASQ:SE total score had a mean of 37.7 ± 19.4. Boys had a total mean score
of 35.2 with the range of 0225 (SD, 19.1) and girls had a total mean score of 27.8 with the range
of 0200 (SD, 16.6; p< 0.001). Thirteen percent of children (n= 26) had a value above the rec-
ommended cut-o(70 points). Moreover, boys had more social-emotional problems (14.1%) than
girls (6.1%; p< 0.005).
Boys had a signicantly higher mean total score for 20 out of 33 items (55%). This result indicates a
greater number of socio-emotional problems (Table 3). Girls scored highest on self-regulation (p<
0.041). The highest scores were obtained in categories communication and aect.
Studies show that emotional development and socialization problems of preschoolers are closely
related to the family situation. For instance, more socio-emotional problems were found in children
living with one parent (Table 4).
To conclude this section, we will indicate that socio-emotional problems in 4-year-olds are posi-
tively correlated with the EK measure (r= 0.58).
This study showed that childrens emotion knowledge positively aects their social adaptation. Note
that the childs age has an impact on his/her emotional development. For instance, the child receives
Table 1. Distribution of mean scores (SD) in EMT and SCBE-30 for age, sex, and family structure.
Emotion knowledgеSocial competence Anger-aggression Anxiety-withdrawal
Boys М(SD) 40.2 (6.26) 3.74(0.92) 2.0(0.87) 3.01(0.99)
Girls М(SD) 42.3(6.46) 3.92(0.95) 1.76 (0.84) 2.99 (0.99)
Age (years)
4М(SD) 31.2(5.63) 3.86 (0.87) 1.83(0.75) 1.88 (0.78)
5М(SD) 36.1(5.62) 3.94(1.1) 1.74(0.76) 2.22 (0.65)
Family Structure
Nuclear М(SD) 37.5(6.16) 3.75(0.96) 1.24(0.65) 2.22(0.78)
Single-Parent М(SD) 35.5(6.26) 3.34(1.01) 1.44(0.45) 2.67(0.88)
Table 2. Intercorrelations between EK measure and SCBE-30 subscales.
Emotion knowledgеSocial competence Anger-aggression Anxiety-withdrawal
Age 0.44* 0.24 0.18 0.1
Emotion Knowledgе0.40** 0.12 0.4
Social Competence 0.86*** 0.62***
Anger-Aggression 0.34
*p< 0. 05.
**p< 0.005.
***p< .001.
emotion knowledge that is more conscious at the age of ve. The study shows that 11% of subjects
had parent-reported socio-emotional problems. The gender patterns in emotional development were
established, with girls being more socially competent and adaptable than boys. On the other hand,
boys had two times more socio-emotional problems compared to girls. Parents who did not live
together reported more social and emotional problems in their children than those living together
(Jee et al., 2010). The study revealed that the emotional state of preschoolers aects their communi-
cation with peers. The emotional development of preschool-age children occurs through situational
communication and peer-peer interaction experience (Scrimgeour, Davis, & Buss, 2016). In children
with emotional disorders (emotional distress), negative emotions such as fear, grief, anger, shame,
and disgust prevail. Similar results were obtained in this study. They have increased anxiety and
feel positive emotions on rare occasions. We have shown that emotional knowledge is negatively cor-
related with anger and anxiety. Therefore, special attention must be paid to the psychological and
pedagogical conditions in the preschool institutions (Semenova, 2019). Previous researchers have
conceptualized the relationship between emotion regulation and attachment from a unidirectional
perspective, that is, either that childrens emotion regulation predicts the quality of their attachment
to their parents, or that attachment security predicts the development of childrens emotion regu-
lation (Kiel & Kalomiris, 2015). They also found out that when parents seldom used the minimization
reaction, children with poor emotion regulation displayed stronger attachment to their parents than
children with eective emotion regulation (Ahmetoglu, Ilhan Ildiz, Acar, & Encinger, 2018).
Empirical evidence indicates that the childparent relationships in Russian adoptive and birth
families have similarities in the degree of parental care for children, and dierences in the quality
of positive emotions, their direction and parenting empathy channels (Yashkova et al., 2019).
Studies on the introduction of social skills training programmes in the UAE (Dubai) revealed that
children usually improved at least to some extent in their level of socio-emotional competence with
the specialized training. The developmental progress became more signicant as time in intervention
increased (e.g. attending more than one programme term). Parents were often very pleased with the
social growth they saw in their children, especially within the groups, and they began to better under-
stand and appreciate how an individuals strengths and weaknesses in terms of social development
plays out in life (Rios-Habib, 2015).
In this study, the age disparity regarding gender patterns in emotional development and socio-
emotional problems may be a result of various factors (Eurenius et al., 2019). The early and preschool
years are the most productive period for emotional development, since it is the period during which
the personality foundations are laid down (Maksimova, 2013). At an early age, childrens mental
health is mainly assessed through parental observations and questionnaires, while older childrens
mental health is usually self-reported (Salisch, 2001). Boysexpressions of emotional-psychological
Table 3. Distribution of ASQ:SE mean total scores for boys and girls at age four.
Domain Boys (%), Girls (%) pvalue
0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15 0.041
Self-regulation 78.2 11.3 9.9 0.6 88.5 10.4 0.9 0.2 0.02
Compliance 59.4 38.9 1.5 0.2 66.9 32.1 0.8 0.2 0.00
Communication 90.1 5.4 3.8 0.7 93.3 5.1 1.3 0.3 0.00
Adaptive function 92.7 5.8 1.3 0.2 98.1 1.5 0.3 0.1 0.02
Autonomy 64.1 30.6 5.1 0.2 64.2 30.8 4.9 0.1 0.03
Aect 98.0 1.3 0.7 0 98.2 1.2 0.4 0 0.01
Interaction 89.7 7.9 2.2 0.2 94.1 5.6 0.2 0.1 0.06
Table 4. ASQ:SE mean total scores (SD) for boys and girls at age four in relation to family structure.
Nuclear family Single-parent family
Boys (n= 68) Girls (n= 51) Boys (n= 41) Girls (n= 36)
33.1(18) 25.2(19.1) 42.5(21.3) 35(22.1)
problems are easier to observe, as these are more externalized and therefore to a larger extent
reported by parents (Kato, Yanagawa, Fujiwara, & Morawska, 2015). Internalized psychological symp-
toms are more common among girls and demand more developed communication skills to be ver-
balized, and thus could easily be missed in reports by parents of younger children (Song &
Trommsdor,2016). A qualitative analysis of data regarding the measures of emotional competence
revealed that children recognize no more than seven emotions but this ability is heterogeneous: pre-
school children nd it easier to match emotions with their corresponding word-names than to ident-
ify them by photographs and reproduce (Kilic, 2015; Scrimgeour et al., 2016).
This study shows that emotion knowledge in children needs to be developed from an early age, as it
is connected with later social adaptation. Findings reveal that emotion knowledge is positively associ-
ated with social competence and negatively with the measure of internalizing behaviour. Gender and
age turned out to be important in social development, as evidenced by statistically signicant dier-
ences that were found for these variables (p< 0.001). Children in single-parent families had more
socio-emotional problems. A negative correlation was found between the pro-social behaviour
and anxiety.
The research results may be utilized for the creation of emotional development programmes for
Sudan kindergartens. These ndings allow preventing the development of abnormal behavioural ten-
dencies, which are linked to the emotional intelligence, social adaptation, and anxiety in
Disclosure statement
No potential conict of interest was reported by the authorsQ6
Nagwa Babiker Abdalla Yousif
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... The results of our study contribute to expanding the level of knowledge and understanding of the impact that early socio-emotional education can have on preschoolers. The findings of our study complement previous research on this topic [48][49][50]. ...
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The purpose of our research is to determine emotional and behavioural modelling in an emotionally safe environment in a group of kindergarten preschoolers, following the application of an innovative curriculum project, designed and implemented for the first time, Educational Program for the training and development of social and emotional skills (DeCo-S.E.). Eighteen teachers, involved in the research, were divided into two samples: the experimental group (EG) consisting of 10 preschool teachers who were trained to take up the DeCo-S.E. program, and the control group (GC) including eight preschool teachers who applied the classic educational strategies. The DeCo–S.E. program is aimed at developing social and emotional skills (emotion identification, frustration tolerance), reducing behavior problems, and solving problems with peers as part of the training process. The study also included 142 children in their last year at kindergarten, aged X ± SD 5.87 ± 2.87 years old, divided into two groups: the EG consisting of 74 children to whom the experimental program was implemented and the GC comprising 72 children who did not take part in the training program. In the present study, we applied only the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales for Teachers (PKBS-2) questionnaire to children in the pre- and post-experimental phases. The results were processed with the statistical software SPSS 22. The analysis of the scores of the questionnaire applied to the children highlighted a significant improvement in EG on both scales. The study reveals the effectiveness of the Development of social and emotional skills programs in preschool children has proven its effectiveness by reducing undesirable/maladaptive behaviours and positively developing socio-emotional skills in preschool children.
... Voluntary agreements between government and private investors must be thoroughly planned and controlled during both negotiation and execution. According to previous research, emission trading schemes (ETC) are more oriented toward the long run, and their results are less predictable than previously described measures (Varyash et al., 2020;Alwaelya et al., 2021;Bhuiyan et al., 2021). ...
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This review is dedicated to the analytical literature concerning the dynamics of different approaches to renewable energy promotion. Examples of major types of green energy incentives, including carbon tax, Feed-in Tariffs, and investments in research and development are covered in the paper, as well as the barriers and limitations to such practices and the contradictions existing in the field of renewable energy. The dynamics of the means of green energy promotion over this period have been addressed. This review analyzes energy considerations and the importance of raising public awareness on the issue. The evidence collected through the literature analysis, has proven that despite of a significant amount of work done in the field in the transition to the renewable energy sources, including the implementation of various incentives, controversial aspects remain that demand attention both from economists and policymakers. Modern best practices in the field of green energy incentives can be based on government initiatives or stem from the private sector. The most widely used policies for renewable energy promotion discussed in the reviewed studies are tax incentives; however, at the same time, numerous countries are providing fossil fuels subsidies to minimize the level of inequality. Finally, the outlook of different practices concerning financing of the transition from traditional energy sources to renewable ones is presented.
... From the point of view of developmental psychology, the formation of emotional and social competences is affected by the implementation/presence of intervention programs and their nature, but other factors are also important, including the child's age and gender [54]. Researchers of emotional and social competence are well aware (and it has been empirically proven) that, in childhood, emotional and social skill scores in girls are higher than in boys [55,56]. ...
By developing the emotional and social competences of children of preschool age, one can expect the prevention of emotional and behavioral problems and a better social and academic adaptation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ELLA training for the promotion of emotional and social competences in 3-6-year-old children in preschool education institutions in Lithuania. In total, 140 children aged 3-6 years participated in the quasi-experimental study, of which 86 children were assigned to the experimental group and 54 were assigned to the control group. Children of the experimental group were given a modified program-the ELLA training for the promotion of emotional and social competences. Children's emotional and social competences were assessed before and after the program. The EMK 3-6 inventory (germ. Inventar zur Erfassung Emotionaler Kompetenzen bei Drei-bis Sechsjährigen, EMK 3-6) was used to conduct a questionnaire survey of teachers and to carry out an individual assessment performed by psychologists in order to assess the children's competences. The ELLA training significantly improved children's emotional and social competences. Based on the teachers' assessment, the children's self-regulation abilities improved, and based on the children's individual assessment conducted by psychologists, the application of the program resulted in the improvement of the children's primary emotions, secondary emotions, and prosocial behavior competences.
The paper presents a target vision of the new energy sector in Russia, based on the analysis of promising areas of its development in the field of energy technology economics and assessment of energy risks of using renewable energy sources. Financial and commercial indicators for various types of power plants under construction or under reconstruction are presented, showing that the new economic basis for the widespread use of renewable energy allows building new energy with a lower specific investment per 1 kW of installed capacity and obtaining cheaper electric energy. To assess the prospects for full inclusion of renewable energy facilities in the energy complex of our country and expand their use, a description of the risks arising in the renewable energy sector and their management methods is given. Based on the analysis of calculation results and data on electricity production at solar power plants commissioned in the Altai Republic, the effectiveness of the proposed methodology for assessing natural resource risks in renewable energy is shown. The construction of large hydroelectric power plants, which account for ~20% of the country’s total energy balance, is also associated with a negative impact on the environment. Reservoirs necessary for regulating the productivity of hydroelectric power plants occupy significant territories that are excluded from agricultural turnover. The construction of reservoirs is associated with a violation of the hydrogeological regime of rivers, changes in the properties of ecosystems, and the species composition of hydrobionts. It should be noted that large hydroelectric power plants are not considered to be objects operating on the basis of renewable energy sources. According to the existing classification, such facilities include small hydroelectric power plants with a capacity of up to 25 MW and microhpps. The sulfur and nitrogen oxides contained in TPP emissions lead to acid rain and have a detrimental effect on human and animal health, as well as on plants. Serious problems are also associated with ash and slag from thermal power plants. The discharge of heated water from the cooling systems of thermal power plants to surface water sources causes their thermal pollution, leading to a decrease in water saturation with oxygen.KeywordsEnergy technologiesFuture energyRisk managementClean energy
The main purpose of the study is to study some of the world’s largest companies engaged in the production of solar panels and to make a forecast of the exchange rate of their shares in the coming year based on the analysis of various economic indicators. The paper uses fundamental methods for analyzing the stock price, such as the ratio of capitalization and cash flow, the ratio of the company’s value to its balance sheet, the ratio of borrowed funds to equity, the ratio of the market price of a share to net profit and based on changes in the volume of sales of companies, a trend equation was derived, which was subsequently adjusted in accordance with the above indicators. In the course of the study, the following results were obtained: forecasts of the value of shares of First Solar Inc. and Canadian Solar Inc., including the maximum and minimum values during the day, for the coming year were obtained. Based on the results obtained, conclusions were drawn: this method allows us to consider many approaches to stock valuation and make a single forecast based on them; however, this requires a lot of calculations and time costs. The issue of the global transition from non-renewable to green energy was widely discussed back in the twentieth century, not only because of the limited energy resources, but also because of global pollution and the greenhouse effect, which was increasingly manifested due to the growth of the required amount of energy and, as a result, an increase in the number of power plants that pollute the atmosphere. The most widespread issue of green energy was already in the twenty-first century, when global pollution began to be felt even more acutely. For example, last year the European Commission presented a plan to turn the European Union into a carbon-neutral zone by 2050. It is also worth noting that the main topic of the XXIV St. Petersburg International Economic Forum, held in 2021, was the issue of renewable energy. In terms of the number of agreements in the field of green energy, this forum broke the records of all previous ones, which indicates the global importance of the issue of switching to renewable energy. The purpose of this work is to study some of the world’s largest companies engaged in the production of solar panels and to make a forecast of the exchange rate of their shares.KeywordsPromotionCompanyCostPriceForecastTrend
The article contains a comprehensive study of cryptocurrencies and digital currencies (crypto-yuan, bitcoin, ethereum, TRON, and Tether). Using the MF-X-DMA and DMCA methods, a statistical study of the 5-year dynamics of the closing prices in US dollars of the Chinese yuan and the above cryptocurrencies was carried out, which is part of the multifractal and cross-correlation analysis. The result of the study was to identify the relationship between the price dynamics of the Chinese yuan, ethereum, and TRON. The further analytical study and comparison of the characteristics of the objects, the study allowed us to conclude that the wider distribution of the digital version of the Chinese yuan in the international space may hypothetically affect the rate of TRON, Ethereum, and some other similar cryptocurrencies, the structure of which is based on their platforms. In addition, the results of the study suggest that the spread of the crypto-yuan will affect the platforms for international transfers in yuan, as well as affect the volume of settlements in the Chinese currency. The evolution of economic systems at the beginning of the twenty-first century led to the emergence of a new type of financial assets, which can be designated as digital “currency.” Since the appearance of the first cryptocurrency, called Bitcoin, a lot of scientific research has been carried out concerning the nature of this phenomenon in the economy, its dynamics in financial markets, as well as the impact on economic systems in general. Most of the cryptocurrencies are based on the principle of decentralized emission, and their proliferation forced central banks to develop a set of measures to regulate the market for these assets. Several governments have adopted more stringent measures, limiting or prohibiting their circulation and use. As the study of cryptocurrencies, as well as their distribution, the positions of financial regulators changed. Few central banks have softened the conditions for the circulation of cryptocurrencies to achieve their own goals in monetary policy, while others have announced their intention to create their own counterparts. List of initiators includes the People’s Bank of China and the Bank of England.KeywordsCryptocurrenciesPeople’s Bank of ChinaCBDCBitcoinEthereumTRONYuanDCEP
Since 2011, 34 technology platforms have been created within the framework of Russia’s industrial policy in key areas: medicine and biotechnology, information and communication technologies, photonics, aerospace, nuclear technologies, energy, transport, new materials and metallurgy, natural resource extraction, production technologies, and ecology. Despite the fact that they were initiated during the difficult post-crisis period, they represent roadmaps for accelerated development in the context of the Russian economy until 2030. In this article, we discuss ideas for global technological innovations in the following areas: bioenergy, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, solar energy, and marine energy. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, global research and development expenditures amount to $1200 billion annually. National figures vary greatly, for example, the amount of R&D in Russia is 1% of GDP, and in the Republic of Korea—2.7% of GDP. About $10 billion. US $0.8% of the total amount is allocated to research and development in the field of renewable energy sources. In order to effectively channel these funds both for commercial purposes and through the state budget, it is necessary to identify technological priorities in the field of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources (RES) are a modern high-tech innovative sector with double-digit annual growth rates with significant potential for improvement and the emergence of new technologies, attracting domestic and international investment. In the potentially vast Russian market, this is a window of opportunity. The main question is whether Russian technology platforms correspond to global trends in promoting renewable energy. Since 2011, 34 technology platforms have been created as part of Russia’s industrial policy. Despite the fact that they were initiated during a difficult post-crisis period, they represent a significant number of challenges.KeywordsRenewable energy sourcesTechnological innovationsWind powerSolar power
Hydrogen, as a potential energy carrier, has certain physical and environmental advantages, and the promotion of ideas and plans for the development of the “hydrogen economy” is most often explained by environmental considerations—the need to decarbonize the economy. Currently, a number of regions, primarily in the Western Europe and Japan, have announced large-scale plans to increase the production of hydrogen, with the implementation of ambitious scenarios—by an order of magnitude, and the share of hydrogen in the energy balance should grow to 20% or more by the middle of this century. The chapter discusses plans for the development of the hydrogen economy in the world and in a number of regions. Technological, environmental, and economic barriers to implement ambitious growth scenarios for hydrogen production and consumption are identified, and the feasibility of these scenarios is assessed. The widespread claim about hydrogen as a decarbonizing agent and the validity of the ecological argument of the hydrogen economy are disputed. A number of possible real reasons for promoting the ideas and plans of the hydrogen economy are considered. Hydrogen has been produced and used for a long time, but in recent years there has been a strong increase in interest in it as a potential energy resource, and the term “hydrogen economy” has become widespread, and a number of countries have announced plans to multiply the production of hydrogen. In recent years, many publications have appeared on hydrogen topics in various formats, including books, articles, and materials from numerous forums and conferences. We can say that the interest in hydrogen as a potential energy source has become explosive. First of all, hydrogen is positioned as an environmental-friendly fuel that does not leave a “carbon footprint when burned”, and the growth of its production and use is considered in the context of “decarbonization” (decarbonization) and reduces resource consumption.KeywordsRenewable energy sourcesTechnological innovationsHydrogenHydrogen economy
The results of calculations of the energy potential of crop production waste for municipalities of the Krasnodar Territory are presented in this article. The analysis was carried out for the main agricultural crops such as cereals, sunflower, and corn. The results show a significant amount of potential of the region in comparison with other agricultural regions of the South of Russia. The spatial distribution makes it possible to determine the localization of the most promising areas for the use of crop waste for energy production. The global use of bioenergy has reached almost 60 EJ, accounting for 10% of the world’s total energy production. However, the plans of the world’s leading bioenergy associations are even more ambitious: for example, the reference point for the development of bioenergy in Europe until 2030 is the Graz Declaration (2017), one of the main goals of which is to halve the use of fossil fuels by 2030 and replace it with energy from biomass. In practice, the implementation of these goals in the EU is carried out by a number of research and innovation programs, the largest of which is the Horizon 2020 program, for the implementation of which about 80 billion rubles were allocated in 2014–2020. In 2016, the project of this program has ended Euro Pruning, in 2019, the project was completed in January 2019, and the current project was launched Agro Bio Heat. The aim of this project is to ensure the widespread use of agricultural plant waste for energy production in the European Union. Within the framework of the projects, estimates were made of the amount of plant residues, including agricultural waste, pruning of perennial plants (orchards, olive groves, and vineyards), agricultural processing waste (olive seeds, nut shells, etc.), which accumulate in large volumes in rural areas. Efficient logistics schemes for short and reliable biomass supply and use are being developed use it as fuel. Logistics solutions include harvesting, transportation and storage of agricultural waste. It is expected that the energy use of agrobiomass will have a positive social impact on the regions, namely, it will create additional jobs and prevent the outflow of young people from rural areas.KeywordsPlant biomassAgrobiomassHydrogenHydrogen economy
An analysis of environmental and economic efficiency, risks, and prospects for the development of energy based on various types of energy carriers, starting from the 1960s, is carried out. It is shown that the decline in the share of nuclear power in the global energy balance cannot yet be compensated by renewable energy sources and leads to an increase in the use of fossil energy carriers. It is concluded that in order to achieve sustainable development of non-carbon energy, it is necessary to develop renewable and nuclear energy where the risks of environmental consequences of energy production are minimal. The purpose of this work is to identify and compare the role of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and various types of renewable energy sources (RES) in the formation of a non-carbon energy system, the growth of ecological and economic efficiency and to analyze the risks and prospects for the development of multipolar energy. Based on statistical and analytical data, this article examines the dynamics of global non-carbon energy development in the second half of the year XX—the beginning XXI V., comparative assessment of trends and patterns of development, correlation of nuclear power development with changes in environmental parameters and environmental efficiency of various types of energy. Comparative estimates of the economic efficiency of energy based on various energy sources are presented, with a discussion of uncertainties and risks in relation to nuclear power plants and renewable energy sources and their impact on the prospects for the development of energy based on non-carbon energy sources. A comparative assessment of the economic and environmental-economic parameters of nuclear and RES power plants indicates the continued high competitiveness of nuclear power plants both in the economic sense and in terms of minimizing environmental damage. The identified trends and analysis of environmental and economic indicators indicate that nuclear energy is a necessary component, along with renewable energy, of the process of transition to a non-carbon regime and reducing risks to the environment. Analysis of data from the last 50–55 years and current trends indicates the feasibility of developing both renewable and nuclear energy on the basis of mutual complementarity rather than confrontation.KeywordsEnergy policyRenewable energy sourcesTechnological innovationsNuclear energy
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To facilitate preschoolers’ emotional development, it is useful to have a developmentally and culturally appropriate measure of emotion knowledge. The Affect Knowledge Test (AKT), a widely used measure of emotion knowledge, has been previously used with diverse cultural groups, including Japanese preschoolers, despite scarce reliability and validity information. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to conduct field tests of the Japanese-translated version of the AKT and a preliminary psychometric evaluation of the measure with Japanese preschoolers. Initial analyses of the Japanese-translated version of the AKT showed that the emotion recognition scale had a low internal consistency and subscales were hardly correlated with each other. After emotion faces used in the AKT were modified based on the interdependent cultures’ attention bias in emotion decoding, both reliability and construct-related validity were improved to satisfactory levels. These findings highlight the importance of cross-cultural adaptation of measures and demonstrate preliminary validity evidence for future adaptation of the AKT with Japanese preschoolers.
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Objectives This study investigated predictors of sensitive and responsive parenting of 3- to 5-year old children within the context of a small urban Head Start system, serving mostly African American and Latino families (N = 86 dyads; 91% African American). Methods Mothers and their children participated in a brief sadness induction (viewing a video clip validated for sadness induction in children), and mothers were subsequently asked to engage their child in discussion about the video. Mother-child discussions were videotaped and parenting behaviors and maternal affect were coded by trained raters. Controlling for maternal verbal ability, maternal facilitative emotional intelligence (understanding the adaptive functions of emotions) and aspects of maternal empathy (self-focused vs other focused emotional resonance) were examined as predictors of observed parenting with children during the interaction task. Results Higher levels of maternal facilitative emotional intelligence and lower levels of maternal empathic personal distress predicted sensitive and responsive parenting (maternal sensitivity; positive regard toward child), even after controlling for maternal verbal ability. Higher levels of maternal empathic personal distress predicted harsh and intrusive parenting (intrusive behaviors; expressions of anger and frustration). Conclusions Results contribute to knowledge pertaining to predictors of parenting, particularly predictors of positive parenting. The results support the important and nuanced role of parental empathy in influencing parenting behaviors and point to facilitative emotional intelligence as an additional correlate of sensitive and responsive parenting. Measuring and investigating growth in parents’ facilitative emotional intelligence and empathic distress tolerance could help inform innovative new approaches to studying change processes in various parenting support programs.
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Aim The aim of this study was to investigate mental health with respect to social‐emotional problems among three‐year‐olds in relation to their gender, custody arrangements and place of residence. Methods A cross‐sectional population‐based design was used, encompassing 7,179 three‐year‐olds in northern Sweden during the period 2014‐2017 from the regional Salut Register. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed based on parents’ responses on the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social‐Emotional (ASQ:SE), supplemented with items on gender, custody arrangement and place of residence. Results Parental‐reported social‐emotional problems were found in almost 10% of the children. Boys were reported to have more problems (12.3%) than girls (5.6%) (p<0.001). Parents were most concerned about children's eating habits and interactions at mealtimes. Parents not living together reported more problems among their children than those living together (p<0.001). When stratifying by custody arrangement, girls in rural areas living alternately with each parent had more problems compared to those in urban areas (p<0.008). Conclusion Gender and custody arrangements appear to be important factors for social‐emotional problems among three‐year‐olds. Thus, such conditions should receive attention during preschool age, preferably by a systematic preventive strategy within Child Health Care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Parents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia usually help their kids in early school years especially in English language. This help varies according to the parents' level of education, the degree of difficulty of the curriculum and the type of school their kids join. Sometimes they give the right kind of help that matches the teachers' strategies and objectives and most of the time their help is in the wrong direction. This study aims at investigating the Saudi parents’ perceptions of the kind of help they offer to their primary school kids in order to decide which help is constructive and which is misleading. To this end, the researcher designed a 29-item questionnaire divided into three categories under three subtitles and distributed it to one hundred parents. The results of the study showed that the majority of parents agreed that a healthy constructive parents-teachers relationship is very important for a successful kid at school. It also showed that the parents' help whether direct through helping the kid in homework, assignments or projects or indirect through saving a motivating environment or involving him in cocurricular activities is vital for a fruitful academic life for kids. The study recommended that certain kinds of help such as direct translation to L1or the exaggerated help that sometimes reaches to doing assignments on behalf of kids should be avoinded.
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We examined the associations among parental emotion socialization, and children’s emotion regulation and attachment to parents. In particular, we examined the moderating role of parental emotion socialization in the relationship between children’s emotion regulation and attachment to parents. Participants were 78 Turkish children (49 boys) aged from 60 to 77 months and their parents. Parents reported on the socialization strategies they used for their children’s emotions and on their children’s emotion regulation, and we assessed children’s attachment to parents via the Doll Story Completion Task. Results revealed that parents’ minimization reaction to children’s emotions moderated the association between children’s emotion regulation and attachment to parents. When parents’ response was punitive, children with poor emotion regulation displayed stronger attachment to parents than children with robust emotion regulation. In addition, girls had a more secure attachment than boys to parents. Our results highlight the importance of children’s emotion regulation and parental emotion socialization for children’s secure early attachment to parents.
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Decades of research have emphasized the role that coercive and ineffective discipline plays in shaping child and adolescent conduct problems, yet an emerging body of evidence has suggested that parents' emotion socialization behaviors (ESBs) (e.g., reactions to emotions, discussion of emotions, and emotion coaching) may also be implicated. This meta-analysis examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between parental ESBs and conduct problems, and tested for moderators of these associations. A systematic search identified 49 studies for which data on concurrent associations between ESBs and conduct problems were available (n = 6270), and 14 studies reporting on prospective associations (n = 1899). Parental ESBs were found to be significantly associated with concurrent (r = − 0.08) and prospective (r = − 0.11) conduct problems, in the order of small effect sizes. Key findings of moderator analyses were that ESBs were more strongly associated with conduct problems at younger ages and when ESBs were focused on the socialization of negative rather than positive emotions. Findings support the integration of ESBs into family-based models of antisocial behavior, and have the potential to inform the design of parent training interventions for the prevention and treatment of child conduct problems.
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This study investigated whether Korean mothers’ emotion socialization beliefs are related to emotional functioning in children differing across gender. We interviewed Korean mothers (N = 100) of first graders (55 boys; 45 girls) about their sensitivity, their reactions to children’s distress, and children’s emotion regulation. Two components of emotion regulation were distinguished: regulation and negativity. Results revealed that mothers’ proactive sensitivity and their supportive reactions were related to their children’s regulation, whereas unsupportive reactions were related to children`s negativity. Child gender moderated the associations between mothers’ socialization beliefs and children’s emotion regulation: mothers’ proactive sensitivity was more strongly associated with competent regulation in girls than in boys. Mothers’ unsupportive reactions were related to increased negativity only in girls. Results are discussed from a cultural perspective, focusing on gender differences in the links between maternal socialization and children’s emotional outcomes in Korea.
Guided by Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development, this article examined whether characters in emotion picture-books express and talk about emotions in ways that are consistent with theory and research on children’s emotions. In general, we found that picture-books recommended by experts in social-emotional development contain content that is fairly consistent with published research in early childhood. We also found parents’ reading of the picture-books was consistent with the content analysis, even though we recorded their spontaneous emotion-based language in addition to the text presented in the picture-books. The findings also suggested that reading of emotion picture-books may increase preservice teachers’ references to emotions, which could translate into greater use of emotion language in the early childhood classroom. Results are discussed with regard to the role of picture-books as an important source of emotion-related information for children, parents, and teachers.
In recent years, preschooler’s self-regulation has been extensively researched. This systematic review deals with the overlaps and differences among the many different terminologies and definitions of self-regulation in childhood and the association with preschooler’s social-emotional and behavioural development. A systematic literature search in bibliographic databases identified 22 studies, published between 2011 and 2017, which met further inclusion criteria. Our review revealed considerable similarities and differences regarding definitions, core components, and measurements of self-regulation. Results regarding preschooler’s social-emotional and behavioural outcomes were heterogeneous, but overall the significance of children’s level of self-regulation was emphasized. In order to make clear statements about the impact on children’s development, self-regulation must be defined uniformly. This study indicates the need for an integrative model for self-regulation in childhood, considering dimensionality, individual components, and its organization.