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Abstract

Individual must have national identity, but can be at the same time the citizen of the world too. We are all both national citizens and citizens of the world. Division of world power on national governments, which cooperate in the achievement of noble goals, protects the democracy, whilst world government and new world order undermine it.
1
National Identity
Domina Petric, MD
ABSTRACT
Individual must have national identity, but
can be at the same time the citizen of the
world too. We are all both national citizens
and citizens of the world. Division of
world power on national governments,
which cooperate in the achievement of
noble goals, protects the democracy, whilst
world government and new world order
undermine it.
INTRODUCTION
National identity is a person´s identity or
sense of belonging to one state or to one
nation
1, 2
. It is the sense of a nation as
cohesive whole, as represented by
distinctive traditions, culture, and
language
3
. National identity may refer to
the subjective feeling individual shares
with a group of people about a nation,
regardless of one´s legal citizenship
status
4
. National identity is viewed in
psychological terms as an awareness of
difference, a feeling and recognition of
what is ˝we˝ and what ˝they˝
5
.
PATRIOTISM AND CHAUVINISM
National identity can arise as a direct result
of the presence of elements from the
common points in people´s daily lives:
national symbols, language, the nation´s
history, national consciousness, and
cultural artefacts
6
.
Patriotism is the expression of one´s
national identity seen in a positive light
which is characterized by national pride
and positive emotion of love for one´s
country. Chauvinism is the extreme
expression of national identity, which
refers to the firm belief in the country´s
superiority and extreme loyalty toward
one´s country
1
.
Chauvinism is characteristic for
conquerors, imperialists, colonialists…,
nations who believe in their superiority in
comparison to the nations they attack.
Nations that are under attack, conquered
nations, can develop national inferiority
complex. As a consequence of wars many
individuals who belong to defeated nations
may lose their healthy sense of national
identity and even opt for another
nationality, culture and religion.
2
GLOBALIZATION
As the world becomes increasingly
globalized, international tourism,
communication and business collaboration
has increased
7
.
Globalization promotes common values
and experiences, and it also encourages the
identification with the global community
8
.
People may adapt cosmopolitanism and
view themselves as global beings, or world
citizens
9
. This trend may threaten national
identity because globalization undermines
the importance of being a citizen of a
particular country
10
.
Several researchers that examined
globalization and its impacts on national
identity found that as a country becomes
more globalized, patriotism declined,
which suggests that the increase of
globalization is associated with less loyalty
and less willingness to fight for one´s own
country
7, 11-12
.
Moderate globalization can be beneficial
because nations are able to exchange non-
material and material goods, to cooperate
in common noble goals, such as
eradication of corruption, economic
stability, environmental sustainability…
Extreme globalization in which individuals
are losing their healthy sense of national
identity is not good.
Individual must have national identity, but
can be at the same time the citizen of the
world too. We are all both national citizens
and citizens of the world. Creation of
world government is not promising,
because it is a risk factor for the
development of global totalitarian regime.
Every nation has its own government and
national governments have to cooperate in
the achievement of noble goals, but must
never merge into the world government.
Division of power protects democracy.
CONCLUSION
Individual must have national identity, but
can be at the same time the citizen of the
world too. We are all both national citizens
and citizens of the world.
Creation of world government is not
promising, because it is a risk factor for the
development of global totalitarian regime.
Every nation has its own government and
national governments have to cooperate in
the achievement of noble goals, but must
never merge into the world government.
Division of world power on national
governments, which cooperate, protects
democracy, whilst world government and
new world order undermine it.
3
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3. Oxford Dictionaries. Definition of National
Identitiy in English. Retrieved on Jan 23, 2020.
4. Guibernau M. Anothony D. Smith on Nations
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6. Kelman H. Nationalism, Patriotism and National
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7. Croucher S. Globalization and Belonging: The
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Chapter
Full-text available
Introduction Globalization both homogenizes and fragments. On one hand, it allows nations and citizens of the world to share common events, values and knowledge, often instantaneously thanks to advances in telecommunications and information technology. Its proponents tout globalization as a vehicle for promoting certain universal goals of governance, economic cooperation and civil society. Ideally, globalization should be an arena for all kinds of flows and exchanges 1 in which the local is synergized with the global and vice versa. In reality, of course, globalization has also fragmented identities and rekindled ethnic divisions once dormant under the control of nation-states. Ernest Gellner, an influential theorist on the cultural dimension of nationhood, once argued that for a given society to persist, it must be one in which its people "can breathe and speak and produce…the same culture." 2 But now "in the age of fragmentation of the world system," 3 notions of culture that were once constructed on the basis of the "national" must be reviewed. This new "crisis of identity" 4 affecting both the center and periphery of the world system, reflects the tenuous conception of a bounded notion of culture and the idea of a homogenizing national identity—the "imagined" oneness of the nation-state "community" 5 and its rather static, elitist and conflated conception of identity. 6 In modern-nation states such as Malaysia, it is not the current globalization phase which has rekindled ethnic differences, nor for that matter, has it been responsible for the presence of cultural pluralism or multiculturalism in its midst. Indeed, multiculturalism and indigenous variants of cultural pluralism in the pre-capitalist civilization of the Malaysian region pre-dated the coming of western colonialism itself.
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The relationship between globalisation and national identity is puzzling. While some observers have found that globalisation reduces people's identification with their nation, others have reached the opposite conclusion. This article explores this conundrum by examining the relationship between globalisation and people's feelings towards national identity. Using data from the International Social Survey Program National Identity II () and the World Values Survey (), it analyses these relations across sixty-three countries. Employing a multilevel approach, it investigates how a country's level of globalisation is related to its public perceptions towards different dimensions of national identity. The results suggest that a country's level of globalisation is not related to national identification or nationalism but it is related negatively to patriotism, the willingness to fight for the country and ethnic conceptions of membership in the nation. An examination of alternative explanations indicates that globalisation has a distinct impact on national identity.
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Modern Education, Textbooks, and the Image of the Nation: Politics and Modernization and Nationalism in Korean Education
  • Y Lee
Lee Y. Modern Education, Textbooks, and the Image of the Nation: Politics and Modernization and Nationalism in Korean Education. Routledge. 2012: p. 29.
Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity in a Changing World
  • S Croucher
Croucher S. Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity in a Changing World. Rowman & Littlefield. 2004.
What does it mean to be a Global Citizen? Kosmos Journal
  • R Israel
Israel R. What does it mean to be a Global Citizen? Kosmos Journal. 2012.
  • Malaysia
Malaysia. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. 2004.