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EFFECT OF JAPAN WATER THERAPY INFUSED WITH CINNAMON ON BODY WEIGHT, WAIST/HIP RATIO, AND BODY MASS INDEX OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE SUBJECTS

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Objective: The objective of this study was to discover the effect of Japan water therapy with cinnamon on body composition in overweight and obese subjects. Methods: The study was conducted with 36 subjects divided into three groups, namely, Group A – water therapy with cinnamon (n=12), Group B – water therapy (n=12), and Group C – warm water (n=12), where Groups A and B were test groups and Group C was a control group. This study was carried out for 8 weeks. Body weight, waist/hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) were measured every 15th day. Data were statistically analyzed by mean, standard deviation, and paired t-test using Getcalc.com Results: Out of all the groups, Group A showed desirable reduction in weight, WHR, and BMI, but statistically it was non-significant on WHR. Similarly, Group B had non-significant result with content to WHR but showed a moderate reduction in all categories. However, Group C as a control group both had either constant or minimal reduction in WHR and BMI being statistically non-significant. Conclusion: The findings of the study concluded that consumption of Japan water therapy with cinnamon helps in reduction of weight, WHR, and BMI within 8 weeks. Plain water therapy only had a moderate effect on reducing body composition in the same duration of time.
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Vol 12, Issue 9, 2019
Online - 2455-3891
Print - 0974-2441
EFFECT OF JAPAN WATER THERAPY INFUSED WITH CINNAMON ON BODY WEIGHT,
WAIST/HIP RATIO, AND BODY MASS INDEX OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE SUBJECTS
SHIVANI BHATIA, SHUBHRA SARASWAT*
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Manav Rachna International Institute of Research and Studies, Faridabad, Haryana, India.
Email: shubhra.fas@mriu.edu.in
Received: 23 May 2019, Revised and Accepted: 06 July 2019
ABSTRACT
Objective: The objective of this study was to discover the effect of Japan water therapy with cinnamon on body composition in overweight and obese
subjects.
Methods: The study was conducted with 36 subjects divided into three groups, namely, Group A – water therapy with cinnamon (n=12), Group B – water
therapy (n=12), and Group C – warm water (n=12), where Groups A and B were test groups and Group C was a control group. This study was carried
out for 8 weeks. Body weight, waist/hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) were measured every 15th day. Data were statistically analyzed by
mean, standard deviation, and paired t-test using Getcalc.com
Results: Out of all the groups, Group A showed desirable reduction in weight, WHR, and BMI, but statistically it was non-significant on WHR. Similarly,
Group B had non-significant result with content to WHR but showed a moderate reduction in all categories. However, Group C as a control group both
had either constant or minimal reduction in WHR and BMI being statistically non-significant.
Conclusion: The findings of the study concluded that consumption of Japan water therapy with cinnamon helps in reduction of weight, WHR, and BMI
within 8 weeks. Plain water therapy only had a moderate effect on reducing body composition in the same duration of time.
Keywords: Obesity, Japan water therapy, Cinnamon, Waist/hip ratio, Body composition.
INTRODUCTION
The current obesity epidemic in adults and children is a major public
health concern worldwide. Obesity and its effect on the metabolic
changes leading to disorders in the human body, such as diabetes,
hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases in addition to chronic
diseases such as stroke, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, some cancers, and
inflammation-based pathologies. In recent years, obesity has been
considered a serious socioeconomic issue, which has become one of
the major health problems all over the world, affecting people of all
ages, sex, ethnicities, and races [1]. This study was done to determine
the relationship between water therapy infused with cinnamon and
obesity.
Drinking water is of course generally good for health and drinking
plenty of water is recommended in a weight-loss regimen. A study
reviewed that drinking water instead of any caloric beverages may
help in promoting weight loss by eliminating beverage calories and
also lowers total energy intake. Absolute and relative increases in
drinking water were associated with decreases in body weight, waist
circumference (WC), and percent body fat in overweight women
assigned to four popular weight-loss diets [2].
Water therapy is one of the famous Japanese practices that help with
weight loss and fitness. It includes drinking warm water early in the
morning that helps in removing toxins from the stomach and improves
health, thereby making the body energetic [3].
The therapy recommends drinking water after waking up in early
morning as these morning hours are considered to be “golden hours,
and it is measured that drinking water during this period not only
promotes weight loss by smoothening your digestive system but also
helps in treating various health problems [3].
Warm water purifies and flushes the toxin, improving blood circulation,
helps melting the fat deposits, and destroys harmful bacteria in our
body. It is the most important catalyst in losing weight and maintaining
a perfect body figure because it increases body temperature, resulting
in a faster metabolism [4].
The cinnamon (Dalchini, in Hindi) is one the most important and popular
spices used worldwide. Cinnamon is not only used in the kitchen for
cooking but also used in traditional and modern medicines [5,6]. The
numerous nutritional composition of cinnamon has been shown
in Table 1. The major components present in cinnamon include
cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, coumarin, and cinnamic acid [7]. However,
the leaves and stem barks have been reported to be the main source for
biological activities displayed by Cinnamomum species. One of the most
widely investigated constituents of Cinnamomum species is essential
oil and reported to exhibit wide array biological activities including
antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antitermitic,
anticancer, anticholinesterase, larvicidal, hypouricemic, immune
© 2019 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.
org/licenses/by/4. 0/) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2019.v12i9.34269
Research Article
Table 1: Nutritional composition of cinnamon
Nutrients As per serving one tablespoon
Calories (in 6.8 g) 17
Protein (in 6.8 g) 0.3 g
Total fat 0.2 g
Saturated fat 0
Carbohydrate 5.5 g
Sugar 0.1 g
Dietary fiber 3.6 g
Vitamin A 20%
Vitamin C 12%
It also contains high amount of other vitamins such as zinc, potassium,
magnesium, iron, and calcium. Source – Maheshwari et al., 2013 [10]
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Bhatia and Saraswat
modulatory, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities [8]. Water-soluble
cinnamon extract, standardized for polyphenolic type-A polymers, can
favorably alter systolic blood pressure and body composition [9].
With numerous health benefits, cinnamon being naturally occurring
spices also helps in reducing weight. To examine the same, a research
study was done to establish the effect of cinnamon on obesity, the
study proposed samples to have 5 g of cinnamon containing tea with
honey for 2 weeks. The findings of this study depict that the prescribed
cinnamon tea resulted in an improvement weight reduction [11].
METHODS
The idea of Japan water therapy was generated from the website [4]
and idea of cinnamon was generated by exploring literature review.
The drink was developed by the following guidelines of Japan water
therapy by infusing 3 g cinnamon bark in the form of powder in
it [12]. Demographic profile, anthropometric measurements (body
weight, waist/hip ratio [WHR], and body mass index [BMI]), food
liking and disliking, 24 h dietary recall, and food frequency table
were collected by self-formulated questionnaire. The samples who
met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected by purposive
sampling technique.
Inclusion criteria
The following criteria were included in the study:
• Subjectsagedbetween25and35years
• SubjectswithBMI23
• Subjectswithweightmorethan70kg
• SubjectswithWHRmorethan0.80
• Subjectsdoingphysicalactivityforatleast30min.
Exclusion criteria
The following criteria were excluded from the study:
• Subjectswithnophysiologicalproblem
• Subjectstakingnomedication
• Subjectsallergictocinnamon.
The study was conducted with 36 subjects divided into three groups,
whereas Group A – water therapy with cinnamon (n=12), Group B – water
therapy (n=12), and Group C – warm water (n=12). However, Groups A
and B were test groups and Group C was a control group. The duration
of the study was 8 weeks. Subjects received 3 g cinnamon powder every
15
th
day, and for further examination, they were assigned to drink water as
per there groups being allotted. Every 15
th
day, the body composition was
measured. After the 60
th
day, the statistical analysis was done by putting
mean, standard deviation, and paired t-test to find out the statistical
significance.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 2 shows significantly superior decrease among all the three
groups, but the difference was more impressive in water therapy
infused with cinnamon, i.e., Group A. Weight reduction was moderate
in Group B, whereas in Group C, the reduction was very minimal for the
same duration of time as compared to other groups.
From Table 3, it can be evident that there was change in WHR among
all the groups, but the value was non-significant, this can be due to
the short duration of the study, if the water therapy taken with either
cinnamon or without cinnamon can result in a significant reduction.
Table 4 depicts that BMI reduction was significant in both test Groups A
and B. In Group C, the reduction was very less as compared to the other
two groups and even the result was also non-significant in the same group.
DISCUSSION
The findings of the study revealed that drinking excessive warm water
over and above daily intake as per Japan water therapy, and then,
considerable weight loss among subjects can be seen; this can be due to
the effect of warm water that helps in increasing metabolic rate that will
promote burning calories quickly. A similar study was done on overweight
girls to see the effect of water-induced thermogenesis and suggested that
there was a decrease in body weight, BMI, and body composition scores
which were seen in overweight subjects who establish the role of water-
induced thermogenesis that is helping in increasing the metabolic rate in
weight reduction of overweight subjects [13].
The finding of this study revealed Group A that was given water therapy
with cinnamon shown a considerable reduction, especially in weight,
which proves that both water therapy and cinnamon help in reducing
weight as compared to other groups. This can be due to the addition of
cinnamon into water therapy, as cinnamon also shown to be promoting
weight loss.
Consequently, a previous study conducted the study to see the effect
of 300 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks of cinnamon extract and its
components and showed beneficial effects essentially on all factors
associated with metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity
action, glucose, lipid, antioxidants, inflammation, blood pressure, and
body weight [14].
Another study also showed the role of cinnamon in reducing weight
where 3 g cinnamon was given for 16 weeks and their parameters
showed that significant improvement was observed in body weight,
hyperglycemia, total adiposity, and serum lipids level and concluded
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Bhatia and Saraswat
that the single supplement of cinnamon can help in all components of
metabolic syndrome [12].
The results of plain water therapy also made a moderate and significant
difference in weight; it can be concluded that following the guidelines
of Japan water therapy can make a difference in weight, even in a small
duration of time. A person who is allergic to cinnamon or does not
prefer cinnamon can try plain water therapy for weight reduction and
many more diseases for healthy living.
However, when it comes to control group, drinking warm water as per
their comfort could not make a much difference in weight, BMI, and WHR.
The remarkable reduction in WHR was also noticed among the subjects
as it can be seen from the table of mean and standard deviation, but
there was no significant difference among all the three groups in all the
three categories.
On the contradictory, this study showed the reduction even on WHR.
The study was conducted between cinnamon capsules and placebo on
metabolic profile and body composition, and the result showed that the
mean weight and BMI were higher in the cinnamon group as compared
to the placebo group and cinnamon capsules result in significant
decrease in weight, WC, and WHR, as compared to the placebo group in
sample of Asian Indians in North India [12]. This difference can be due
to the duration of the study, which was 8 weeks less as compared to the
other study in regard to WHR.
Recent findings also revealed that BMI of subjects was also reduced
from the table. All the three groups had a difference in reduction on
their BMI, but the significant difference came out in Groups A and B
that were water therapy with cinnamon and plain water therapy,
respectively. This can be due to the properties of cinnamon and warm
water as per guidelines of Japan water therapy.
This study also says that consuming 500 mg/day of a specific aqueous
extract of cinnamon (Cinnulin PF®) for 12 weeks leads to minor
but statistically significant improvement in body composition from
Cinnulin PF® supplementation. The study also concluded significant
improvements in metabolic syndrome that is systolic blood pressure,
fasting blood sugar, and body composition [9].
The BMI result was non-significant in Group C and the reason of
non-significance can be due to not drinking the consistent amount of
water. The difference was either remained constant or the reduction
was very minimal controlled group in any of the body composition in
either of the category.
CONCLUSION
Obesity is one of the greatest threats among the urban population.
Even a modest weight loss can significantly reduce the morbidity
and mortality, which are associated with it. Obese people can reduce
weight by homemade treatment which can be easily available in their
kitchen and inexpensive. In the present study, an attempt was made
to determine the effect of relationship between water therapy infused
with cinnamon, water therapy, and warm water drinking on overweight
or obese subjects, in terms of weight loss, WHR, and BMI. The study
concluded that water therapy infused with cinnamon helps in weight
reduction and BMI by thermogenesis and addition of cinnamon. The
result was seen in WHR but needs to follow in the long run. Even, if
a person does not like cinnamon or allergic to cinnamon can follow
only water therapy as it also showed reduction, but in less amount
as compared to water therapy with cinnamon. No major reduction
was seen in people drinking warm water as per their convenience
and not following a constant amount of drinking water. This cost-
free intervention and homemade treatment may be useful in treating
overweight and obese individuals for attaining an increase in energy
expenditure and healthy lifestyle.
AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS
Both the authors designed the study. Shivani Bhatia carried out the
experimental work, drafted, and edited the manuscript. Dr. Shubhra
Saraswat supervised the study, edited, and finalized the manuscript.
Table 2: Mean and standard deviation of weight on water therapy with cinnamon, water therapy, and warm water intervention of the
subjects (n=12)
Category Days Day 1 Day 15 Day 30 Day 45 Day 60
Water therapy With cinnamon 80.2±6.59 79.6±6.43 77.6±6.26 75.9±6.32 74.7±6.38 2.01*
Water therapy 77.6±4.7 77.2±4.61 76.1±4.7 75.5±4.59 74.7±4.51 3.14*
Warm water 82.7±5.4 82.3±5.3 81.6±5.4 80.8±5.5 80±5.74 5.49*
*p≥0.69
Table 3: Mean and standard deviation of waist/hip ratio (WHR) on water therapy with cinnamon, water therapy, and warm water
intervention of the subjects (n=12)
Category Days p‑value
Day 1 Day 15 Day 30 Day 45 Day 60
Water therapy with cinnamon 0.96±0.08 0.95±0.9 0.94±0.09 0.92±0.09 0.90±0.09 0**
Water therapy 0.95±0.04 0.94±0.52 0.92±0.53 0.92±0.51 0.91±0.51 0.18**
Warm water 0.96±0.05 0.95±0.04 0.94±0.04 0.94±0.03 0.93±0.04 0.08**
**p≥0.69
Table 4: Mean and standard deviation of body mass index on water therapy with cinnamon, water therapy, and warm water intervention
of the subjects (n=12)
Category Days p‑value
Day 1 Day 15 Day 30 Day 45 Day 60
Water therapy with cinnamon 28.1±1.67 27.5±1.59 27.1±1.57 26.6±1.56 25.9±1.53 1.31*
Water therapy 27.2±1.64 27.1±1.6 26.5±1.63 26.2±1.62 25.6±1.6 0.72*
Warm water 27.4±1.71 27.2±1.72 27±1.73 26.8±1.73 26.6±1.78 0.54**
*p≥0.69,**p≤0.69
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CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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To evaluate the possible effects on insulin function, 49 herb, spice, and medicinal plant extracts were tested in the insulin-dependent utilization of glucose using a rat epididymal adipocyte assay. Cinnamon was the most bioactive product followed by witch hazel, green and black teas, allspice, bay leaves, nutmeg, cloves, mushrooms, and brewer's yeast. The glucose oxidation enhancing bioactivity was lost from cinnamon, tea, witch hazel, cloves, bay leaf and allspice by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) treatment, indicating that the active phytochemicals are likely to be phenolic in nature. The activity of sage, mushrooms, and brewers's yeast was not removed by PVP. Some products such as Korean ginseng, flaxseed meal, and basil have been reported to be effective antidiabetic agents; however, they were only marginally active in our assay. Our technique measures direct stimulation of cellular glucose metabolism, so it may be that the active phytochemicals in these plants improve glucose metabolism via other mechanisms or that this in vitro screening is not a reliable predictor of hypoglycemic effects in vivo for some products. In summary, the positive effects of specific plant extracts on insulin activity suggest a possible role of these plants in improving glucose and insulin metabolism.