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Resilient Life: The Art of Living Dangerously

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... Resilience is also multidimensional and could develop after shock and disruption that modify significantly a preexisting state [6,40]. Anticipating and promoting resilience development suppose a level of acceptance of risk, because resilience improvement is promoted only when society consider impossible or not appropriate to suppress the risk [41,42]. ...
... The time of return to normalcy is a temporal reference that varies according to the territory, depending on its own characteristics (specific disaster, vulnerability to a specific risk) [41]. When this concept is used to describe post-disaster evolution, it can be gauged on an individual, community, or physical level, for example, when the effects on infrastructure [42]. Economic resilience can be strengthened by implementing policies aimed at mitigating the risks and effects of severe crises. ...
... For example, circumstances that cannot be changed are not easily defined objectively and that, consequently, should be accepted. Policies of resilience can put the responsibility of disaster response on individuals rather than publicly coordinated efforts, and promoting resilience draws attention away from governmental responsibility and self-responsibility [42]. ...
Article
Recovery and inequality growth after a disaster are often difficult to estimate. In this study, specific indicators were developed to analyze recovery and inequality growth. Here we show that after a major disaster the difference in recovery between two territories causes inequality growth. Energy production is relevant for describing variations in social and economic activities. This indicator was applied to a case study of a natural disaster, that is Hurricane Irma in 2017. The hurricane caused fatalities and destruction in the Caribbean islands of Saint Martin and Saint Barthelemy, which are two French overseas territories. Energy production after Hurricane Irma exhibited a significant decrease due to the destruction of the electricity network as well as perturbations in economic and social activities. The energy production restoration rate was faster in Saint Barthelemy than in Saint Martin. The energy production 18 months after Hurricane Irma was identical to that before Hurricane Irma in Saint Barthelemy, whereas this was not the case in Saint Martin. During recovery, an increase in the gap between energy production in Saint Barthelemy and Saint Martin was observed. This gap represents an inequality growth between Saint Barthelemy and Saint Martin. The indicators emphasized that the wealthier territories recover faster than the less wealthy and that natural disasters favors inequality growth. Inequality growth is expected to occur with natural disaster development. The number of inhabitants must be considered during indicator construction to avoid any bias.
... This form of acceptance means to reflect and adapt to the new conditions of the Anthropocene. By facing up to the idea of our (possible) extinction, and through a process of creative adaption, it is argued that a new form of thought is born out of our acceptance of death and mortality (Evans and Reid, 2014). But, this is only made possible by dying to our modernist Holocenic tropes, such as progress and success, and overcoming fear and anxiety. ...
... Of course, much of this is not new to anthropologists, political socio-ecologists and some critical scholars, who have long considered non-linear human-nature entanglement (Chandler, 2014;Evans and Reid, 2014;Latour, 2014;Lovelock, 1979;Oliver-Smith and Hoffman, 1999). ...
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Dramatic alterations to the natural environment by human activity have produced a permanent rupture in the earth system; the relative stable epoch of the Holocene has given way to a volatile Anthropocene. Accepting these claims mean that we now live in this altered physical reality, inviting us to rethink how we conceptualize disasters. Yet disaster scholars have been hesitant to apply the Anthropocene label and acknowledge the profound changes it can bring to the study of disasters. This article asks if this label is a necessary adage or unnecessary baggage for disaster studies by examining the possibilities and challenges of engaging with the Anthropocene. An analysis of the concepts, causes and consequences of disasters reveals how the Anthropocene provides, as the very least, a theoretical heuristic for challenging linear temporal assumptions, the epistemological status of uncertainty and the location of agency in disaster studies.
... What is clear from the different contributions to this Special Issue is that we need a multidimensional approach to resilience that enables us to grasp the complexity of lived experiences in multiple contexts and embedded in constantly changing relations. In this way, the Special Issue challenges existing conceptualisations of resilience-particularly in International Relations-that tend to present a totalising, deterministic account of resilience in which 'the resilience perspective is no less rigorous in its selective function than Darwinian evolution' (Walker and Cooper 2011) or whereby resilience is 'devasting', 'enslaving' and puts chains 'around all our necks' (Evans and Reid 2014). We disagree with these accounts. ...
Article
Resilience has become an oft-invoked concept in development and security policy circles and the subject of much debate in the literature. Yet, one aspect that needs to be further theorised is the complex relationship between resilience, conflict and gender. This introduction identifies the gradual congruence between the programmatic agendas of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325) and resilience-building approaches in peacebuilding and argues that this convergence needs to be further scrutinised. Our main argument is that it is time for the scholarship to go beyond the simple categorisation of resilience as being either the new paradigmatic solution to international interventions, conflicts and crises or a meaningless and useless governmental buzzword. Instead, the contributions found in this Special Issue see resilience in terms of multiplicity. Resilience, understood in terms of multiplicity and in a multidimensional way, appears a valuable analytical concept to study both the systemic nature of gendered power relations and their prevalence and adaptation over time, as well as the responses of individuals, communities and institutions to the gendered effects of conflict. To add empirical richness to the Special Issue, these conceptual connections are analysed in multiple geographical case studies, including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sierra Leone, Cote d’Ivoire, Iraq, Liberia, Palestine and Rwanda.
... However, Indigenous groups have warned that these narratives of disruption should not reduce communities as simply victims of an element rather than societies and individuals with their own agency, and indeed long-standing history of change and adaptation. More egregiously, the resilience of Indigenous peoples in the Arctic has also been framed as a 'resource' for non-Indigenous settler colonies to harness in the face of ongoing climate change (Lewis and Reid, 2014). Zoe Todd has cautioned against appeals to environment as a 'hyperobject' and the more-than-human as marginalizing Indigenous knowledge and perspectives that have long held that there are limits to human mastery over things (Todd, 2016 andnoting Morton, 2010). ...
Book
Ice humanities is a pioneering collection of essays that tackles the existential crisis posed by the planet's diminishing ice reserves. By the end of this century, we will likely be facing a world where sea ice no longer reliably forms in large areas of the Arctic Ocean, where glaciers have not just retreated but disappeared, where ice sheets collapse, and where permafrost is far from permanent. The ramifications of such change are not simply geophysical and biochemical. They are societal and cultural, and they are about value and loss. Where does this change leave our inherited ideas, knowledge and experiences of ice, snow, frost and frozen ground? How will human, animal and plant communities superbly adapted to cold and high places cope with less ice, or even none at all? The ecological services provided by ice are breath-taking, providing mobility, water and food security for hundreds of millions of people around the world, often Indigenous and vulnerable communities. The stakes could not be higher. Drawing on sources ranging from oral testimony to technical scientific expertise, this path-breaking collection sets out a highly compelling claim for the emerging field of ice humanities, convincingly demonstrating that the centrality of ice in human and non-human life is now impossible to ignore.
... Allgemein gesprochen, kommt hier die Relevanz eines Katastrophisch-Imaginären (Calhoun 2004) zum Ausdruck, das gesellschaftliche Debatten derzeit zunehmend prägt. Diese Verschiebung ist, wie zu Beginn dieser Arbeit ausführlicher gezeigt, aus einer kulturund sozialwissenschaftliche Perspektive bereits länger thematisiert (Cooper 2006;Lakoff 2007;Anderson 2010;Ophir 2010;Evans und Reid 2014;Horn 2014) (Massumi 2015, 10). ...
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Angesichts unkalkulierbarer Bedrohungsszenarien werden Prognosen und Früherkennung immer wichtiger. Die verfügbaren Werkzeuge hierfür sind selbst politisch operativ und etablieren eine »Zukunft als Katastrophe« mit entsprechenden Konsequenzen. Henning Füller setzt den Fokus auf verbundene Machtwirkungen und zeigt, dass mit Monitoring-Techniken postpolitische Vorentscheidungen performativ getroffen werden. Seine Fallstudie zur Anwendung des indikatorbasierten Verfahrens Syndromic Surveillance in den USA befasst sich exemplarisch unter anderem mit der Bearbeitung öffentlicher Gesundheit als Sicherheitsproblem sowie mit der Etablierung des Ist-Zustands als Horizont des Politischen.
... Even when all this is taken into account, interventions must still overcome the politics within resilience resulting from what critiques refer to as the 'rise of inhabitation in the form of widespread withdrawal of international aid workers into gated-complexes and fortified aid compounds' (Evans andReid 2014, Duffield 2016). The consequence of this 'defensive retreat' as Duffield (2016) calls it, is that aid-industry beneficiaries are encouraged to embrace the development potential of risk at the same time as they are being effectively abandoned to uncertainty. ...
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This paper discusses circumstances under which post-conflict humanitarian-development interventions may post success despite exacerbating population’s vulnerability. It concerns Mercy Corps’ (MC) Revitalisation of Agricultural Incomes and New Markets (RAIN) project in Lamwo District, Northern Uganda. MC identified market access as key component of community resilience measuring it through technical feedback processes. In its own terms, RAIN has proved successful, and the market became robust. However, a less narrow evaluation revealed RAIN’s negative impact including diminished food security, increased child malnutrition, domestic and gender-based violence. On any rational understanding of resilience, interventions appeared to compromise rather than enhance population’s resilience.
Chapter
This chapter shows why it matters that, in order to evaluate soldiers’ resilience and readiness for battle, the US Army transforms religious beliefs into measurable features of a person’s being or identity. Spirituality becomes an issue of who persons are, rather than an issue of their beliefs. The US Army conforms to a tendency in today’s psychological sciences and cultural studies to convert different ways of believing into different ways of feeling or being. The result of this ‘ontological’ turn is to depreciate the debate over the meaning of our beliefs and to valorize differences in personal feelings and experiences that are held to be independent of our beliefs. The chapter offers a critique of these developments.KeywordsGATSpiritual FitnessResilienceBeliefsPersonal identityOntology
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The emergence of a neoliberal and individualizing digital resilience discourse in scholarly, governmental, humanitarian, and policy initiatives risks vulnerabilizing groups such as ethnic minorities, people with disabilities, and elderly people. As a corrective, in this chapter I reclaim resilience as a critical concept and social justice-oriented aspiration. Emancipatory epistemologies and methodologies are needed to better account for the increasingly digitized, ambivalent, and power-ridden processes with regard to digital inclusion of underserved and marginalized communities through resilience. In particular, I argue for a relational, situated, and intersectional approach to acknowledge better how communities engage in specific everyday media practices. For this purpose, relevant communities need to be heard and involved in academic knowledge production as active agents and experts over their own experiences. Through amplifying voices, signaling broader contexts of entrenched power hierarchies, and creating new critical vocabularies, scholars can contribute to new coalitions needed for systematic transformation.KeywordsDeficit approachDigital resilienceDiscourseIntersectionalityMedia practiceRelationalitySituatednessStrength-based approachVulnerability
Chapter
A world government capable of controlling nation-states has never evolved. Nonetheless, considerable governance underlies the current order among states, facilitates absorption of the rapid changes at work in the world, and that direction to the challenges posed by interstate conflicts, environmental pollution, currency crises, and the many other problems to which an ever expanding global interdependence gives rise. In this study, nine leading international relations specialists examine the central features of this governance without government. They explore its ideological bases, behavioural patterns, and institutional arrangements as well as the pervasive changes presently at work within and among states. Within this context of change and order, the authors consider the role of the Concert of Europe and the pillars of the Westphalian system, the effectiveness of international institutions and regulatory mechanisms, the European Community and the micro-underpinnings of macro- governance practices.
Article
There has perhaps been no greater thinker of the future than Jacques Derrida. Throughout his entire body of work Derrida constantly returns to the thinking of the “perhaps,” of the arrizant . This thinking of the “perhaps” takes shape as what is “new” and other to our world, something that is therefore unknowable even as a horizon of ideality that both arises out of and points to what ought to be in any given world. I renamed deconstruction the philosophy of the limit so as to emphasize Derrida as the protector of what is still yet to come. My argument was fundamentally that Derrida radicalized the notion of the Kantian meaning of “laying the ground” as the boundaries for the constitution of a sphere of valid knowledge, or determinant judgment. In Kant, to criticize aims to delimit what is decisive to the proper essence of a sphere of knowledge, say for example science. The “laying of limits” is not primarily a demarcation against a sphere of knowledge, but a delimiting in the sense of an exhibition of the inner construction of pure reason. The lifting out of the elements of reason involves a critique in the sense that it both sketches out the faculty of pure reason and surveys the project as the whole of its larger architectonic or systematic structure.