Mining and smelting of Pb, Zn and Cd ores have caused widespread soil contamination in many countries. In locations with severe soil contamination, and strongly acidic soil or mine waste, all plants are killed and ecosystems are devastated. Research has shown that Zn phytotoxicity, Pb-induced phosphate deficiency, erosion-induced P-deficiency, Cd risk through uptake by rice or tobacco, and Pb ... [Show full abstract] risk to children, livestock or wildlife which ingest soil are the common adverse environmental effects at such contaminated sites. Improved understandings of soil metal risks to the environment have been developed which examine risk to all possible exposed organisms through soil, plants, animals, or water exposures. This review summarizes information about soil Cd risk to food-chains, explaining that when Cd is present at the usual 0.005-to-0.02 ratio to Zn in the contaminated soil, only rice and tobacco allow Cd to be transferred from the soil in amounts which can harm humans over their lifetime. Zn inhibits plant uptake of Cd, and inhibits intestinal absorption of Cd, protecting animals from plant Cd in most situations. Pb risk to children or other highly exposed organisms results from ingestion of the contaminated soil, and absorption of Pb from the soil into the blood where adverse health effects occur at 10-to-15 µg Pb/dL blood. Soil Pb has much lower bioavailability than water Pb, and if ingested with food has very low bioavailability. Research has shown that if high phosphate levels are added to Pb contaminated soils, an extremely insoluble Pb compound, chloropyromorphite, is formed in soils from all known chemical species of Pb which occur in contaminated soils. It had earlier been learned that adding adsorbents such as hydrous Fe oxides and phosphate to Pb contaminated soils inhibited Pb uptake by crops, and with the implication that these materials in biosolids might reduce the bioavailability of soil Pb to children, feeding tests were conducted with rats and pigs in several laboratories confirming that amendment of Pb rich soils high Fe biosolids (municipal sewage sludge) reduced bioavailability. A new approach to remediation of severely disturbed Pb/Zn/Cd contaminated soils has been developed which uses mixtures of limestone equivalent from industrial byproducts such as woodash or spent lime and similar byproducts with appropriate Ca:Mg ratios (to make soil calcareous and prevent Zn phytotoxicity, and prevent long term Mg deficiency possible with calcitic lime materials), phosphate and Fe 1 from biosolids and byproducts (to precipitate Pb, and with Fe, increase Pb, Zn and Cd adsorption), organic-N from biosolids and manures, and other beneficial components (Mn) which correct the infertility of contaminated and eroded soils, including microbial inocula and substrate to support soil microbes. Composting can stabilize the organic matter and slow N release to allow higher application of remediation amendments. Highly effective revegetation has resulted at four field test locations where this approach was tested, Palmerton, PA; Katowice, Poland; Bunker Hill, ID; and Leadville, CO. All plants tested were readily grown on the amended soil even with soil contained over 1% Zn and 1% Pb. Plant analysis indicates that these plants may be consumed safely by wildlife and livestock, although soil ingestion should be minimized at such sites. Although mining and smelting contamination has caused severe environmental harm in many locations, Tailor-Made Biosolids remediation of metal toxic soils allows effective and persistent remediation at low cost, and should be applied to prevent further dispersal of the contaminated soil materials at many locations.