Article

Identification of Dermatophyte and Nondermatophyte Molds Isolated from Animal Lesions Suspected to Dermatomycoses

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Abstract

Background: Dermatomycoses contain superficial fungal infections of keratinized layers of the body such as skin, hair, and nail that affect more than 20%-25% of people and animals worldwide. Some fungi can cause superficial infections in animals after accidental penetration and colonization on injured skin and can be transmitted to humans by exposure. The infection caused mainly by dermatophyte species and may also be caused rarely by yeasts and nondermatophytic molds. Materials and methods: Eighty-two skin scrapings and hair samples were collected from animals (sheep, cow, cat, camel, calf, goat, horse, and dog) in three specialized pet clinics and three livestock and slaughterhouses. The isolates were identified using direct microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction-sequencing of ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 region. Results: Thirteen mold strains out of 82 clinical samples (15.8%) were isolated from animal lesions. Acremonium exuviarum (n = 4; 30.7%), Sarocladium implicatum (n = 2; 15.4%), Arthroderma otae (n = 2; 15.4%), Chaetomium iranianum (n = 1; 7.7%), Trichothecium roseum (n = 1; 7.7%), Lichtheimia ramosa (n = 1; 7.7%), Penicillium chrysogenum (n = 1; 7.7%), and Microsporum equinum (n = 1; 7.7%) were isolated from clinical specimens. Conclusion: Since opportunistic fungi are increasing as etiological agents of dermatomycoses, isolation of these molds from wounds can be a warning to veterinarians, and daily cleaning of wounds with a proper disinfectant is recommended for the prevention of fungal colonization.

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... In this present study Aspergillus spp., spp., Absidia spp., Cladosporium Penicillum spp. were the most frequently isolated non-dermatophytic mold in this study; this is not surprising as these molds have been reported to be highly ubiquitous in nature 30,31,32,33]. A number of skin infections in man and animal has also been linked to them especially in immunocompromised host and onychomycosis [34,35,36,37]. ...
... and spp. were the most frequently dermatophytic mold in this study; this is not surprising as these molds have been reported to be highly ubiquitous in nature [29,33]. A number of skin infections in man nked to them especially in immunocompromised host and In this study, there were no significant difference dermatophytic molds recovered from both States, although they were recovered his is understandable since these animals were being produced in the same area in the Northern part of the country. ...
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The prevalence and characteristics of superficial fungal infections (SFIs) vary with climatic conditions, lifestyle, and population migration patterns. This study was undertaken to determine the characteristics of SFIs amongst patients visiting the dermatology clinic of Riyadh Military Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period 2003-2005. One hundred and nineteen patients with confirmed SFI (37 males and 82 females), aged between 5 months and 67 years, were included in this study. The diagnosis of SFI was based on clinical presentation confirmed by laboratory analysis. The type of mycotic pathogen and the site of infection were recorded as a function of age and sex. Onychomycosis (40.3%) was the most frequent infection, followed by tinea capitis (21.9%), tinea pedis (16%), tinea cruris (15.1%), and tinea corporis (6.7%). Tinea capitis was most prevalent (15.1%) in children (male to female ratio, 1 : 1.57), whereas tinea pedis was most common (11.8%) in adults (male to female ratio, 1 : 2.5). Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis were the most common dermatophytes responsible for tinea infections, and T. mentagrophytes, Candida spp., and Aspergillus spp. were mainly responsible for onychomycosis. The prevalence of SFI was twofold greater in females than males. Children were most commonly affected by tinea capitis, whereas adults generally suffered from tinea pedis. The frequency of onychomycosis was nearly three times higher in adults. This study clearly shows that SFIs are of concern in both genders and in all age groups.
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Opportunistic fungal infections have long been recognized as rare causes of disease in immunocompetent dogs and cats. Recently, the escalating use of multiagent immunosuppression protocols (especially those that include cyclosporine) has resulted in an increased number of patients with opportunistic fungal infection encountered by small animal practitioners and has altered the typical case phenotype. Based on histologic and cytologic features such as pigmentation, hyphal diameter, and distribution in tissue, these opportunistic mycoses can be placed into categories such as phaeohyphomycosis, hyalohyphomycosis, and eumycotic mycetoma. This review aims to summarize the clinical presentations, methods for diagnosis, treatment recommendations, and prognosis for both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients with opportunistic fungal infections. An example case description is included to illustrate the most common current clinical presentation.
Article
Aims: Recent molecular methods for diagnosis of superficial mycoses have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. The aim of study was to determine growth conditions and techniques of DNA extraction for Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum. Methods and results: Samples were prepared of each of the DNA extraction methods (phenol-chloroform, CTAB and four different kits) for all of the incubation periods (4, 7 and 10 days) of the cultures on the solid and in the liquid medium. The highest DNA concentrations were obtained using the phenol-chloroform method. The concentration of DNA extracted with the CTAB method accounted for 62·21%, for kits it corresponded from 35·53 to 15·41%. The analysis of the DNA weight yield revealed the highest isolation efficiency of the phenol-chloroform method, 1 mg of mycelium yielded 223·8 μg DNA. Lower DNA yield (by 39·32%) was obtained with the CTAB method; in the case of kits by 68·46-85·32%. In most of the techniques, the DNA yield on the solid medium was higher. Conclusion: In summary, the highest DNA yield was noted in the 7-day cultures and extraction with the phenol-chloroform method. Importantly, the type of culture was not relevant for the diagnostic result. Significance and impact of the study: Most mycoses are caused by fungi that reside in nature. The severity of the infection depends on the pathogenic attributes, socioeconomic factors and local environmental conditions. Recent diagnosis increasingly relies on not only the clinical features. Molecular identifications have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. Usually two factors have to be considered: maximize the DNA yield and ensure that the extracted DNA is susceptible to enzymatic reactions. These data suggest that phenol-chloroform methods and a 7-day culture period may be useful for validation and constitute the first step of molecular diagnosis of dermatophytes.
Article
Objective: To determine the fungal species isolated from skin lesions of different animals suspected of having dermatomycoses and their prevalence in different regions of Iran. Materials and methods: A total of 1011 animals (292 dogs, 229 cats, 168 horses, 100 camels, 98 cows, 60 squirrels, 37 birds, 15 sheep, 6 goats, 5 rabbits and 1 fox) suspected of having dermatomycoses were examined. The samples were obtained by plucking the hairs and feathers with forceps around the affected area and scraping the epidermal scales with a sterile scalpel blade. All collected samples were analyzed by direct microscopy and culture. Laboratory identification of the fungal isolates was based on their colonial, microscopic and biochemical characteristics. Results: Fungal agents were recovered from 553 (54.7%) animals suspected of having dermatomycoses. Of 553 confirmed cases, 255 (49.7%) were positive for dermatophytosis, 251 (45.4%) for Malassezia dermatitis, 14 (2.5%) for candidiasis, 12 (2.2%) for aspergillosis and 1 (0.2%) for zygomycosis. Cats (36.3%) were the most prevalent infected animals, followed by camels (13.4%), dogs (12.8%), horses (12.5%), cows (12.3%), squirrels (5.4%), birds (3.6%), sheep (2%), goats (1.1%), rabbits (0.4%) and fox (0.2%). Microsporum canis (M. canis) was the most frequent fungus isolated from dogs and fox, Malassezia pachydermatis (M. pachydermatis) from cats, horses and squirrels, Trichophyton verrucosum (T. verrucosum) from cows and camels, T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes from sheep, goats and rabbits, and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) from birds. Conclusion: The results suggested that periodic screening of animals suspected of having dermatomycoses and necessary treatments could help in the management of their public health problem.
Article
Mucormycoses are life-threatening infections with fungi from the order Mucorales (Mucoromycotina). Although mucormycoses are uncommon compared to other fungal infections, e.g. aspergillosis and candidiasis, the number of cases is increasing especially in immunocompromised patients. Lichtheimia (formerly Absidia) species represent the second to third most common cause of mucormycoses in Europe. This mini review presents current knowledge about taxonomy and clinical relevance of Lichtheimia species. In addition, clinical presentation and risk factors will be discussed. Proper animal infection models are essential for the understanding of the pathogenesis and the identification of virulence factors of fungal pathogens. To date, several animal models have been used to study Lichtheimia infection. A brief overview of the different models and the main conclusions from the infection experiments is summarised in this review.
Article
Most fungal infections of the skin are caused by dermatophytes, both in Germany and globally. Tinea pedis is the most frequent fungal infection in Western industrial countries. Tinea pedis frequently leads to tinea unguium, while in the elderly, both may then spread causing tinea corporis. A variety of body sites may be affected, including tinea glutealis, tinea faciei and tinea capitis. The latter rarely occurs in adults, but is the most frequent fungal infection in childhood. Following antifungal treatment of tinea unguium and also tinea capitis a dermatophytid or hyperergic reaction to dermatophyte antigens may occur.
Article
Background Dermatomycoses are superficial fungal infections of the skin, hair and nails that affect more than 20-25% of the people worldwide. These infections can be caused by yeasts, dermatophytes and non-dermatophyte filamentous fungi (NDFF) and are considered a public health problem. Despite this, few studies have investigated the prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of causative agents of dermatomycoses in the developing world. Objectives The aims of this study were to identify and determine the antifungal susceptibility profile of yeast and filamentous fungi isolated from dermatomycoses in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods Specimens were obtained from patients with clinically diagnosed and laboratory confirmed dermatomycosis between July 2009 and July 2011. Fungal identification was based on classical methods and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method. ResultsOf the 216 fungal isolates, 116 (53.8%) were yeasts, 70 (32.4%) dermatophytes and 30 (13.8%) NDFF. Onychomycosis was the most common clinical condition. Candida parapsilosis (24.1%) and Trichophyton rubrum (17.1%) were the fungi most frequently isolated. Voriconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole were the most potent antifungal agents against yeast, whereas terbinafine, voriconazole and itraconazole had a high in vitro activity against dermatophytes. Overall, the antifungal agents had little or no activity against NDFF and the highest minimum inhibitory concentrations were those against Fusarium spp. Conclusion Yeasts, particularly C. parapsilosis, play an important role as causative agents of dermatomycosis in our region. Our results suggest that the antifungal susceptibility testing coupled with proper identification of the fungi may be useful to assist clinicians in determining the appropriate therapy for dermatomycoses.
Article
Penicillium verruculosum, a saprophytic fungus isolated occasionally from soil, has not been reported previously as a cause of systemic disease in man or animals. This article describes a case of polyostotic osteomyelitis associated with P verruculosum in a previously healthy, young adult German shepherd dog. In this case predisposing factors could not be determined but it is suspected that some German shepherd dogs possess a defect in phagocytic cell function which allows widespread infection with filamentous fungi.
Article
Zygomycosis is an important emerging fungal infection, associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Working Group on Zygomycosis of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) prospectively collected cases of proven and probable zygomycosis in 13 European countries occurring between 2005 and 2007. Cases were recorded by a standardized case report form, entered into an electronic database and analysed descriptively and by logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 230 cases fulfilled pre-set criteria for eligibility. The median age of the patients was 50 years (range, 1 month to 87 years); 60% were men. Underlying conditions included haematological malignancies (44%), trauma (15%), haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (9%) and diabetes mellitus (9%). The most common manifestations of zygomycosis were pulmonary (30%), rhinocerebral (27%), soft tissue (26%) and disseminated disease (15%). Diagnosis was made by both histology and culture in 108 cases (44%). Among 172 cases with cultures, Rhizopus spp. (34%), Mucor spp. (19%) and Lichtheimia (formerly Absidia) spp. (19%) were most commonly identified. Thirty-nine per cent of patients received amphotericin B formulations, 7% posaconazole and 21% received both agents; 15% of patients received no antifungal therapy. Total mortality in the entire cohort was 47%. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with survival were trauma as an underlying condition (p 0.019), treatment with amphotericin B (p 0.006) and surgery (p <0.001); factors associated with death were higher age (p 0.005) and the administration of caspofungin prior to diagnosis (p 0.011). In conclusion, zygomycosis remains a highly lethal disease. Administration of amphotericin B and surgery, where feasible, significantly improve survival.
Article
Zoophilic dermatophytosis is a major public and veterinary health problem globally widespread among cattle. To identify the causative agent and geographical distribution of dermatophytes involved in cattle ringworm and to establish if they would be related to human diseases in Iran, a study was carried out on 6789 heads of cows and 130 herdsmen during 2006-2007. Samples were taken from 380 cattle and 43 herdsmen with suspected dermatophytosis. The causative agents were identified macroscopically and microscopically by KOH examination and culture isolation. Only 352 cases of dermatophytosis were identified in cattle and Trichophyton verrucosum was the exclusive fungus isolated from animals. Moreover, 27 cases of human dermatophytosis were identified and T. verrucosum was the prevalent causative agent for dermatophytosis in the body, scalp, foot, nail and groin of the patients. The obtained results showed that T. verrucosum was the predominant cause of dermatophytosis in livestock and dairy farmers. There is a scarcity of information on isolation and identification of the epizoonotic agents of dermatophytoses in cattle in Iran. This study showed the occurrence of dermatophytosis in humans and cattle and confirms that the dermatozoonoses are responsible for predominant forms of the disease in people who were in contact with cattle.
Article
Although blue-green molds of the genus Penicillium are ubiquitous in the human environment, invasive penicilliosis is uncommon and primarily encountered among immunosuppressed patients. A patient with HIV infection who died of severe necrotizing esophagitis caused by Penicillium chrysogenum is reported and the relevant English language literature on human penicilliosis is reviewed. Although infectious esophagitis is commonly associated with AIDS, Penicillium esophagitis has not been described in such patients.
Article
Fungal corneal ulcer is common in India due to the tropical climate and a large agrarian population that is at risk. Various factors such as trauma, the injudicious use of topical antibiotics and corticosteroids are involved. Many of the age and sex-related risk factors also play a minor role. This 6-year study from Northern India revealed that fungi were detected in 61 (8.4%) out of 730 patients investigated. Direct microscopy was positive in 51 (7%) and culture in 53 (7.3%) patients. Aspergillus spp. were the most common causative agents accounting for 25 (40.1%) of the isolates, followed by Fusarium sp. with ten (16.4%), Curvularia sp. with five (8.2%), Candida albicans with five (8.2%), Acremonium sp. with four (6.6%), Paecilomyces sp. with three (4.9%), Penicillium sp. with two (3.3%), Alternaria sp. with two (3.3%), Fonsecaea pedrosoi var. cladosporium with two isolates (3.3%) and Pseudallescheria boydii, Drechslera sp. and Aureobasidium pullulans with one isolate (1.6%) each. The prevalence of fungal ulcers in males was three times higher than in females. The affected individuals had a rural background and were in the 51-60 year age group.
Article
A case of cutaneous penicilliosis in a young man, without immunological compromise is reported. The lesions in the neck were characterized by two exudative reddish-purple pruriginous and painless spots. Penicilliosis was diagnosed after serial laboratory studies based on the observation of hyphae by direct microscopic examination and histopathology. Cultures of the tissue obtained from the lesions, developed mould colonies with typical conidia of Penicillium chrysogenum, which was thermotolerant at 37 degrees C. The treatment with itraconazole was successful, and 15 days after cessation of therapy, no recurrence of infection was observed. The epidemiology of this type of mycosis is commented upon, as well as the rarity of infections produced by Penicillium, even as opportunistic pathogens. The isolation of P. chrysogenum from skin lesions is exceptional.
Article
A prospective, multicenter study to determine the epidemiology of onychomycosis was performed in the offices of 3 dermatologists and 1 family physician in Ontario, Canada. In the sample of 15,000 patients, abnormal-appearing nails were observed in 2505 persons (16. 7%). There were 1199 patients (8%) with toenail or fingernail onychomycosis confirmed on mycologic examination, with 1137 patients (7.6%) who had only pedal onychomycosis, 40 patients with toenail and fingernail onychomycosis (0.27%), and 22 patients (0.15%) with only fingernail onychomycosis. The condition was more common in male patients (P <.0001) and older persons (P <.0001). The ratio of onychomycosis in toenails/fingernails was 19:1. When onychomycosis was present in toenails, the ratio of distal/lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO) to white superficial onychomycosis to proximal subungual onychomycosis was 360:59:1. The extent of DLSO in toenails was mild (< or =25% nail involvement), moderate (26%-74% disease), and severe (> or =75% nail involvement) in 27.6%, 39.9%, and 32.5% of patients, respectively. After adjusting for the age and sex distribution of the general population, the projected rate of onychomycosis in Canada is 6.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6. 1%-6.9%). The organisms causing toenail onychomycosis were 90.5% dermatophyte, 7.8% nondermatophyte molds, and 1.7% Candida spp. The corresponding organisms causing fingernail onychomycosis were 70.8%, 0%, and 29.2%, respectively. In a large sample of 15,000 patients, abnormal-appearing nails were present in 17% of the sample with mycologic evidence of toenail or fingernail onychomycosis in 8%. The projected prevalence of onychomycosis in Canada is 6.5% (95% CI, 6. 1%-6.9%).
Article
Most of the terminology used to define the host-microbe interaction has been in use for nearly a century. Early in this period, microbes were thought to be primary aggressors that governed the host-pathogen interaction, resulting in dis- ease. Later, new information about the attributes of microbes and their hosts resulted in the understanding that the host- pathogen interaction does not always result in disease. This recognition, in turn, led to the introduction of terms to explain states in which microbes exist within hosts without causing overt disease and why some microbes only cause disease in certain hosts. Commensal, carrier state, and opportunist were terms put forth to account for microbes and conditions that were sometimes associated with disease but for which Koch's postulates could not be fulfilled for one reason or another. Most of these terms were originally proposed to describe the behavior of particular microbes, rather than to define a more general host-microbe relationship. Recently, we reviewed the concepts of virulence and patho- genicity and described how the definitions for these terms changed over the years as microbiologists tried to find ways to convey that microbial pathogenesis reflects an interaction be- tween two entities, host and pathogen (7). Based on the con- cept that host damage was the most relevant outcome of the host-pathogen interaction, we proposed revisions to the defi- nitions of the terms pathogen, pathogenicity, and virulence (7). However, the proposed framework suggested a need to reex- amine the terms used to define the outcomes of host-microbe interactions. Here, we critically review the origin and historical evolution of key concepts used to describe the outcome of host-microbe interactions, namely, infection, commensalism, colonization, persistence, infection, and disease. We propose that the meaning of these terms can be clarified by placing them in the context of the damage framework put forth pre- viously (7).
Article
Between 1994 and 1998, a total of 790 feather, hair and skin specimens from a variety of animals with suspected dermatophytoses were studied, of which 248 (31.4%) yielded dermatophytes. The most frequent dermatophytes isolated were Microsporum canis (38.3%), Trichophyton verrucosum (31.8%), T. mentagrophytes (13.3%) and M. gypseum (7.7%). There was a significantly higher proportion of positive cultures from cats (54.8%) than dogs (8.2%), and M. canis was the most common species isolated (87.2 and 50% respectively). Trichophyton verrucosum was the most frequent causative agent of dermatophytoses in ruminants, M. equinum in horses, M. gypseum in rabbits, M. gallinae in chickens and T. mentagrophytes in pet squirrels. Von verschiedenen Haustieren in Iran wurden 790 Proben von Federn, Haaren und Oberhaut auf Dermatophyten untersucht. Von 248 Proben (31,4%) wurden Dermatophyten isoliert. Es handelte sich in absteigender Häufigkeit um Microsporum canis, Trichophytum verrucosum, T. mentagrophytes und M. gypseum. Epidemiologisch bedeutsame Wirte von Dermatophyten waren Katzen, Hunde, Wiederkäuer, Pferde, Kaninchen, Hühner und Eichhörnchen.
Article
Onychomycosis is one of the most common infections of the nail. It can be caused by dermatophytes, Candida species and other fungi. Although moulds can cause onychomycosis, they account for a minority of cases, mainly great toenail onychomycosis. We describe a case of an 11-year-old girl who developed an onychomycosis by Chaetomium species in second and third toenails.
Onychomycosis by Chaetomium spp
  • C Serrano Falcón
  • M D Serrano Falcón
  • Delgado Ceballos
  • Delgado Florencio
  • Crespo Erchiga
  • Serrano Ortega
Serrano Falcón C, Serrano Falcón MD, Delgado Ceballos J, Delgado Florencio V, Crespo Erchiga V, Serrano Ortega S. Onychomycosis by Chaetomium spp. Mycoses 2009;52:77-9.