Article

Estimating Food Waste as Household Production Inefficiency

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Measuring food waste at the individual household level has been nearly impossible because comprehensive, current data on uneaten food do not exist. By using food acquisition data, this article employs a new approach to estimating household‐level food waste via a stochastic production frontier model in which food waste is identified as input inefficiency. For households in our data, the average household wastes 31.9% of the food it buys, and this figure, using survey weights, translates to annual U.S. consumer‐level food waste valued at $240 billion. In addition, by accommodating heterogeneous wasting behavior, we find that healthier diets and higher income lead to more household food waste, whereas lower household food security, food‐assistance program participation, and larger household sizes are associated with less food waste.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Reducing food waste requires not only the accurate assessment of food waste but also an analysis of the determinants that affect food waste [22]. First, household income is positively correlated with food waste, especially in less developed economies [23]. As income increases, families have higher requirements for food quality and food diversity, such that some food that can still be eaten is discarded, thereby increasing food waste [24]. ...
... The existing literature shows that the most important factor affecting food waste is income [23]. As income increases, households pursue richer nutrition and diverse food choices, which easily leads to food waste [38]. ...
... The existing literature shows that the most important factor affecting food waste income [23]. As income increases, households pursue richer nutrition and diverse fo choices, which easily leads to food waste [38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on nationwide survey data from China, we used a fractional logit model for analysis and propensity score matching (PSM) to evaluate the impact of family members serving as village cadres on household food waste. We found that, first, one household in rural China wasted an average of 1.62% of total food per day; in particular, the waste of staple foods was the most serious, with 5.14% of rice wasted per day. Differences in economic development, the geographical environment and diet habits caused differences in food waste in various regions of China. Second, empirical analysis showed that family members serving as cadres significantly increased household food waste. Third, the PSM results showed that family members serving as village cadres significantly increased household food waste and the waste of rice products. Households with members serving as cadres wasted 1.98% of total foods and 7.15% of rice products, on average, while other households wasted only 1.22–1.55% of total foods and 3.55–4.74% of rice products, on average.
... In contrast, less frequent food shopping trips are associated with more shelf-stable foods and lower household diet quality (Hersey et al., 2001). From the perspective of food waste, increased fruit and vegetable consumption and higher diet quality are associated with more food waste (Yu & Jaenicke, 2020), while increased purchases of shelf-stable goods and a decrease in food away from home consumption would decrease food waste. For households with children, the drastic increase in own childcare time can also impact household food waste and diet quality. ...
... However, each of these methods has limitations due to data availability that is common throughout food waste literature (van der Werf & Gilliland, 2017). Yu & Jaenicke (2020) overcome the data availability shortcomings "by conducting a productivity analysis of household production to obtain an input inefficiency measure that is interpreted as excess food inputs used to produce the current level of output." A major advantage of this approach is that it allows them to perform a post-estimation analysis. ...
... In contrast, higher diet quality is associated with higher waste. While it is clear that time is an essential input in household food production that determines the efficiency of food management and utilization (Lusk & Ellison, 2017), Yu & Jaenicke (2020) do not include it in their analysis because of data limitations. Indeed, there have been no empirical studies that directly investigate how household time allocations are associated with household food waste. ...
Article
Full-text available
In early 2020, a novel coronavirus quickly spread across the globe. In response to the rapidly increasing number of confirmed U.S. cases, state and local governments suggested social distancing, issued stay-at-home orders, and restricted travel, fundamentally changing how individuals allocate time. Directly impacted time activities, such as work, eating food away from home, grocery shopping, and childcare significantly impact two food-related topics: household food waste and diet quality. In order to investigate these non-marginal time changes, we predict weekly time allocated to seven activities for households in the National Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey using information from the American Time Use Survey. Jointly estimating household production functions for food waste and diet quality, we find that time events that are related to fresh produce consumption, such as increased grocery store trips and time spent in FAH activities, are related to higher diet quality, but lower food waste. While time events that are associated with quick convenient meals, such as time spent in secondary childcare and work time, are also associated with lower food waste, these events decrease household diet quality. We then predict the level of household food waste and diet quality for three COVID-19 scenarios: one where the household head is likely able to work remotely, another where the household head is likely to lose their job, and a third, where the household head is likely to be considered an essential worker. Households without children that are likely able to work remotely are predicted to have lower levels of food waste and higher diet quality, while households without children in the other two COVID-19 scenarios are predicted to have only minor differences.
... Many authors have recognized policies that promote consumer education on sustainable consumption and increase consumer awareness and knowledge of the environmental impact of their purchases as a driver of food security [52,60,67,69,86,133,144,151,163,[165][166][167]. Others have stressed proper communication among all stakeholders as a driver of food security [6,56,68,69,84,92,129,130,156,157,168]. ...
... Many authors have proposed different policy recommendations to reduce food waste and, thus, food insecurity [6,19,51,52,[56][57][58][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88][91][92][93][94]103,130,138,144,150,160,167,168,170,177]. Many have agreed on the importance of policies that promote information and education campaigns that spread awareness at household and public levels by improving meal planning and management in consumers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food security is a central priority for international policy as one of the world’s most significantly urgent targets to achieve. It is considered one of the most pressing issues in many countries, the degree of food security representing the level of self-sufficiency and well-being of citizens. In particular, in the current COVID-19 pandemic era, it has more than ever become a mission-critical goal. In this research, we report on the food security drivers and the current state of recommended policies addressing chronic food insecurity aimed at ensuring the sustainability of future food production. Mapping the determinants of food security contributes to a better understanding of the issue and aids in the development of appropriate food security policies and strategies to enhance the sustainability of food production in all facets; namely environmental, social, and economic. Adopting the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) data screening and selection guidelines and standards, we carried out a comprehensive, reliable, systematic, and rigorous review of research from the last ten years in order to identify the most frequently mentioned drivers and policies of food security in the literature available in two databases: Scopus and Web of Science (WOS). The number of extracted articles was 141 papers in total. An analysis revealed 34 drivers of food security and 17 most recommended policies for the mitigation of food insecurity. The existence of food loss and waste (FLW) policies was the primary driver of food security, followed by food security policies (FSP) in their different forms. However, FSP were the most recommended policies, followed by FLW policies. The identified food security drivers and recommended policies should be used by policy-makers to improve food security, thus contributing to sustainable food production. Our research findings, reflected in the latest version of the Global Food Security Index (GFSI), resulted in more tangible policy implications, suggesting the addition of two dimensions regarding food security. We also identified elements not listed under the GFSI that could be considered in its future revision, including environmental policies/indicators, consumer representation, and traceability throughout the entire supply chain. Overall, it can be concluded that food security is a complicated and multi-faceted issue that cannot be restricted to a single variable, necessitating the deeper integration of various multi-disciplinary interventions.
... The intensification of commercial agriculture combined with the increasingly negative effects of global climate change requires the adoption of more sustainable soil management practices [1,2]. Potential solutions for the mitigation of climate change and improvement of soil quality include the recovery of natural resources lost in the food supply chain [3][4][5]. Diverting organic matter from landfills into green manures can provide a suitable soil amendment capable of enhancing soil fertility [6,7]. ...
... Technologies, Charlotte, NC, USA). Concentrations of NH 4 + and NO 3 − in each amendment were determined as described above. The chemical properties of soil amendments are presented in Table 2. Total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N), nitrate (NO 3 − ), ammonium (NH 4 + ). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mitigating climate change and enhancing fertility in agricultural systems require the adoption of more sustainable fertilizer management practices. Applications of recycled organic materials, such as animal and green wastes, can promote soil carbon stabilization via changing extracellular enzyme activities while providing the necessary nitrogen (N) for plant growth. The goals of this study were to quantify the effects of compost type (cow manure, green manures, mixtures of green and cow manure at various proportions, and inorganic fertilizers) on (1) enzyme activity (phenol oxidase, peroxidase, and urease), and (2) mineralized N under laboratory incubation at 30 °C over an eight-week period. The lowest oxidative enzyme activities (phenol oxidase and peroxidase) were found in the soil treated with a mixture of 50% cow manure and 50% green manure (2.45 μmol h−1 g−1) and a mixture of 30% cow manure and 70% green manure (3.21 μmol h−1 g−1) compared to all other fertilizer treatments. The highest phenol oxidase activity was found in soils amended with green manures (3.52 μmol h−1 g−1), while the highest peroxidase activity was found in soils amended with a mixture of 70% cow manure and 30% green manure (5.68 μmol h−1 g−1). No significant differences were found in total net mineralized N content among all organic fertilizer treatments, but these were significantly lower than total net mineralized N in soil treated with inorganic fertilizers. These results indicate similar effects of organic amendments and mixtures in providing plant-available N, but different effects on lignin-degrading enzyme activities, which may lead to differences in soil organic carbon cycling and long-term C storage depending on which organic amendment is utilized.
... This paper aimed to investigate whether HFW is associated with DPs. Because the economic situation can impact food waste levels [47][48][49], the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on HFW has also been analyzed. Considering the existing food waste data gap at the household level in developing countries [2, 9,50], Iran was chosen as an example to conduct the research. ...
... It has previously been reported that bread has a higher share in the composition of the family food basket among Iranian households in the lower socioeconomic classes [52,91]. Such households have a lower purchasing power and, therefore, tend to avoid over-purchasing [47,49] while utilizing their food frugally [92,93]. A study from Greece revealed that households with financial hardships could reduce HFW to restrict their spending [94]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Current household food waste (HFW) reduction plans usually focus on raising consumer awareness, which is essential but insufficient because HFW is predominantly attributed to unconscious behavioral factors that vary across consumer groups. Therefore, identifying such factors is crucial for predicting HFW levels and establishing effective plans. This study explored the role of dietary patterns (DP) and socioeconomic status (SES) as predictors of HBW using linear and non-linear regression models. Questionnaire interviews were performed in 419 households in Shiraz during 2019. A multilayer sampling procedure including stratification, clustering, and systematic sampling was used. Three main DPs, i.e., unhealthy, Mediterranean, and traditional, were identified using a food frequency questionnaire. Results indicated that a one-unit rise in the household’s unhealthy DP score was associated with an average increase in HBW of 0.40%. Similarly, a one-unit increase in the unhealthy DP score and the SES score increased the relative likelihood of bread waste occurrence by 25.6% and 14.5%, respectively. The comparison of findings revealed inconsistencies in HFW data, and therefore the necessity of studying HFW links to factors such as diet and SES. Further investigations that explore HFW associations with household characteristics and behavioral factors will help establish contextual and effective consumer-focused plans.
... As a result, Iranian consumers' purchasing power decreased enormously in 2018 and 2019 [73]. Several studies have shown that higher food prices could lead to less food waste [74][75][76][77]. This correlation may well be a consequence of consumers avoiding over-purchasing when food prices rise [74,75]. ...
... Several studies have shown that higher food prices could lead to less food waste [74][75][76][77]. This correlation may well be a consequence of consumers avoiding over-purchasing when food prices rise [74,75]. A lower purchasing power may encourage consumers to adopt a more frugal lifestyle and motivate them to avoid food waste to reduce monetary loss [78,79]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The global consumer food waste (FW) estimates are mainly based on modeling data obtained from governments. However, a major data gap exists in FW at the household level, especially in developing countries. Meanwhile, the reliability of the existing data is questionable. This study aimed to quantify wheat bread waste (HBW) in Shiraz, Iran, and cross-examine the governmental HBW data. Face-to-face waste recall questionnaire interviews were conducted in 419 households from December 2018 to August 2019. A multistage sampling strategy consisting of stratification, clustering, and systematic sampling was employed. Moreover, we carried out a comprehensive document review to extract and analyze the official HBW data. The results revealed that the HBW in Shiraz is 1.80%—the waste amounts for traditional bread and non-traditional bread were 1.70% and 2.50%, respectively. The survey results were compared with the previous official data, revealing a substantial contradiction with the 30% HBW reported between 1991 and 2015. Possible reasons for this disparity are explored in this paper. Although our results cannot be generalized to other food commodities and locations, our findings suggest that considering the substantial likelihood of bias in the official data, policymakers should conduct more FW measurements and re-evaluate the accuracy of the existing data.
... For family-level characteristics, three variables, including family origin [12,28], household size [29], and family economic condition were introduced [18,60]. By doing so, the influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors at the family level could be controlled. ...
... Second, although body size exerts a significant impact on food wastage, it does not signify that we should encourage people to eat more than enough to decrease waste, because obesity and excessive energy consumption are also other wastage. From a nutrition perspective, eating food that exceeds one's nutritional needs is another type of waste [60]. Besides, it may not be cost-effective at the economic level, because the problem of overnutrition and rising medical costs [70] caused by excessive intake is already severe in China. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the economic growth and living standard improvement, food waste has become increasingly common among Chinese youth. To test whether body size affects the food waste performance of youth, we examined university students as representative of the Chinese youth and conducted a large-sample survey in 29 universities across 29 provinces. Based on 9192 questionnaires collected from Chinese college canteens, we found that body size was correlated with food waste. The smaller the body mass index (BMI) value, the higher the likelihood of plate waste, the higher the amount of waste, and the higher the ratio of food waste. Heterogeneity analyses revealed that BMI exerted a more significant impact on males than females, as well as a more substantial impact on northerners than southerners. Robust tests using other proxies to measure body size, robust regressions based on the new adjusted samples, and robust tests with an instrumental variable to overcome the endogenous issue suggested that the slimmer participants tended to be more wasteful. Hence, this study confirms that the slimmer youth tend to leave plate waste and waste more food per capita per meal. This study is the first attempt to analyze food wastage from the perspective of BMI in China to our best knowledge, and it provides a unique viewpoint for understanding young people’s food wastage.
... Household, or "consumer" food waste, is one of the largest categories of waste that occurs in the food chain (Rohm et al., 2017;Welch et al., 2018;Aschemann-Witzel et al., 2019;Yu and Jaenicke, 2020). On the consumer level, there are many different facets that can contribute to the generation of food waste. ...
... The benefits of accurate food waste data help identify weaknesses in the food chain, from the food manufacturer to the consumer environment. Presently, data indicate that much of the food waste occurring in developed countries is at the retail and consumer levels (Rohm et al., 2017;Welch et al., 2018;Aschemann-Witzel et al., 2019;Yu and Jaenicke, 2020). Besides future sweeping rules and regulations, much of the food waste initiatives are implemented by local governments, nonprofit organizations, and the food industry as there are limited federal regulations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, approximately one-third of food produced for human consumption is lost or discarded, comprising 1. 3 billion tons annually. Factors contributing to food waste from the food manufacturer to the consumer level are numerous. Events that may result in food waste include, but are not limited to, manufacturing food by-products, improper handling within the supply chain (e.g., cold chain deviations), misunderstood food date labels, over-purchasing, and consumer-level temperature abuse. From the manufacturer to consumer, each node in the food supply requires concerted efforts to divert food waste from entering municipal landfills. Depending on the state of the food waste, it is diverted to various outlets, from food donation for consumption to composting for soil amendment. To better understand the opportunities in the United States to divert food waste from landfills, current and emerging federal policies as well as the causes of food waste generation must be understood. Unfortunately, information on both the composition of food waste in the U.S. and how it impacts critical factors in food waste treatment, especially in food waste composting, is limited. Specifically, this review aims to: (1) discuss and compare critical factors that impact the fate of food waste and (2) examine emerging opportunities to advance the processing and products of food waste.
... It takes about 50% of U.S. land, 67% of its freshwater, and about 300 million barrels of oil per year to get food from the producer to the tables of consumers [2,3], yet only 60% of that food ends up being consumed [4]. A recent report shows that the annual cost U.S. consumer-level food waste was USD 240 billion [5]. Besides these costs, food waste represents a waste of key nutrients that are necessary to fill the nutritional gaps for millions of individuals [6]. ...
... An important part of reaching the goal of reducing food waste by 50% is implementing strategies at the household level to reduce food waste. It has been estimated that the average percentage of household food waste is 30-32% [5]. Therefore, research is needed at the household level to understand the predictors of food waste to better design and implement strategies for reducing it. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to explore the associations between food waste and the diet quality of foods purchased and with grocery purchasing behaviors. This was a cross-sectional study among 109 primary household food providers conducting primary shopping. Participants were recruited outside of local grocery stores and were asked to complete a survey assessing amounts of avoidable food waste and grocery purchasing behaviors. The diet quality of the foods purchased was assessed from grocery receipts using the Grocery Purchase Quality Index-2016 (GPQI-2016). Variables were associated using linear regression, analysis of covariance, and point biserial correlations. We found that fresh fruits (63%) and leafy greens (70%) were the foods that were the most wasted. The GPQI-2016 total score was significantly inversely associated with the total amount of food wasted (β = −0.63; 95% CI: −1.14,−0.12) after adjusting for important confounders. The reason “food past the date printed on the package” was directly correlated with food wasted (r = 0.40; p < 0.01) but inversely correlated with GPQI-2016 score (r = −0.21; p = 0.04). Food wasted, but not the GPQI-2016 score, was significantly higher among those who grocery shop 2–4 times per week compared to 1 time every 1–2 weeks (p = 0.02). In conclusion, food waste is inversely associated with diet quality and directly associated with grocery purchasing frequency.
... Survey reports have shown that in the United States, about 30-40% of the food supply remains uneaten, representing nearly $160 billion in economic losses. Furthermore, the average U.S. household wastes 31.9% of their food, a cost of $1,866 per household annually or an annual cost of $240 billion nationwide (Yu & Jaenicke, 2020). Food waste is a serious threat, making it crucial to understand food consumption (e.g., over-purchasing of food) and wastage patterns. ...
... Generating 40 million tons of food waste annually, the U.S. contributes 22% of the municipal solid waste (Yu & Jaenicke, 2020). Household food waste, the final consumption stage of the food supply chain, is the largest source of food waste in the U.S. (Bellemare et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Studies on the drivers of household consumer engagement in various food waste reduction strategies have been limited. We thus address this gap by developing a research model that utilises two well-known theories, namely, the Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour (TIB) and the Comprehensive Model of Environmental Psychology (CMEP), to explain food waste reduction behaviour in household consumers. The model hypothesises positive associations between emotional, social, and cognitive factors and food waste reduction behaviour, as conceptualised using the 3Rs (reuse, reduce, and recycle). A total of 515 U.S. household consumers participated in the cross-sectional survey. The results suggest that emotional (anticipated guilt), social (sense of community), and cognitive factors (awareness about consequences and environmental knowledge) were positively associated with food waste reduction behaviour. However, the study results did not support the association between a sense of community and reuse intentions. Moreover, anticipated guilt and awareness of consequences were significant drivers of the reuse and reduce food waste behaviours, respectively. The age of the study participants also had a significant controlling influence on the reduce intentions. The study findings have significant implications for governments, policymakers, marketers, and academics that are interested in developing strategies to mitigate the impact of food waste.
... In the pre-pandemic situation, we identified "Desserts", "Bread and pizza", "Vegetables" as luxury goods, for which the share of waste increases more than proportionally to the total food expenditure. In the case of vegetables, this result confirms the combined effect of income and preference for a healthy diet, resulting in more waste of these products in wealthier households [47]. ...
... These products maintain the role of luxury goods for households below the median food expenditure, i.e., as people spend more on food, they will waste proportionally more on fruits and vegetables. This evidence seems in line with previous findings showing that having a healthy diet (with more fruits and vegetables) increases the quantity of FW produced in the household [47]. Interestingly, the opposite occurs for households with food expenditure above the median, where fruits and vegetables seem to have become a necessity good during the pandemic, contrary to what happened before. ...
Article
Full-text available
Household food waste is a phenomenon primarily produced by consumer habits and behaviors. The necessary confinement measures implemented worldwide to contain the Covid-19 pandemic altered these consumer practices. This paper examines how household's culinary traditions and food management have changed in Mexico and their impact on food waste. We obtained 525 answers using an online survey about food habits distributed through social networks in Mexico between December 2020 and January 2021. The results show that the participating households increased their monetary expenditure on groceries during the pandemic and reduced food waste. The estimation of consumer responsiveness to waste, through the introduction of a framework based on a Quadratic Almost-Ideal Demand System, confirms that, even more during the lockdown, food waste has become a luxury good. The analysis of food category changes allows for a detailed study useful to curtail the level of food waste in Mexican households and encourage transitions towards sustainable and circular consumption behavior.
... Regarding wealth quintile, households belonging to the richest quintile were found to have greater plate waste compared to the poorest quintile. This corresponds with the findings of a previous study wherein higherincome households were found to waste more food than lower-income households, which may be explained that higher-income households consume diets that tend to include more perishable items, some of the waste can be explained by food spoiling before the household had a chance to eat it [51]. Moreover, according to the FAO report, the most important reason for food waste at the consumption level among richer individuals is that people simply can afford to waste food [52]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Plate waste is an urgent global public health problem. Gaining better knowledge of the quantity and patterns of plate waste among households may give critical insights into resolving the greater problem of unnecessary plate waste. The study was conducted to determine the amount of plate wastage across food security levels of households and evaluate possible factors associated with plate waste. Methods This investigation analyzed the data from the 2018 Expanded National Nutrition Survey. Food weighing, food inventory, and food recall were the methods used to collect household food consumption and plate waste. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale was used to identify levels of food security among households. Results The present study has revealed that the average household plate waste of rice was 49.6 g ± 4.7; meat, fish, & poultry was 7.5 g ± 0.5; and vegetable was 6.7 g ± 0.3. Rice (58%), vegetables (18%), and meat (9%) were the top 3 most wasted foods among Filipino households. Test showed that there was a significant difference in the wastage of rice ( p < 0.001 ), corn ( p < 0.001 ), vegetables ( p < 0.05 ), fish ( p < 0.001 ), meat ( p < 0.001 ), and fats and oils ( p = 0.001 ) across household food security levels. Households with the highest consumption of rice was 1.24 (CI: 1.06 – 1.46) times more likely to have rice waste compared to those households with the lowest consumption. Households with a female household head was 0.82 (CI: 0.78 – 0.87) times less likely to have plate waste of rice and rice products compared to those with male household head. The odds of rice wasting of household in urban areas was 0.83 (CI: 0.77 – 0.89) times higher in contrast to rural areas. The odds of rice wasting was 1.38 (CI: 1.15 – 1.66) times higher for households in the rich quintile compared to the poorest quintile. Household with highest vegetable consumption were 3.56 (CI: 2.51 – 5.03) times more likely to have vegetable waste compared to those with the lowest consumption. Households with 5 members were 1.13 (CI: 1.01 – 1.27) times more likely to have vegetable waste. The odds of wasting vegetables was 1.50 (CI: 1.14–1.97) times greater among households in the richest quintile compared in the poorest quintile. Families with the highest fish, meat & poultry consumption was 1.38 (CI: 1.01 – 1.91) times more likely of having fish, meat & poultry waste than households with lowest consumption. Fish, meat, and poultry plate waste was 0.81 (CI: 0.68 – 0.96) times less likely in households with 5 members or less than in households with more than 5 members. Compared to households in the lowest quintile, those in the middle quintile were 1.55 (CI: 1.01 – 2.38) times more likely to throw away fish, meat, and poultry. The odds of wasting fish, meat, and poultry was 2.26 (CI: 1.35 – 3.79) times higher for those in the richest than those in the poorest quintile. Conclusions Findings suggest that plate waste is indeed a public health problem that should be addressed. Future research studies should explore the nutrient losses that might stem from plate wastage in order to have a more accurate approach when it comes to the development of strategies and interventions aimed at reducing household plate waste.
... This is of particular concern because "about half of the water used to produce this food also goes to waste since agriculture is the largest human use of water" (United Nations Environment Programme, n.d.). One such reason for food waste is inaccurate knowledge of food labeling dates (Yu & Jaenicke, 2020). For example, consumers will waste food when it has reached the "best by" date, confusing it with the "use by" date. ...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change, directly impacted by human behavior, has been investigated and evaluated across disciplines. The Six Americas was developed as a segmentation tool to communicate effectively with the United States population about climate change (Leiserowitz et al., 2021) across a spectrum from those likely to act in opposition to climate change mitigation strategies to those actively seeking to remediate the climate change effects. Behavior analysts offer unique skills to intervene at the individual level effectively. Behavior analysts will benefit from learning about this conceptual model and its tools, particularly to inform intervention across the spectrum of the Six Americas. This paper will cover a background of the Six Americas and suggestions on how to intervene for these different segments at the individual level, followed by a brief review of the existing effective literature, particularly regarding changing behavior in the food, energy, and transportation sectors. Specifically, behavior analytic interventions will be suggested for a population concerned about climate change who may also be posed for action. Finally, we will provide suggestions to guide behavior analysts to intervene with those disengaged or actively dismissive of the threats posed by climate change.
... Due to global population growth, the demand for food has also been increasing. However, the growth in food demand has been accompanied by a high production of waste [1][2][3]. In fact, a significant amount of food waste is generated every day worldwide [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The food industry is one of the sectors that produces considerable amounts of solid waste on a daily basis. Handling such waste has been a significant issue of worldwide concern. As a result, research into developing low-cost and effective technology for the recovery of food waste is critical in order to keep pace with the rapidly developing world. This research investigated the potential of maggot production on the recovery of food waste. Four different food waste materials (banana, starch, pineapples, and oranges) were taken into consideration. Additionally, the effect of the fly attractant on the production system’s overall performance was assessed; the fly attractant was a mixture of cattle blood and meat waste. With a correlation index of 0.96 (without fly attractant) and 0.87 (with fly attractant), the number of days before harvesting and the average maggot weight had a very high (positive) correlation. Moreover, it was observed that using a fly attractant increased maggot yield substantially. For instance, the banana materials produced up to 94 g/kg of maggot weight on the eighth day, which is approximately a 32.4% increase from the same material without fly attractant. On the other hand, the trials’ relative dry weight reduction ranged from 52.5% to 82.4%. The results of this study also showed that producing maggots can be a practical method for recovering food waste, particularly when combined with the use of a fly attractant. The residue from the maggot production process can be applied as an organic fertilizer.
... Additionally, economic conditions affect household food consumption and wastage [13]. Hence, family income [50], Engel coefficient, and income structure are used as control variables. Thirdly, family social capital and food supply characteristics can influence household food wastage [51]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the Chinese rural household food waste issue from the unique perspective of religious beliefs based on 1380 samples in 26 provinces in mainland China. By using the count regression approach model, it is found that about 2.30% of the home meal is wasted on average for Chinese rural households. The empirical results reveal that religion has a significantly negative impact on residents’ food wastage, and religious rural households waste less food than their counterparts. Taking into account the possible omission of variables and selection bias, the above conclusion is still valid. Additionally, male household heads, small household size, young families, bad food storage conditions, and the poorer convenience of buying foods are positively related to the higher food waste rate in rural China. Thus, the study provides evidence that religiosity plays a positive role in reducing food waste in rural China. As most of the world’s population is religious to some extent, the finding may also apply to other countries or regions, and it implies that religion and sustainable food consumption are closely related.
... Game theory is an approach often applied by researchers in a bid to solve cooperation problems in FLW reduction. Within this approach, FLW performance is usually presented as a parameter or constraint (e.g., Yu and Jaenicke, 2020). For example, Huang et al. (2018) developed a Stackelberg game model aiming to maximize individual profits. ...
Article
This paper presents a review of research on food loss and waste (FLW) from the perspective of operations management (OM). Supply chain FLW represents a significant challenge for researchers and practitioners grappling with issues of famine and inequitable access to food supplies. Our broad literature pool includes 346 articles published in prestigious OM, management, and prominent economics, environment, and food science journals. The contribution of this review is threefold. First, we provide insights into FLW studies from the lens of specific stages within the food supply chain and from the perspective of the entire food supply chain. Second, we identify overarching research themes in the FLW literature. Third, we draw insights from our literature sample, presentations in the leading OM conferences, working papers, and 30 semi-structured interviews of food supply chain stakeholders to provide a projection of future research opportunities. Such a review approach ensures our analysis being relevant to practice.
... With regards to proportion, food secure households waste more sh, meat, and poultry than the latter. This is consistent with prior research which found that healthier diets and higher income will result to an increased household plate waste, whereas lower household food security are correlated with less plate waste [24]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Plate waste is an urgent global research problem. Gaining better knowledge of the quantity and patterns of plate waste among households may give critical insights into resolving the greater problem of unnecessary plate waste. The study was conducted to determine the amount of plate wastage across food security levels of households and evaluate possible factors associated with plate waste. Methods This investigation analyzed the data from the 2018 Expanded National Nutrition Survey. Food weighing, food inventory, and food recall were the methods used to collect household food consumption and plate waste. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale was used to identify levels of food security among households. Results The present study has revealed that rice-vegetables-fish/meat, or a combination of the two was the usual meal pattern observed among households. Rice, vegetables, and meat were the top 3 most wasted foods among Filipino households. Food secure households wasted more rice, fats and oils, cereals, fish, as well as maize and corn products than food insecure households. Too much meal portion size, greater number of household members and wealth increases the likelihood of rice, vegetable, and meat wastage. Conclusions These findings suggest that plate waste is a health policy issue as households are routinely purchasing large amounts of nutritious produce that they are not consuming; and hence, increasing the need for interventions aimed at reducing plate waste among households.
... In their study, they showed that food price, food expenditures, household structure, skills, tastes, and location are related to food waste. Yu and Jaenicke [28] estimated the amount of food waste for 4826 households in the US using data that recorded information about food, including household demographics and quantities acquired. In this study, they revealed that household food security, participation in assistance programs is associated with less food waste, and also that larger households have less food waste. ...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze the contributing factors (i.e., attribute factors and behavioral factors) that lead to household food waste in Japan by region (i.e., large cities, small cities, and villages) using a nationwide sample and an ordered probit model. As a result of the analysis, it was found that “gender”, “age”, “children in the household”, “occupation”, “safety awareness”, and “time” were related to the occurrence of food waste in terms of consumer attributes, which were common throughout Japan. In terms of consumer behavior, “action”, “checking labels”, and “food management” are related. Among these, only “checking labels” had a positive relationship with the occurrence of food waste. By region, “children in the household”, “time”, “safety awareness”, and “food management” were particularly affected in large cities, while they were less affected in small cities and towns. For those who had “agricultural experience”, the occurrence of food waste was significantly lower in towns and villages.
... The quantity of food wasted on the home front ranges from 11% to 43%, depending on the source (Ishangulyyev et al., 2019;Yu and Jaenicke, 2020), and the annual economic loss due to domestic food waste is estimated to be $160 to $240 billion in the U.S. alone (Bandoim, 2020;Buzby et al., 2014). Domestic food waste has been adduced to various causes, including lack of knowledge about how to store food properly. ...
Article
Highlights Significant amounts of waste are produced along the agri-food supply chain. The impact of these agri-food wastes on the environment is very costly. Current solutions to reduce waste include upcycling and improved food labeling. Future goals include improving the cost-effectiveness of solutions. Abstract . As the human population edges closer to nine billion, we must explore how we can sustainably use Earth’s limited resources. Current agricultural production and food processing create significant amounts of wastes that have drastic effects on the environment, on the cost of production, and on human health and well-being. About a third of these wastes are produced domestically, as well as from agricultural production and food processing, and it often constitutes a disposal problem, although it contains many carbon-based materials (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, micronutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibers) that can be converted into useful value-added products. Converting these wastes into useful products is important because of the impact it has on the environment, including energy consumption, water usage, and the amount of carbon it releases when discarded. The long-term goal is to ensure that all materials from agri-food production and processing are turned into valuable products based on the principle of upcycling and circular bioeconomies. This short review presents succinct information on where food and agricultural wastes and by-products are generated, it summarizes recent advances in waste reduction and value-added utilization, including the need for behavioral changes and improvements in food labeling, and it presents innovations, limitations, and future prospects for circular food systems that focus on total conversion of food and agricultural wastes to value-added products. Keywords: Agri-food waste, Circular economy, Food by-product, Food residue, Sustainability, Upcycling, Value-added.
... Due to the high population growth around the world, the demand for food has also been increasing tremendously. However, the growth in food demand goes parallel with the high production of food waste [1][2][3]. In that matter, millions of tons of food waste are generated every day globally. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Waste recovery is an important aspect towards human and environmental health protection. Unfortunately, proper food waste management is among the serious challenges in the field of solid waste management worldwide. Therefore, it is of great importance to conduct studies towards achieving efficient and cost-effective approaches for food waste management. This study investigated the potential of recovering food waste through maggots’ production as animal feed. The influence of fly attractant application on maggot production was also investigated. The study also investigated the potential of maggot production for waste recovery and reduction. Four different types of food waste (starch food leftovers, rotten bananas and peels, rotten pineapple and peels, and rotten oranges) were used in the investigation process. From the results, it was observed that the application of fly attractants had a significant effect on the production of maggots as determined by the weights after harvesting. Average weight of 94 g/kg of maggot was achieved from banana materials with an application of fly attractant during the 8th day of the cultivation; which is equivalent to a 32.4% increase from the same day when the material was cultured without applying fly attractant. Also, from the starch materials, about 77 g/kg of maggot weight was achieved; which is a 54.6% increase from the same day and the same material but without application of fly attractant. Moreover, the relative dry weight reduction in the trials varied from 52.5% to 82.4%.
... According to the expert opinions prepared by the Analysis and Thematic Studies Team of the Analysis and Documentation Office in April 2016 on "How to avoid food waste-strategies to improve the efficiency of the EU distribution chain in food donation" [5], according to Eurostat estimates, food waste is generated in 27 EU countries. Much of the food waste comes from households [1,6], accounting for as much as 42%. The second-largest amount of food waste occurs in production [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to assess the stresses of the structural materials of the forming module in the process of burger production from vegetable outgrades. The simulation research object was a virtual CAD 3D model of a device used for forming multi-vegetable products. Strength tests were performed on the computational model by applying the finite element method. The following were analyzed in the model: the forces exerted by the mixture of vegetables on the side walls of the tank and the dosing unit; the force from the servomotor resulting from the horizontal thickening of the vegetable mixture; the force from the servomotor resulting from the vertical mixing of the vegetable mixture; the force from the die assembly actuator; the force caused by punching the actuator from the die assembly. For evaluating the structure in the scope of the study, it was assumed that safely reduced stresses should be taken into account, with a safety factor equal to 1.1 of the yield strength of the parent material from which the structure was made (steel 1.4301 (304) with a yield stress Re0.2 of 230 MPa). For welds, safely reduced stresses should be taken into account, with a safety factor equal to 1.4 of the yield strength (Re0.2 of 230 MPa). Strength analyses confirmed that the permissible stress levels were not exceeded in the molding module.
... Due to the high population growth around the world, the demand for food has also been increasing tremendously. However, the growth in food demand goes parallel with the high production of food waste [1][2][3]. In that matter, millions of tons of food waste are generated every day globally. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Waste recovery is an important aspect towards human and environmental health protection. Unfortunately, proper food waste management is among the serious challenges in the field of solid waste management worldwide. Therefore, it is of great importance to conduct studies towards achieving efficient and cost-effective approaches for food waste management. This study investigated the potential of recovering food waste through maggots’ production as animal feed. The influence of fly attractant application on maggot production was also investigated. The study also investigated the potential of maggot production for waste recovery and reduction. Four different types of food waste (starch food leftovers, rotten bananas and peels, rotten pineapple and peels, and rotten oranges) were used in the investigation process. From the results, it was observed that the application of fly attractants had a significant effect on the production of maggots as determined by the weights after harvesting. Average weight of 94 g/kg of maggot was achieved from banana materials with an application of fly attractant during the 8th day of the cultivation; which is equivalent to a 32.4% increase from the same day when the material was cultured without applying fly attractant. Also, from the starch materials, about 77 g/kg of maggot weight was achieved; which is a 54.6% increase from the same day and the same material but without application of fly attractant. Moreover, the relative dry weight reduction in the trials varied from 52.5% to 82.4%.
... In this study, we found that UAE nationals and those satisfied with their life in the UAE tend to be particularly less concerned about climate change locally. Coincidentally, these individuals tend to also have higher income levels implying that they could contribute the most in reducing emissions at the household level if appropriately incentivized [67]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Switching to energy mixes that use more non-fossil fuels is critical to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to tackle climate change. Climate change poses a major challenge to oil exporting Gulf countries, like the rest of the world, but research on human views on energy and climate change is limited. We aim to fill this gap by focusing on the UAE, a nation with a peculiar demographic composition that includes an overwhelming proportion of expatriates and transitions towards green and nuclear resources. We examine whether transiency of residence and life satisfaction play a role in influencing perceptions about climate change and energy sources. We also analyze how expatriates' opinions differ from UAE citizens who have significantly higher income and welfare benefits.
... Vast amounts of resources are used to produce, process, and transport food. If this food does not end up being consumed, the resources embedded in the process are wasted and cause environmental degradation [2,[9][10][11]. It is estimated that nearly a quarter of the water, arable land, and fertilizer used globally for food crop production is associated with food wastage [6]. In 2010, China's food waste accounted for more than 10% of the country's total water use [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We review existing studies on rice harvest loss from the aspects of estimation methods, magnitudes, causes, effects, and interventions. The harvest losses examined occurred from the field reaping to storage processes, including threshing, winnowing, and field transportation. We find that existing studies on rice harvest losses have focused on quantitative losses in Asia and Africa. Lack of knowledge, inadequate harvesting techniques, poor infrastructure, and inefficient harvest management practices are considered critical contributors to the losses. The magnitudes and causes of rice harvest losses are now better understood than interventions, which have simply been presented but lack an assessment of the effects and a cost–benefit analysis. Interestingly, reduction in harvest losses may threaten some farmers’ profits, such as rural women who make their living from post-production manual operations. Considering the current status of the literature, future researchers should examine how to balance social and individual welfare since farmers are key stakeholders in intervention implementation. A good understanding of the existing researches can help clarify future efforts for loss reduction, thereby reducing the burden of increasing agricultural production and promoting sustainable development of resources and the environment.
... As the world population grows and available land for agricultural use shrinks, the word "waste" carries a continually increasing negative connotation in the food supply industry. Although some waste is inevitable, currently in the U.S., 30-40% of the entire food supply goes uneaten and ends up as waste, equating to approximately $240 billion in losses (Yu and Jaenicke, 2020). This does not take into account the unrealized loss of water, labor, energy, and other resources along the supply chain used to produce consumer quality food. ...
Article
In the U.S., 30-40% of all food produced ends up as waste. By taking advantage of biological processes this waste nutrients can be converted into value-added 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO). However, food waste contains live bacteria and fungi which must first be inactivated, a process typically done with autoclaving under high pressure steam. If contaminants are not removed they can out-compete added industrial microbes for nutrients, resulting in lower yields of bio-products. Unfortunately, sterilization methods such as autoclaving greatly increase production time, and increase energy consumption. This creates a demand for novel microorganisms that can out-compete food waste microbiota by natural means without the need for sterilization of food waste. For this study, several Bacillus licheniformis isolates from Yellowstone National Park were investigated for their potential use in the 2,3-BDO industry. B. licheniformis species are a strain of industrial importance as of late, due to the wide metabolic functions and sustainable growth conditions above 45 ℃. Whole genomic sequencing data and biochemical classification of B. licheniformis YNP1-TSU, B. licheniformis YNP2-TSU, and B. licheniformis YNP3-TSU were assessed and revealed a wide assortment of anti-microbial peptides and antibodies as well as catabolic genes for assimilation of glucose, fructose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, starch and sucrose, and linoleic acid. All three B. licheniformis strains had an optimal growth temperature of 50 ℃, and were identified as high 2,3-BDO producers. Each strain YNP1-TSU, YNP2-TSU, and YNP3-TSU produced 0.44 g/g, 0.45 g/g, and 0.43 g/g from mixed sugars found in non-sterilized food waste, respectively.
... According to other research studies [27][28][29], people are aware of the issues with sustainable food waste, but unconscious practices lead to excessive food waste). Food waste in residences ranges from 28.4% to 31.9% [30], which appears to be higher than in other businesses. Consumers, regardless of being the major contributor of food waste [31,32], require a complex set of management behaviors [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The sustainability of food waste is one of the most important contemporary economic, social, and environmental issues that encompasses useful academic, practical, and policymaking implications. Under the domain of sustainability, food waste is a serious global challenge with a growing public, political, and corporate concern. Existing literature regarding the sensitization of consumers and the promotion of waste cautious behaviors still has much room for improvement in household waste. To bridge the gap in the literature, this study identifies and examines determinants of young consumers’ food waste reduction behavior in households. Using a sample size of 391 young consumers of household food products from Pakistan, a full-scaled administrative survey is conducted, and our hypotheses are empirically tested by using the PLS structural modeling equation. Our findings reveal significant impacts from both cognitive and emotional aspects on sustainable food waste reduction behavior. Our results have several important implications for policymakers and all the stakeholders, especially for marketers, including advertising strategies, policies to mitigate the impact of food waste, and the development of educational programs related to food waste.
... Although the copula method for addressing OVB is a worthy contender to approaches such as covariate adjustment and IV regression -especially given that it does not require any external information for implementation -it has, to our knowledge, not been used in psychological research studies. Thus far, application of the method seems to be limited to the areas of business and economics (Christopoulos et al., 2019;Datta et al., 2017;Hult et al., 2018;Tran & Tsionas, 2015;Yu & Jaenicke, 2020). In addition, there remain some open questions about the performance of the method under different conditions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Causal inference in psychological research is typically hampered by unobserved confounding. A copula-based method can be used to statistically control for this problem without the need for instruments or covariates, given relatively lenient distributional assumptions on independent variables and error terms. The current study aims to: (1) provide a user-friendly introduction to the copula method for psychology researchers; and (2) examine the degree of non-normality in the independent variables required for satisfactory performance. A Monte Carlo simulation study was used to assess the behavior of the copula method under various combinations of conditions (sample size, skewness of independent variables, effect size, and magnitude of confounding). In addition, an applied example from research on the effects of parental rearing on adult personality and life satisfaction was used to illustrate the method. Simulations revealed that the copula method performed better at higher levels of skewness in the independent variables, and that the impacts of lower skewness can be offset to some extent by larger sample size. When skewness and/or sample size is too small, the copula method is biased towards the uncorrected model. In the applied example, parental rejection/punishment predicted less adaptive personality and life satisfaction, with no evidence of confounding. For parental control/overprotection, there was evidence that confounding attenuated the estimated relationship with personality/life satisfaction. Copula adjustment is a promising method for handling unobserved confounding. The discussion focuses on how to proceed when assumptions are not quite met, and outlines potential avenues for future research.
... 8,66 Furthermore, healthier diets, which include more fruits and vegetables, are associated with more food waste. 67,68 This suggests that the challenge of rectifying household food waste volumes cannot be solved by just moving away from highly perishable foods to less perishable forms. ...
Article
Obesity and food waste are related issues, both exacerbated by an overabundance of food. Efforts to reduce food waste can have varying unintended, obesity-related consequences, which further underscores the need for a systems approach to food waste reduction. Yet, these 2 issues are rarely examined together. It is the authors’ point of view that for nutrition educators and other public health practitioners to develop interventions that simultaneously address food waste and obesity, they need to understand how actions at the consumer-level may impact waste and its related food system consequences earlier in the supply chain.
... The FWI will focus on food waste that occurs when food is taken out of the supply chain by retailers, food service providers, and consumers, while the FLI focuses on food loss that occurs when food is taken out of the supply chain from harvest/slaughter/catch up to but excluding the retail stage and does not reenter in any other productive use (U.N. FAO, 2020). Although it could be argued that in some cases food loss and waste can be economically efficient (i.e., the costs of recovering and redirecting uneaten food are greater than the benefits) or the result of a rational agent's optimization problem (Lusk & Ellison, 2017), instances of food loss and waste due to inefficiencies could be found in all stages of the supply chain (Ishangulyyev et al., 2019;Minor et al., 2020;Yu & Jaenicke, 2020). At the retail and consumer levels, it has been estimated that fruits and vegetables accounted for 12% and 19%, respectively, of the $161.6 billion of food wasted in the United States in 2010 (Buzby et al., 2014). ...
Article
Applications of blockchain in the food sector are growing and the adoption of farm‐to‐fork traceability systems is at the forefront. We review applications of blockchain across different dimensions while focusing on how broad adoption of the technology might help address major challenges faced by the U.S. fresh produce industry. These challenges include food safety, food fraud, food loss and waste, and the general need for better traceability systems. We discuss whether blockchain technologies might play a role in enhancing the resilience of the produce supply chain and highlight limitations and challenges of the technology stakeholders might consider going forward. JEL CLASSIFICATION L86; O32; Q13
... It has been shown that one of the most significant contributors of this stage is households (Kim et al., 2019). For example, in USA and Europe, around 32% (Yu and Jaenicke, 2020) and 53% (FUSIONS, 2016) of food waste arise from households respectively, despite this waste being mostly edible and avoidable (Graham-Rowe et al., 2014); thus, households are significant contributors to food waste. Given the possibility of reducing food waste by increasing awareness (FAO, 2011) and taking prevention strategies, which are more effective than treating food waste (Quested et al., 2011), there are increasing calls to develop effective messages that can reduce the amount of food waste by increasing awareness (Pearson and Perera, 2018;Porpino, 2016). ...
Food waste has become a pressing problem in the world, leading to a range of economic, social, and environmental issues. As a result, there are increasing calls to develop effective messages that can increase consumer awareness of food waste and its negative impacts. Drawing upon a recent research on the influences of numerical precision on consumer decision making, the present research tests the ‘match-up’ effects between numerical precision and message framing on consumer awareness of food waste issues. Two experimental studies (Ntotal = 799) show that more (vs. less) precise numerical information can increase consumer awareness of food waste issues when combined with a loss message framing, whereas less (vs. more) precise numerical information is more effective when combined with a gain message framing. This research also examines the role of time availability as a boundary condition, such that when perceptions of time availability is heightened or reduced, the predicted effects are attenuated. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Article
This study analyzes consumers' valuation for a natural coating that extends the shelf life of produce. Specifically, we examine the effect of providing information about the natural coating's ability to reduce food waste on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) using bananas and tomatoes as products of interest. We found higher WTP among participants provided with the information. Our study underscores the importance of cognitive and noncognitive factors in understanding the implications of food‐waste related interventions. We also used Query Theory to explore participants' thought processes. The results indicate that those provided with the information generated more value‐increasing thoughts than those not provided with the information.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Doğa ve insan ilişkileri ve bu ilişkilerin çevre üzerinde neden olduğu sonuçlar, özellikle son otuz yılda, dünya gündemini belirler hale gelmiştir. Endüstri 1.0 ile başlayan ve küreselleşme ile devam eden süreçte, insanoğluna biçilen “tüketici” fonksiyonu, doğal kaynakların kullanımı üzerindeki baskıları daha da arttırmış, zaten kıt olan bu kaynakların bilinçsizce kullanılması ile sadece etkinlik ve verimlilik kaybı yaşanmamış, aynı zamanda ortaya çıkan atıkların miktar ve türlerinin de çoğalmasına neden olmuştur. Bu çalışmanın konusunu, atık türlerinden biri olan ve iyi yönetilmesi halinde kent yoksulluğu ve israfı ile mücadelede önemli bir unsur olan, diğer yandan metan gazı salınımı ile küresel ısınmaya da neden olan ve bu yüzden de mutlaka kontrol altında tutulması gereken “gıda atığı” oluşturmaktadır. Literatüre yapacağı katkının dışında, dünyada ve son dönemde Türkiye’de, özellikle büyükşehirlerde faaliyet göstermeye başlayan, gıda atıklarının neden olduğu çevre kirliliği başta olmak üzere, israf ve yoksullukla mücadelede de önemli bir mekanizma olarak görülen “yeşil nesil restoranların” anlaşılmasına ve öneminin ortaya konulmasına ve bir politikaya bağlı olarak ülke genelinde yaygınlaştırılmasına katkı sağlayacağından bu çalışmanın önemli olacağı düşünülmektedir. BM tarafından 2021 yılında yayınlanan Gıda İsraf Endeksi Raporu’na göre, beşli güven ölçeğinde, çok düşük seviye aralığında yer alan Türkiye’nin, yeşil nesil restoran fikri üzerinden çevre kirliliği başta olmak üzere, israf ile mücadelede elde edeceği kazanımları ortaya koyarak öneriler getirmek ve böylece konuyu tartışmaya açmak çalışmanın temel amacını oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmanın kapsamı, İstanbul’da yer alan yeşil nesil restoranların gıda atığını önlemede gerçekleştirdikleri faaliyetlerle sınırlandırılmıştır. Nitel araştırma yönteminin kullanıldığı çalışmada, literatür taraması yapılmış, ilgili kurum ve kuruluşların analiz ve teknik raporlarından yararlanılmıştır. Ayrıca, ABD’de bir yeşil nesil restoran olan “Chez Panisse Restoran” yetkilileri ve Türkiye’deki yeşil nesil restoran hareketinin paydaşları ile yarı yapılandırılmış mülakat tekniği üzerinden birincil veriler elde edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Toplanan verilerin analiz edilmesini müteakip elde edilen bulgular değerlendirilmiş ve yapılan önerilerle çalışma sonuçlandırılmıştır.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. Food waste is a major problem that has effects on the environment, society, and the economy on a global scale. The disposal of food waste and related factors are reviewed in this article. The original literature's technical phrases have been adapted to define wasted food. This brought to light the complexity of the problem, which includes behaviors and attitudes that contribute to food waste in household, institutional, commercial settings, policies that encourage food waste production, situational, behavioral, attribute, and personal aspects. The variety of behaviors and reasons for food waste should be addressed in the prevention methods. They ought to be comprehensive to appeal to people's values, equip them with the knowledge to reduce waste, and support logistical advancements to promote avoidance. Keywords: Food waste, Residential wastage, Institutional food wastage, Commercial food wastage, Policies driving food waste generation
Presentation
Full-text available
The paper presents a detailed analysis of selected factors that shape the attitude of the population towards food waste and the possibilities of its prevention. In addition to the perceived importance of food waste issues, particular attention is given to the importance of planning food purchases and how food is managed in the household. The paper highlights the significant importance of different attitudinal and behavioural patterns involved in food waste prevention. The individual findings are based on extensive research on attitudes and declared behaviour of the Czech population.
Article
Reduction and better management of food waste affects food security at the household level. Various efforts to increase availability by optimizing production have been carried out but it will be more difficult if it is not accompanied by a reduction in food waste which tends to increase, especially at the consumer level. This study aims to examine how behavior and preventive strategies to reduce food waste in households from various literatures can be used as educational materials or the basis for food waste management programs from households. This Systematic Review study was conducted using the PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, and Google Scholar search databases. Search was limited to articles in peer-reviewed journals, written in English and Indonesian between 2013 and 2022. Publications older than 2013 were not included in compiling the study. After the literature was obtained, then the articles were filtered by title and abstract, including filtering out irrelevant and duplication articles so that there were 13 articles eligible for review. Food loss and waste accounts for > 20% of all food produced, which should still be avoided because reducing food waste can increase food availability for the community. The most widely discussed determinants in the study review are behaviors that include food selection, eating habits and food processing, shopping practices, and waste minimization practices. The potential for reducing food waste can be increased with the most dominant preventive strategies, namely education and socialization, then food management at the individual level, community and government participation.
Article
We developed a survey to collect information on consumers’ intentions to discard 15 food products when exposed to different date labels. Results show that the use of certain date labels has the capacity to reduce food waste, but the reductions would happen differentially across food groups. When we examine the nutritional implications, we find that a shift from the ‘Best by’ date label to the ‘Best if Used by’ date label would increase total household purchases of energy and lead to a disproportional increase in purchases of fats, cholesterol and protein.
Article
The study established a defensible estimate of household food waste and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Participants from 65 households measured food waste for seven consecutive days and then reported volume by food type, meal, day of the week, and whether it was avoidable or unavoidable. Participants from 26 households were then interviewed to gather further insights. This primary research enabled the comparative impact of correlating factors driving food waste among households with differing age and socio‐economic demographics to be quantified. The estimates of food waste and associated greenhouse gases encompassed food types, their disposal by individual households, and the subsequent management of municipal solid waste streams. Reported as carbon dioxide equivalents, the study's results identified where the greatest impacts on the carbon footprint of food waste can be achieved and the role that the municipality can play in motivating and enabling behaviours that lead to reductions in household food waste and associated greenhouse gases. Per capita food waste is highest in households with children. Reducing avoidable food waste in meat and poultry has a 20 times greater impact on GHG emissions than reducing a similar weight of avoidable waste in fruits and vegetables. GHG reductions from both reducing and composting all food waste in Oakville, Ontario would equate to removing 3,345 cars off the road annually. Per capita food waste is highest in households with children. Reducing avoidable food waste in meat and poultry has a 20 times greater impact on GHG emissions than reducing a similar weight of avoidable waste in fruits and vegetables. GHG reductions from both reducing and composting all food waste in Oakville, Ontario would equate to removing 3,345 cars off the road annually. Cette étude traite du gaspillage alimentaire des ménages et des émissions de gaz à effet de serre associées à Oakville, en Ontario. Les 65 ménages participants ont mesuré leur gaspillage alimentaire pendant sept jours consécutifs en indiquant le volume par type d'aliment, de repas, de jour de la semaine, tout en mentionnant si le gaspillage spécifique était justifié ou non. Un sous‐groupe de 26 ménages a ensuite été interrogé afin de recueillir des informations supplémentaires. Cette recherche primaire a permis de quantifier l'impact comparatif des facteurs à l'origine du gaspillage alimentaire des ménages d'âge et de caractéristiques socio‐économiques différents. Les estimations du gaspillage alimentaire et des gaz à effet de serre associés englobent les types d'aliments, leur élimination par les ménages individuels et la gestion ultérieure des flux de déchets solides municipaux. Exprimés en équivalents de dioxyde de carbone, les résultats de l'étude ont permis d'identifier les domaines où l'on peut faire des gains importants en termes de réduction des GES, ainsi que le rôle qu'une municipalité peut jouer pour favoriser les comportements qui conduisent à la réduction des déchets alimentaires des ménages et des gaz à effet de serre associés.
Chapter
At virtually all points in the food supply chain, the amount of food loss is substantial, leading to increased attention on policies to address food waste. In this chapter, we develop an economic framework to help explain why food is lost at each point in the supply chain, identify locations in the food distribution system responsible for the largest shares of food waste, and develop policies that may be helpful in mitigating food loss and eliminating food waste. Throughout this chapter, we emphasize the core insight that food loss, which occurs when food becomes unfit for human consumption, and food waste, which occurs when food that is still fit for human consumption is discarded, do not necessarily imply market failure. That said, food loss and food waste at current levels represent a substantial departure from the socially optimal resource allocation, and developing policies that leverage the power of economic incentives may be successful in reducing both food loss and food waste in an otherwise well-functioning food system.
Chapter
The application of the principles of circular economics in the management of single‐type biodegradable waste from direct production (food production, wood waste) can bring economic and environmental benefits by ensuring the production of products with a higher added value and by saving primary resources. Biodegradable municipal waste (BMW), as part of municipal solid waste (MSW), remains a problem. The information on the quality of “clean kitchen waste collected separately” will be available only after the introduction of separate collections after 2025. In terms of valorization of such waste, a limiting factor for its further use may be newly monitored pollutants (e.g. microplastics).
Article
Full-text available
This study built mediation analysis models to test the hypothesis that a moral hazard-measured as whether harvest operators’ work attitudes are serious-mediates the effects of mechanical harvest outsourcing on rice harvest losses based on a 1106-household survey in China. The major findings are as follows. First, the average rice harvest loss rate in 2016 in China was approximately 3.65%, equalling eight million tons of rice or one million hectares of farmland. Second, after addressing the potential endogeneity, we preliminarily found the mediation effect using the three-step method. The adjusted product of coefficients method from the Sobel test, distribution of the product test, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo test all indicated the significance of the mediation effect arising from work attitudes. Third, we observed the mediation effect through moral hazard for large-scale farmers, but not when farmers used combine harvesters. These results supported the presence of a moral hazard in mechanical harvest outsourcing and showed that combine harvesting could facilitate harvest loss reduction. Policymakers should consider regulating the principal – agent relationship in harvest outsourcing and encourage land transfers to form large-scale farms to promote combine harvesting. These are critical in achieving the sustainable development goal of halving food loss and waste worldwide.
Article
Efforts to reduce food loss and waste are being made across the supply chain, with households targeted as one of the most wasteful nodes in the chain. In this article, we consider the impact of changing one household food management behavior: grocery shopping. Households that shop more frequently typically incur less food waste. This has resulted in a call for households to adopt a just‐in‐time (JIT) grocery shopping approach, taking smaller trips to the store more frequently. While households may be able to reduce food waste by adopting a JIT shopping approach, their willingness to shop more frequently is less clear. The purpose of this research is to examine the trade‐offs between grocery shopping frequency and food waste behaviors among U.S. households. We employ a choice experiment to determine whether consumers are willing to reduce waste by adopting a JIT shopping approach. We explore heterogeneity across households and consider the potential welfare impacts associated with moving to a JIT model of shopping. Our results indicate that, on average, consumers were averse to adding extra shopping trips to their weekly grocery shopping routines and would need to be compensated to do so (mean: $24/week for one extra trip). Consumers would need to see approximately a 12 percentage point reduction in waste to be indifferent to adding one shopping trip to their weekly routine. Spending more to waste less resulted in more welfare gains, on average, yet there is significant heterogeneity in grocery shopping preferences.
Article
The 1959–1961 Great Famine in China was one of the most devastating events in history and had long-term effects on economic behavior. This paper seeks to provide a novel explanation for heterogeneous food waste behaviors across age cohorts from the perspective of differing famine experiences. Based on 2004–2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data, this paper constructs a difference-in-difference estimator to explore the long-term effects of the early-life famine experience of the household head on household food waste behavior in later life. The results indicate that the more serious the famine that the household head experienced in early life was, the less wasted food and lost calories per capita there were, especially for adolescence during the famine. The mechanism analysis shows that households whose head experienced the 1959–1961 Great Famine in early life tend to save more than those whose household head did not. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the formation of preference and the variation in household food waste behaviors across age cohorts.
Article
An estimated 40% of food produced in the United States is wasted, which poses a significant barrier to achieving a sustainable future—so much so that the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal no. 12, to “ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns,” includes a goal to “halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer level, and reduce food losses along the production and supply chains by 2030.” Annually, consumers waste approximately 90 billion pounds of food, equating to roughly 1 pound per person per day. More specifically, consumer waste is the largest contributor to the food waste problem when compared with other steps along the supply chain, such as production, post-harvest handling and storage, processing, and distribution. Furthermore, American families discard approximately 25% of the food and beverages they buy. When considering the type of waste coming from households, fresh fruits and vegetables rank highest at 22%, with dairy products, at 19%, following in close second. A variety of factors contribute to why consumers waste so much food. For dairy, commonly referenced reasons are related to the misunderstanding of date labels, poor planning of purchases, spoilage before consuming products, and improper storage. This wasted food accumulates in landfills and produces methane when decomposing, resulting in environmental consequences related to ozone depletion and climate change. Milk can have negative environmental impacts when disposed of down the drain. This review will discuss the food waste problem, causes, and potential solutions at the consumer level, with particular focus on dairy waste. An individual plus policy, system, and environment approach will also be integrated to provide a well-rounded view of the issue.
Article
In the U.S., the estimated food waste at the household level is 32% of purchased food, translating to $240 billion in economic losses. The U.S. Department of Agriculture and Environmental Protection Agency set the first-ever national food waste reduction goal of a 50-percent reduction by 2030. Under this policy environment, this study assesses public support for nine food waste solutions: changes in food packaging, changes in portion sizes, standardization of date labeling terms, selling imperfect produce in retail stores, making donations easier, using uneaten food to feed animals, implementing composting in communities, consumer education campaigns on food waste, and taxing food waste. An online survey was sent to a nationally representative sample of U.S. respondents that asked about support for and perception of the effectiveness of each food waste solution. This study finds that making donations easier and the standardization of date labels were the most supported food waste solutions. Different food waste solutions appealed to different demographics of people based on their personal food waste experiences. Results are similar for the perception of the effectiveness of each food waste solution. Nevertheless, the percentage of respondents that considered each food waste solution to be effective was almost always less than the share of respondents who supported the solution. Thus, it is important to be cautious about this divergence when assessing public opinion on potential solutions, which may be enacted as policies designed to mitigate food waste.
Article
Full-text available
The Serbian government has taken several measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19. These measures may have led to a disruption of daily life and affected food-related behaviors. This paper investigates the state of food waste management in Serbia and COVID-19’s direct effect on consumer awareness, food consumption, and food waste behaviors. The study is based on an online survey using a structured questionnaire administered in Serbian from May 13 until June 13, 2020, through the Google forms platform. A total of 1212 valid answers were collected, mainly from female, young, and high-educated people. The survey results suggested that (i) household food waste in Serbia is low and there is a positive attitude toward food waste prevention; (ii) food waste increased during the COVID-19 pandemic; (iii) consumers reduced the number of shopping trips and shopped more than usual during the pandemic. This study contributes to a better understanding of consumers’ consumption habits and attitudes toward food waste to prevent and reduce it.
Article
Food loss and waste (FLW) is a major problem for humanity, with a third of all food grown for human consumption being wasted. While FLW happens at every stage of the food supply chain, in developed economies, 40% of the wastage happens in households (FAO 2011). The extant literature identifies several factors that drive wastage in households, but scalable interventions to reduce this wastage remain elusive. We contend that the idiosyncratic nature of households’ behaviour in regards purchase, consumption, and wastage makes such interventions difficult, and that an analytical model characterising these behaviours will be helpful for furthering work in this direction. With this goal, we develop an analytical model incorporating factors (parameters) that influence consumption and wastage in households. While our model applies generally to perishable items including dairy products, we focus on fresh fruit and vegetables (FFV) as it constitutes a large fraction of food wasted in households, even as many people consume far less FFV than the amount recommended for a healthy diet. Using numerical experiments for a range of parameter values obtained from the extant literature and from a survey, we identify the parameter combinations that result in larger volumes of wastage. Our findings will be useful for future research focusing on recommendations for reducing wastage and improving intake of FFV in households.
Article
Economic development has improved people’s daily diets in China, but food waste has increased significantly. China faces severe natural resource constraints, and reducing food waste is important for ensuring national food security. Based on 1634 survey samples from 28 provinces in China, this study assessed food waste in rural China and empirically analyzed the main factors affecting rural household food waste. The results showed that, on average, 1.67% of food is wasted per household each day in rural China. Food waste is greater in economically developed areas, such as East China. Empirical analysis showed that cooking utensils, preparing the right amount of food, religious beliefs, number of family members, average weight of family members, percentage of purchased grain in the total food consumption in 1 year, and total grain output are significantly related to rural household food waste.
Article
Full-text available
We analyze food-item level data collected from 50 adults from the United States using the Remote Food Photography Method® to provide the first estimates of plate waste gathered from adults across multiple consecutive meals and days in free-living conditions, and during laboratory-based meals with fixed food items and quantities. We find average plate waste in free-living conditions is 5.6 grams (7.7 kcals) per item and that 3.3% of all food selected is returned as plate waste, where the percent waste figure is substantially lower than previously published plate waste estimates gathered primarily from dine-out settings in the United States such as buffets and institutional settings with limited-choice meals (e.g., school cafeterias). Plate waste from the same participants during the laboratory-based meals is significantly higher with an average of 203.2 grams of solid plate waste per meal (531.3 kcals) or 39.1% of the food provided, which is similar to the plate waste percentages found reported in some school cafeteria settings. The amount of plate waste generated in free-living conditions is significantly positively associated with portion size selected for an item. In a multivariate analysis that controls for macronutrient profile, items selected from the vegetables, fats/oils/dressings, and grains categories are associated with significantly greater amounts of plate waste per item. We find no significant associations between free-living plate waste and gender, age, race or body mass index but find that women leave more plate waste in the lab meal where portion sizes are pre-determined by the researcher and similar for all respondents. We discuss possible implications of these findings for programs focused on reducing plate waste and food waste among consumers.
Article
Full-text available
We estimate models of consumer food waste awareness and attitudes using responses from a national survey of U.S. residents. Our models are interpreted through the lens of several theories that describe how pro-social behaviors relate to awareness, attitudes and opinions. Our analysis of patterns among respondents' food waste attitudes yields a model with three principal components: one that represents perceived practical benefits households may lose if food waste were reduced, one that represents the guilt associated with food waste, and one that represents whether households feel they could be doing more to reduce food waste. We find our respondents express significant agreement that some perceived practical benefits are ascribed to throwing away uneaten food, e.g., nearly 70% of respondents agree that throwing away food after the package date has passed reduces the odds of foodborne illness, while nearly 60% agree that some food waste is necessary to ensure meals taste fresh. We identify that these attitudinal responses significantly load onto a single principal component that may represent a key attitudinal construct useful for policy guidance. Further, multivariate regression analysis reveals a significant positive association between the strength of this component and household income, suggesting that higher income households most strongly agree with statements that link throwing away uneaten food to perceived private benefits.
Article
Full-text available
This report provides the latest estimates by USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) on the amount and value of food loss in the United States. These estimates are for more than 200 individual foods using ERS's Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data. In 2010, an estimated 31 percent or 133 billion pounds of the 430 billion pounds of food produced was not available for human consumption at the retail and consumer levels. This amount of loss totaled an estimated s161.6 billion, as purchased at retail prices. For the first time, ERS estimates of the calories associated with food loss are presented in this report. An estimated 141 trillion calories per year, or 1,249 calories per capita per day, in the food supply in 2010 went uneaten. The top three food groups in terms of share of total value of food loss are meat, poultry, and fish (30 percent); vegetables (19 percent); and dairy products (17 percent). The report also provides a brief discussion of the economic issues behind postharvest food loss.
Article
Full-text available
Recent reports have asserted that, because of energy underreporting, dietary self-report data suffer from measurement error so great that findings that rely on them are of no value. This commentary considers the amassed evidence that shows that self-report dietary intake data can successfully be used to inform dietary guidance and public health policy. Topics discussed include what is known and what can be done about the measurement error inherent in data collected by using self-report dietary assessment instruments and the extent and magnitude of underreporting energy vs. other nutrients and food groups. Also discussed is the overall impact of energy underreporting on dietary surveillance and nutritional epidemiology. In conclusion, 7 specific recommendations for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting self-report dietary data are provided: 1) continue to collect self-report dietary intake data because they contain valuable, rich, and critical information about foods and beverages consumed by populations that can be used to inform nutrition policy and assess diet-disease associations; 2) do not use self-reported energy intake as a measure of true energy intake; 3) do use self-reported energy intake for energy adjustment of other self-reported dietary constituents to improve risk estimation in studies of diet-health associations; 4) acknowledge the limitations of self-report dietary data and analyze and interpret them appropriately; 5) design studies and conduct analyses that allow adjustment for measurement error; 6) design new epidemiologic studies to collect dietary data from both short-term (recalls or food records) and long-term (food-frequency questionnaires) instruments on the entire study population to allow for maximizing the strengths of each instrument; and 7) continue to develop, evaluate, and further expand methods of dietary assessment, including dietary biomarkers and methods using new technologies.
Article
Full-text available
The U.S. wastes 31 to 40% of its post-harvest food supply, with a substantial portion of this waste occurring at the consumer level. Globally, interventions to address wasted food have proliferated, but efforts are in their infancy in the U.S. To inform these efforts and provide baseline data to track change, we performed a survey of U.S. consumer awareness, attitudes and behaviors related to wasted food. The survey was administered online to members of a nationally representative panel (N=1010), and post-survey weights were applied. The survey found widespread (self-reported) awareness of wasted food as an issue, efforts to reduce it, and knowledge about how to do so, plus moderately frequent performance of waste-reducing behaviors. Three-quarters of respondents said they discard less food than the average American. The leading motivations for waste reduction were saving money and setting an example for children, with environmental concerns ranked last. The most common reasons given for discarding food were concern about foodborne illness and a desire to eat only the freshest food. In some cases there were modest differences based on age, parental status, and income, but no differences were found by race, education, rural/urban residence or other demographic factors. Respondents recommended ways retailers and restaurants could help reduce waste. This is the first nationally representative consumer survey focused on wasted food in the U.S. It provides insight into U.S. consumers' perceptions related to wasted food, and comparisons to existing literature. The findings suggest approaches including recognizing that many consumers perceive themselves as being already-knowledgeable and engaged, framing messages to focus on budgets, and modifying existing messages about food freshness and aesthetics. This research also suggests opportunities to shift retail and restaurant practice, and identifies critical research gaps.
Article
Full-text available
This papers considers an alternative estimation procedures for estimating stochastic frontier models with endogenous regressors when no external instruments are available. The approach we propose is based on copula function to directly model the correlation between the endogenous regressors and the composed errors. Estimation of model parameters is done using maximum likelihood. Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess and compare the finite sample performances of the proposed estimation procedures.
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to identify antecedents of food waste among lower-middle class families – a paradox, given the financial constraints this population faces. The importance of this research is evident in escalating environmental pressures for better use of our planet's scarce resources. Given that most of the world is low-income, any behavioral change in this population is likely to have a considerable impact. Empirical data were collected from 14 lower-middle income Brazilian households, based on observations, in-depth interviews and photographs, and a focus group (n=6). Five major categories of food waste antecedents were identified: (1) excessive purchasing, (2) over-preparation, (3) caring for a pet, (4) avoidance of leftovers, and (5) inappropriate food conservation. Several subcategories were also found, including impulse buying, lack of planning and preference for large packages. Surprisingly, findings show that strategies used to save money - such as buying groceries in bulk, monthly shopping trips, preference for supermarkets, and cooking from scratch – actually end up generating more food waste. This mitigates the savings made during the purchasing phase. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
This study analyzes the climate change and economic impacts of food waste in the United States. Using loss-adjusted national food availability data for 134 food commodities, it calculates the greenhouse gas emissions due to wasted food using life cycle assessment and the economic cost of the waste using retail prices. The analysis shows that avoidable food waste in the US exceeds 55 million metric tonnes per year, nearly 29% of annual production. This waste produces life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of at least 113 million metric tonnes of CO2e annually, equivalent to 2% of national emissions, and costs $198 billion.
Article
Full-text available
Food waste is a global problem. In Australia alone, it is estimated that households throw away AU$5.2 billion worth of food (AU$616 per household) each year. Developed countries have formal waste management systems that provide measures of food waste. However, much remains unknown about informal food waste disposal routes and volumes outside of the formal system. This article provides indicative metrics of informal food waste by identifying, in detail, five of the dominant informal food waste disposal routes used by Australian households: home composting, feeding scraps to pets, sewer disposal, giving to charity, and dumping or incineration. Informal waste generation rates are then calculated from three primary data sources, in addition to data from previous Australian and UK surveys, using a weighted average method in conjunction with a Monte-Carlo simulation. We find that the average Australian household disposes of 2.6 kgs of food waste per week through informal routes (1.7 kgs via household composting, 0.2 kgs via animals, and 0.6 kgs via sewage). This represents 20% of Australian household food waste flows. Our results highlight that informal food waste is a sizable food waste flow from Australian homes, deserving of greater research and government attention. Our examination of the full extent of food waste by disposal mode provides waste managers and policy makers with clear disposal routes to target for behaviour change and positive environmental outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Methodological limitations compromise the validity of U.S. nutritional surveillance data and the empirical foundation for formulating dietary guidelines and public health policies. Evaluate the validity of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) caloric intake data throughout its history, and examine trends in the validity of caloric intake estimates as the NHANES dietary measurement protocols evolved. Validity of data from 28,993 men and 34,369 women, aged 20 to 74 years from NHANES I (1971-1974) through NHANES 2009-2010 was assessed by: calculating physiologically credible energy intake values as the ratio of reported energy intake (rEI) to estimated basal metabolic rate (BMR), and subtracting estimated total energy expenditure (TEE) from NHANES rEI to create 'disparity values'. 1) Physiologically credible values expressed as the ratio rEI/BMR and 2) disparity values (rEI-TEE). The historical rEI/BMR values for men and women were 1.31 and 1.19, (95% CI: 1.30-1.32 and 1.18-1.20), respectively. The historical disparity values for men and women were -281 and -365 kilocalorie-per-day, (95% CI: -299, -264 and -378, -351), respectively. These results are indicative of significant under-reporting. The greatest mean disparity values were -716 kcal/day and -856 kcal/day for obese (i.e., ≥30 kg/m2) men and women, respectively. Across the 39-year history of the NHANES, EI data on the majority of respondents (67.3% of women and 58.7% of men) were not physiologically plausible. Improvements in measurement protocols after NHANES II led to small decreases in underreporting, artifactual increases in rEI, but only trivial increases in validity in subsequent surveys. The confluence of these results and other methodological limitations suggest that the ability to estimate population trends in caloric intake and generate empirically supported public policy relevant to diet-health relationships from U.S. nutritional surveillance is extremely limited.
Article
Full-text available
A key element in making our food systems more efficient is the reduction of food losses across the entire food value chain. Nevertheless, food losses are often neglected. This paper quantifies food losses in Switzerland at the various stages of the food value chain (agricultural production, postharvest handling and trade, processing, food service industry, retail, and households), identifies hotspots and analyses the reasons for losses. Twenty-two food categories are modelled separately in a mass and energy flow analysis, based on data from 31 companies within the food value chain, and from public institutions, associations, and from the literature. The energy balance shows that 48% of the total calories produced (edible crop yields at harvest time and animal products, including slaughter waste) is lost across the whole food value chain. Half of these losses would be avoidable given appropriate mitigation measures. Most avoidable food losses occur at the household, processing, and agricultural production stage of the food value chain. Households are responsible for almost half of the total avoidable losses (in terms of calorific content).
Article
Full-text available
In this article we estimate the technical and environmental efficiency of a panel of Dutch dairy farms. Nitrogen surplus, arising from the application of excessive amounts of manure and chemical fertilizer, is treated as an environmentally detrimental input. A stochastic translog production frontier is specified to estimate the output-oriented technical efficiency. Environmental efficiency is estimated as the input-oriented technical efficiency of a single input, the nitrogen surplus of each farm. The mean output-oriented technical efficiency is rather high, 0.894, but the mean input-oriented environmental efficiency is only 0.441. Intensive dairy farms are both technically and environmentally more efficient than extensive farms.
Article
Full-text available
In this research we introduce a new class of multivariate probability models to the marketing literature. Known as "copula models," they have a number of attractive features. First, they permit the combination of any univariate marginal distributions that need not come from the same distributional family. Second, a particular class of copula models, called "elliptical copula," has the property that they increase in complexity at a much slower rate than existing multivariate probability models as the number of dimensions increase. Third, they are very general, encompassing a number of existing multivariate models and providing a framework for generating many more. These advantages give copula models a greater potential for use in empirical analysis than existing probability models used in marketing. We exploit and extend recent developments in Bayesian estimation to propose an approach that allows reliable estimation of elliptical copula models in high dimensions. Rather than focusing on a single marketing problem, we demonstrate the versatility and accuracy of copula models with four examples to show the flexibility of the method. In every case, the copula model either handles a situation that could not be modeled previously or gives improved accuracy compared with prior models.
Article
Full-text available
Consider a stochastic frontier model with one-sided inefficiency u, and suppose that the scale of u depends on some variables (firm characteristics) z. A one-step model specifies both the stochastic frontier and the way in which u depends on z, and can be estimated in a single step, for example by maximum likelihood. This is in contrast to a two-step procedure, where the first step is to estimate a standard stochastic frontier model, and the second step is to estimate the relationship between (estimated) u and z.In this paper we propose a class of one-step models based on the scaling property that u equals a function of z times a one-sided error u * whose distribution does not depend on z. We explain theoretically why two-step procedures are biased, and we present Monte Carlo evidence showing that the bias can be very severe. This evidence argues strongly for one-step models whenever one is interested in the effects of firm characteristics on efficiency levels.
Article
Full-text available
The error term in the stochastic frontier model is of the form (v–u), where v is a normal error term representing pure randomness, and u is a non-negative error term representing technical inefficiency. The entire (v–u) is easily estimated for each observation, but a previously unsolved problem is how to separate it into its two components, v and u. This paper suggests a solution to this problem, by considering the expected value of u, conditional on (v–u). An explicit formula is given for the half-normal and exponential cases.
Article
Full-text available
This book is an update of the 1993 publication of The Measurement of Productive Efficiency: Techniques and Applications. The same editors have here compiled over ten years of the most recent research in this changing field, and expanded on those seminal chapters and written this new edition. The book guides from the basic models to the latest, cutting-edge extensions, and is reinforced by references to classic and current theoretical and applied research. The book focuses on measuring and explaining producer performance. It views performance as a function of the state of technology and economic efficiency. It shows that insights can be gained by allowing for the possibility of a divergence between the economic objective and actual performance, and by associating this inefficiency with causal variables subject to managerial or policy influence.
Article
Full-text available
Food waste contributes to excess consumption of freshwater and fossil fuels which, along with methane and CO(2) emissions from decomposing food, impacts global climate change. Here, we calculate the energy content of nationwide food waste from the difference between the US food supply and the food consumed by the population. The latter was estimated using a validated mathematical model of metabolism relating body weight to the amount of food eaten. We found that US per capita food waste has progressively increased by approximately 50% since 1974 reaching more than 1400 kcal per person per day or 150 trillion kcal per year. Food waste now accounts for more than one quarter of the total freshwater consumption and approximately 300 million barrels of oil per year.
Article
Full-text available
Relations between leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat were examined in a population-based probability sample of 29,672 adults in the 1990 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Consumption of 13 high-fat food items and participation in physical activities were measured, and fat and activity scores were calculated. Dietary fat and physical activity were strongly and inversely associated. This association was independent of nine other demographic and behavioral risk factors. Etiologic researchers should consider that diet and physical activity can potentially confound each other, and creators of public health messages that target one behavior should consider including the other.
Article
We estimate the demand for food waste within the household using observational data of food stock usage and meal consumption, the net of which forms a proxy for unconsumed food. We find that food waste is a luxury good with an expenditure elasticity ranging from 1.1 to 1.4. The wasting of food is also rather responsive to price: our own‐price elasticity estimates range from ‐1.9 to ‐1.3. We further find differences in the demand for food waste related to household membership structure, human capital, joint preparation of meals within the household, and geographic location.
Article
Reducing household food waste is an important policy objective. In this paper we examine how equilibrium food waste among households is influenced by food policies designed to increase household food utilization and to alter household food purchasing behavior by adjusting market prices. We demonstrate that policies that reduce the marginal cost of household food utilization and that raise fresh food prices result in greater food waste for households with sufficiently price‐elastic demand for fresh food. Policies that raise the processed food prices increase fresh food consumption, but nevertheless reduce food waste, provided that fresh and processed foods are substitutes in utility and the equilibrium food utilization rate in a household is sufficiently high.
Article
Although food waste is increasingly recognized as an environmental and food security problem, there remains uncertainty over its primary contributors. Some food waste analyses seem to treat household food waste as a "mistake" or careless decision; however, consumer decisions to waste also likely reflect trade-offs and economic incentives. These issues were explored in large surveys of U.S. food consumers using both within- and between-subject designs, where we study consumers' decisions to discard food in different scenarios that vary safety, price, and opportunity costs. We find that food waste is a function of consumers' demographic characteristics, and that decisions to discard food vary with contextual factors. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association. All rights reserved.
Article
Assessment of diet is a critical component of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), which was designed to describe the health and nutritional status of the US population. We analyzed data collected with the primary dietary assessment instrument used in NHANES III, the 24-h recall, for 7769 nonpregnant adults aged > or = 20 y to investigate underreporting of total energy intake. Underreporting was addressed by computing a ratio of energy intake (EI) to estimated basal metabolic rate (BMRest). EI:BMRest was 1.47 for men and 1.26 for nonpregnant women; a population level of 1.55 is expected for a sedentary population. About 18% of the men and 28% of the women were classified as underreporters. Underreporting of energy intake was highest in women and persons who were older, overweight, or trying to lose weight. Underreporting varied according to smoking status, level of education, physical activity, and the day of the week the 24-h recall covered. Additionally, underreporting was associated with diets lower in fat (P < 0.01) and alcohol (P < 0.01 in women) when expressed as a percentage of total energy intake.
Book
Copulas are functions that join multivariate distribution functions to their one-dimensional margins. The study of copulas and their role in statistics is a new but vigorously growing field. In this book the student or practitioner of statistics and probability will find discussions of the fundamental properties of copulas and some of their primary applications. The applications include the study of dependence and measures of association, and the construction of families of bivariate distributions. With 116 examples, 54 figures, and 167 exercises, this book is suitable as a text or for self-study. The only prerequisite is an upper level undergraduate course in probability and mathematical statistics, although some familiarity with nonparametric statistics would be useful. Knowledge of measure-theoretic probability is not required. The revised second edition includes new sections on extreme value copulas, tail dependence, and quasi-copulas. Roger B. Nelsen is Professor of Mathematics at Lewis & Clark College in Portland, Oregon. He is also the author of Proofs Without Words: Exercises in Visual Thinking and Proofs Without Words II: More Exercises in Visual Thinking, published by the Mathematical Association of America.
Article
Food waste is increasingly recognized as a global challenge, with both public and private efforts aimed at reducing food waste from farm to fork. However, analyses of food waste often fail to treat the problem as an economic phenomenon, where consumers’ utility maximizing decisions result in discarded food. In an effort to guide future research, this article presents a conceptual model of household food waste, showing that decisions to discard food depend on food prices and wage and nonwage income.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the 1971-2010 United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability (LAFA) per capita caloric consumption estimates. Estimated total daily energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated for nationally representative samples of US adults, 20-74 years, using the Institute of Medicine's predictive equations with “low-active” (TEE L-ACT) and “sedentary” (TEE SED) physical activity values. TEE estimates were subtracted from LAFA estimates to create disparity values (kcal/d). A validated mathematical model was applied to calculate expected weight change in reference individuals resulting from the disparity. From 1971-2010, the disparity between LAFA and TEE L-ACT varied by 394 kcal/d—(P < 0.001), from −205 kcal/d (95% CI: −214, −196) to +189 kcal/d (95% CI: 168, 209). The disparity between LAFA and TEE SED varied by 412 kcal/d (P < 0.001), from −84 kcal/d (95% CI: −93, −76) to +328 kcal/d (95% CI: 309, 348). Our model suggests that if LAFA estimates were actually consumed, reference individuals would have lost ~1-4 kg/y from 1971-1980 (an accumulated loss of ~12 to ~36 kg), and gained ~3-7 kg/y from 1988-2010 (an accumulated gain of ~42 to ~98 kg). These estimates differed from the actual measured increments of 10 kg and 9 kg in reference men and women, respectively, over the 39-year period. The USDA LAFA data provided inconsistent, divergent estimates of per capita caloric consumption over its 39-year history. The large, variable misestimation suggests that the USDA LAFA per capita caloric intake estimates lack validity and should not be used to inform public policy.
Article
The presence of food waste, and ways to reduce it, has generated significant debate among industry stakeholders, policy makers, and consumer groups around the world. Many have argued that the variety of date labels used by food manufacturers leads to confusion about food quality and food safety among consumers. Here, we develop a between-subject, laboratory experiment with different date labels (Best by, Fresh by, Sell by, and Use by) for products (ready-to-eat cereal, salad greens, and yogurt) of different sizes and dates to evaluate how date labels influence the value of premeditated food waste of subjects, or their willingness to waste (WTW). Subjects have different WTW over products, sizes, and dates; we expect that ambiguity avoidance may prompt differences in the WTW. The WTW is greatest in the “Use by” treatment, the date label which may be the least ambiguous and suggestive of food safety. The WTW is the lowest for the “Sell by” treatment, which may be the most ambiguous date label about safety or quality for the consumer. Results from the mixed-design, repeated measures ANOVA provide evidence that subjects have different WTW by date labels over products.
Article
Stochastic frontier models are typically estimated by maximum likelihood (MLE) or corrected ordinary least squares. The consistency of either estimator depends on exogeneity of the explanatory variables (inputs, in the production frontier setting). We will investigate the case that one or more of the inputs is endogenous, in the simultaneous equation sense of endogeneity. That is, we worry that there is correlation between the inputs and statistical noise or inefficiency. In a standard regression setting, simultaneity is handled by a number of procedures that are numerically or asymptotically equivalent. These include 2SLS; using the residual from the reduced form equations for the endogenous variables as a control function; and MLE of the system that contains the equation of interest plus the unrestricted reduced form equations for the endogenous variables (LIML). We will consider modifications of these standard procedures for the stochastic frontier setting. The paper is mostly a survey and combination of existing results from the stochastic frontier literature and the classic simultaneous equations literature, but it also contains some new results.
Article
A large amount of food is lost along the entire food supply chain, causing serious environmental, economic and social impacts and most food is wasted during the final consumption phase especially in industrialized countries. Starting from the analysis of the main regulations and initiatives at various administrative levels and by introducing a two-level framework for modelling complex household food waste behaviour, this paper aims at investigating the behaviour of EU-27 citizens towards food waste by referring to the 2013 Flash Eurobarometer survey (n. 388). The multilevel statistical perspective enabled us to jointly consider factors at both individual and contextual levels as potential variables associated with food waste. Firstly, by analysing territorial variability it was possible to identify groups of countries characterized by similar behaviour patterns and therefore target them according to the need and exigency of public policy interventions. Secondly, at individual level it was observed that people living in towns and large cities tend to produce more waste thus emphasizing the need of diversifying policy interventions at local level according to the extent of urbanization. Moreover, education level, sorting practices, attitudes and concern regarding food waste proved to be associated with individuals’ behaviour towards food waste. Thirdly, public–private partnerships as well as targeting community-based interventions to address food waste should be encouraged. FREE DOWNLOAD (up to September 25th) at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306919215000858
Article
The federal crop insurance program has been a major fixture of U.S. agricultural policy since the 1930s, and continues to grow in size and importance. Indeed, it now represents the most prominent farm policy instrument, accounting for more government spending than any other farm commodity program. The 2014 Farm Bill further expanded the crop insurance program and introduced a number of new county-level revenue insurance plans. In 2013, over $123 billion in crop value was insured under the program. Crop revenue insurance, first introduced in the 1990s, now accounts for nearly 70% of the total liability in the program. The available plans cover losses that result from a revenue shortfall that can be triggered by multiple, dependent sources of risk—either low prices, low yields, or a combination of both. The actuarial practices currently applied when rating these plans essentially involve the application of a Gaussian copula model to the pricing of dependent risks. We evaluate the suitability of this assumption by considering a number of alternative copula models. In particular, we use combinations of pair-wise copulas of conditional distributions to model multiple sources of risk. We find that this approach is generally preferred by model-fitting criteria in the applications considered here. We demonstrate that alternative approaches to modeling dependencies in a portfolio of risks may have significant implications for premium rates in crop insurance.