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Instructor Presence and Learner Control as a Model for Instructional Differentiation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Learning Environments

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Abstract

This presentation summarizes my past and ongoing research into the instructional affordances of instructor presence and learner control; specifically examining their role in instructional differentiation within virtual STEM learning environments.


 !"
 "#$"%&"










'(
 !
"
)%'*%+,
!-.*+!/"#%,0"!,,"'
.#!/'
12-%+,!-'3'
-''3''%#!%,
'-%%,%.,",''
%''%''/
43%'"151'"'
%,*+!#!
#$%"
& '
& ($

 6'7'%,*+!
#!
'' -'
$#$"
)$*+),
./8#'"%9:%"
'%10'8%'-,,"-%%0
"'%
./8#'8'',
%10'8%'-,
.&/8#'%,"8
,"'1%%-,''2'
'%
-#-+,

!';

,%,-%,2
'''',%%'<)-"
'%,

,%,0''%,,
',%%"-%-"'5
8%'
';
*
'%1%'8'%,05
'''%0"1'%'
%,,<%,'8',%

-.+,;
43%'-%%0'10-08
"''%,"'%'
.6"=/
"2%1%">"'
-,'',%112
'%,''','%10.
,"+"(?"&@"@05%%(05"
A/
.+,;
'-%0%2%'%1>'
<",""'2%,.0("/
12''%'B
%%,-"'001%,'1'
%,. %"&@,%"&@%"*"("
C@,,"!',1"(0"&@"/
$*
+,+,
Instructor presence: %'8%-%,'-''10
2%'%,"#%,0"!,,
'.#!/1D.'(E,2"9@ %"C@
'(10"9@"=@?%"=/
Learner control;%1%0""'
>%,-.'"@E8"F9@
"/
Student-Student Interaction (SSI);'B%%1'2
%''31%0%,-.#"@
#"/
7
#>'
%%2;
E2'*%+,!-.*+!/'
3''3#!%
%,%G
E2'*+!'3'#!%,
'-'%%,
%G
&H'B<%,',
8>0'%0%+1.+/'*+!
%G
9H'B#!%,<,
3'-%1%2+'*+!%G
0-7
#$!"
/#-
-#
&
/#-
0#
#
!
1&
.#-
#
#
#
&
-750
Setting
S#<-0',%%C
Study Purpose
Quantitative:
###.-.-
23.-+4%5678,9
-#$#.!#$*
-&#$"
&-..$+,!
.&.$+,!
&.$+,!
&.$#
#.-.
+,&
Qualitative:
!<%2''1<'
%%'
-750
cont.
'
5<%">%<%0<'''0. 2%%"
9@ 2%%(% %"C@ 2%%%"&@'" "(
1%%"/
:
9$&'%%',
''-1%;I'3'1%,0%1'%-0
'-1%;5.'"'%0'/
:
#5'I,.+"*+"*++ %1'%-0'/'
-2.*+%1'%-0'/"&'
Materials & Instrumentation
5+1#%;5%1,''',-10#.+J/@
1''0%-''10%,+,
>''2-%%1.*+J/
+1-0.=/;!<6.1 The Cell Cycle & 6.2 Meiosis .+
J/.'-( 2%0"C/@Mitosis & Meiosis .*+J/
.%,+,"J%6%,0"C/
'3';%'3'
.+J/@,-'3'*+
'%-0'.*+J/"%%-''
""'#
-750
cont.
;cont.
:
#','>-%"'"
''B'-
&%%55''%1'%-0
. 1BK;C/
&%%5'%%5,-'%0
%%2,'%-0%1. 1BK;AC/
&%%5'%0'%%5,-2
%%2,%1%. 1BK;F/
2%'-%01%'1
4<6%,0' 6%,0"1%'107-0
:
7'-%','-2%."#"
(E"/
4%1'%-0'
L%'>
%>;
“How did the lab help you to learn biology content?”
“How many times did you repeat the lab and how?”
“Did you seek or receive help from your instructor while completing
the virtual lab, if so, how?”
05+7-2
#91
+M*+ .I%%"=@J%"C@05%%(
05"A@2(4B%%"@?"
A@?%"F/
+N*+ . %"@%,%"/
+O*+ .%"9@#%(0"&@#(P%"&@
?(4%0"/
05+7-2
cont.
# 1

+ .6,-%"C@,%"
&@J%"C@P%(L,"9@"@
05%%(05"A/
. %"9@ %"A@
"@E%"=@(P"
C@L7 "A@L7 "C@#%"@?
%"=/
*+ .'%"@ 1%
%"9@ ,%"F@J%"C@"@
"@"@%%"@'%0
%"&@05%%(05"A@?
%"=/
.6,-%"C@ %"9@
E0(E%"@+%"@(+'"
@'(10"9@0("@(
6%%"@05%%(05"A@2(
4B%%"@#%"@#%"/
J


.%"9@'"@I%2"@+%"
@L7 "C@'(10"9@"@
"0"( "=@7'%"=@
05%%(05"A@?"A@
?%"F@?%"=/
05-
7%
#time effect 2%%0,8"F."AC/O9FC="pM%%,
%',8%05'5"'
552'%0'%%5'
12'5'52'%0'5
#mode of the delivery effect 2%%0,8"F.&"FF/O&F"pO
AC%%''>-%%02%%",'%%1'%-0'
#interaction effect ''%-0'2%%0
,8"
F.C"AC/O="pOF
Table 5.
Mode of Delivery by Time ANOVA Summary Table
Table 4.
Means and Standard Deviations for Mitosis and Meiosis Content
Knowledge
05-
7%cont.
'33)2'<%
,88',
5#'53),;5
'452'%0'53)
,;5&9599
5#452'%0'53),;&5A
QL;O%%3"=O'3"'NFO%,
3. "FF/
%%%).%22/22%','mode of delivery
effect 'mode of delivery x time effect 2%%0,8
4%0-%'%).nO&/,2%'-
0%''%%0,83
Table 6.
Mean Difference Effect Sizes
05%-7%
Table 8.
Select Focus Group and Interview Student Responses
Theme 1: Instructor Presence Theme 2: Learner Control Theme 3:Unique Lab Experiences
PL Group “She was walking around, and if
she saw you looked like you
needed help, then she would help
you”
“There is no point [to review]
when we move on to something
else next week”
“It felt kind of rushed”
“There’s not enough microscopes”
“I am not really ‘getting it’”
“I’d want a longer amount of time”
“It’d be cool if you could actually
‘see’ the cells”
VL Group “Yeah, the lecture and the virtual
lab, that was perfect”
“I liked how it was individually
paced”
“It gave me information instead
of ‘just pictures’”
“I liked how it showed [cellular]
movement”
“I think I got what I needed from
the virtual lab personally”
VLIP Group “Some learners are better guided
by a presence”
“I just kind of ‘one-shotted’ it
for the most part”
“I personally think that it's very
helpful, just needs polishing is all”
VLIPLC
Group
“I liked having an instructor there
too, just in case I had questions”
“ I referred to the animations
quite often”
“I could do it how I want to do
it”
“I was fine with the virtual lab and
seeing it the animation way“
“I like it better than the regular lab”
05
:
;#-5'
5'552'%0'5'
',%',8%0#%%%0
,8,12'5'5
2'%0'5'*$
#-;#>-%,'
%%%1'%-0''-%%1'%,
>-%0%%1.%"9@#%(0"
&@#(P%"&@?(4%0"/
#<;'%%%0,8
'%%%),.%2
2/

'+"*+"'*++ ,'
',%1"12%%2,
'*+"*+"'*++ ,'
',%1"12%%2,
E'''3''%
%00-,%,'-12
'5'52'%0'5
05cont.
:
=
'-,0%%0-%1%
I%'10%'%1>
H'-2%1
=
!D0'1,1%,2"%1"'%%%
'22"1''B%20%
!D0'-,R2%'%1>S
!<'%'''1-''10-%%1
'%%%1'%-0'%%1218%%,

'<'0''%1'
',“we’re moving on to something di/erent next week”.
'<'0'''-%%1"
10“had a course biology test for a grade” 2
T,%B0%'-%%1"'1-
%10%,<"%%'2%%','*+
21''','
%',""'%1%"2%'
'',%1''%%0"2%'
1%10,'8'220'%-
-%1'
Students need to be actively encouraged to use instructor presence
and learner control
&($



$.$
"
-''3'J''
#%'.=/'%!''./
I%#!%,'-
%%,%
J#'%!''B%,
<
7%5E2*+!-'3'#!

GT Specific
Provide Challenge (Thompson, 2010;
Thompson, 2011)
Provide Acceleration (Dailey & Cotabish,
2016; Thompson, 2010;
Thompson, 2011)
Extends curriculum,
provides greater variety,
complexity, and in-depth
coverage of content
(Brinkley, 2018; Dailey
& Cotabish, 2016;
Sadler, Romine, &
Merle-Johnson, 2013;
Wasserman, 2008)
Provide greater choice
and self-regulation
(Limson et al., 2007;
Thompson, 2010)
SpEd. Specific
Provides simplification
of abstract concepts,
experiments, and content
(Baladoh, Elgamal, &
Abas, 2017; Basham &
Marino, 2013)
Allow students to cover
content at their own
speed, slower-pacing of
content
(Kalyuga, 2009)
Provide accessible
curriculum, with
additional embedded
guidance and features to
support learning
(Lynch & Ghergulescu,
2017a; Lynch &
Ghergulescu, 2017b)
Provides greater
guidance and support to
remediate difficult
content, helps to
strengthen students’
knowledge and
confidence
(Baladoh, Elgamal, &
Abas, 2017; Kalyuga,
2009; Basham & Marino,
2013 )
7%5E2*+!-'3'#!
cont.
Both GT and SpEd.
Remove PL Constraints GT (Cotabish, 2017; Cotabish, 2018; DeCoito & Richardson, 2017; Wasserman, 2008).
SpEd. (Baladoh, Elgamal, & Abas, 2017; Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a; Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017b;
National Center for Technology Innovation [NCTI], 2010)
Facilitate Greater
Understanding of STEM
Concepts
GT (Cotabish, 2017; Cotabish, 2018; DeCoito & Richardson, 2017)
SpEd. (Baladoh et al., 2017; Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a; Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017b ; NCTI, 2010).
Promote inquiry-based
learning
GT (Cotabish, 2017; Cotabish, 2018; DeCoito & Richardson, 2017).
SpEd. (Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a; Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017b; National Center for Technology
Innovation [NCTI], 2010)
Promote relevance,
student engagement, and
interest
GT (Brinkley, 2018; Dailey & Cotabish, 2016; DeCoito & Richardson, 2017; Limson et al., 2007).
SpEd. (Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a, Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017b).
Provide Independent
Learning
GT (Bouck & Hunley, 2014; Brinkley, 2018; Dailey & Cotabish, 2016; DeCoito & Richardson, 2017;
Limson et al., 2007).
SpEd. (Baladoh et al., 2017; Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a; Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017b).
Facilitate collaborative
Learning
GT (Bouck & Hunley, 2014; Brinkley, 2018; Dailey & Cotabish, 2016; DeCoito & Richardson, 2017;
Limson et al., 2007).
SpEd. (Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a; Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017b ).
Integrates technology /
21st century skills
GT (Bouck & Hunley, 2014; Brinkley, 2018; Dailey & Cotabish, 2016; DeCoito & Richardson, 2017;
Limson et al., 2007).
SpEd. (Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a; Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017b).
Gaps in current research GT (Bouck & Hunley, 2014; Brinkley, 2018; Dailey & Cotabish, 2016; DeCoito & Richardson, 2017;
Limson et al., 2007).
SpEd. (Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a; Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017b).
7%5E2*+!3'3#!

GT SpEd.
Instructor Presence (Thompson, 2010) (Blum-Dimaya, Reeve, & Reeve,
2010; Carnahan & Fulton, 2013)
Learner Control (Limson et al., 2007; van Dijk,
Eysink, & de Jong, 2016;
Thompson, 2010)
(Kalyuga, 2009; Lawless & Brown,
1997; Lynch & Ghergulescu,
2017a; Lynch & Ghergulescu,
2017b; National Center for
Technology Innovation [NCTI],
2010)
Student-Student Interaction (Limson et al., 2007; Thompson,
2010)
(Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a;
Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017b )
Gaps in current research (Thompson, 2010) (Lawless & Brown, 1997; Lynch &
Ghergulescu, 2017a; Lynch &
Ghergulescu, 2017b)
7%5E2*+!'B#!+,
'-
GT SpEd.
Studies promoting use of VLEs
and/or showing Positive
Achievement in VLEs
(Cotabish, 2017; Cotabish, 2018;
Dailey & Cotabish, 2016; DeCoito
& Richardson, 2017; Limson,
Witzlib, & Desharnais; 2007;
Sadler, Romine, Stuart, & Merle-
Johnson, 2013; van Dijk, Eysink,
& de Jong, 2016).
(Baladoh, Elgamal, & Abas, 2017;
Basham & Marino, 2013; Lynch &
Ghergulescu, 2017a; Lynch &
Ghergulescu, 2017b; National
Center for Technology Innovation
[NCTI], 2010; )
Studies with concerns on the use of
VLE and/or showing Lesser
Achievement in VLEs
(American Chemical Society
[ACS], 2014; Olszewski-Kubilius
& Corwith, 2011; National
Research Council [NRC], 2006;
National Science Teachers
Association [NSTA], 2007)
(American Chemical Society
[ACS], 2014; National Research
Council [NRC], 2006; National
Science Teachers Association
[NSTA], 2007)
Gaps in current research GT (Benny & Blonder, 2016;
Olszewski-Kubilius & Corwith,
2011)
SpEd. (Blum-Dimaya, Reeve, &
Reeve, 2010; Lynch &
Ghergulescu, 2017a ; Lynch &
Ghergulescu, 2017b)
7%
E2*+!3'#!+,'
-
GT SpEd.
Instructor Presence
Positive (Thompson, 2010; Thompson, 2011) (Blum-Dimaya, Reeve, & Reeve, 2010)
Negative (Thompson, 2010; Thompson, 2011) (Carnahan & Fulton, 2013)
Learner Control
Positive (Limson et al., 2007; van Dijk, Eysink, & de
Jong, 2016; Sadler, Romine, & Merle-
Johnson, Thompson, 2010; Thompson, 2011)
(Kalyuga, 2009; Lynch & Ghergulescu,
2017a; Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017b;
National Center for Technology
Innovation [NCTI], 2010)
Negative (Thompson, 2010; Thompson, 2011) (Kalyuga, 2009; Lawless & Brown, 1997)
Student-Student Interaction
Positive (Limson et al., 2007; Thompson, 2010;
Thompson, 2011)
(Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a; Lynch &
Ghergulescu, 2017b )
Negative (Thompson, 2010) (Woodward & Ferretti, 2007)
Gaps in current
research
(Thompson, 2010; Thompson, 2011) (Blum-Dimaya, Reeve, & Reeve, 2010;
Carnahan & Fulton, 2013; Kalyuga, 2009;
Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a; Lynch &
Ghergulescu, 2017b)
'
9
-
GT SpEd.
Students’ experiences in Physical Labs
Positive (Park & Oliver, 2009) (Bargerhuff, Kirch, & Wheatly, 2004; Scruggs &
Mastropieri, 1993; Sunal, Sunal, Sundberg, &
Wright, 2008)
Negative (Park & Oliver, 2009; Wasserman,
2008)
(Aschbacher, Li, & Roth, 2010)
Students’ experiences in Virtual Learning Environments
Positive (Limson et al., 2007) (Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a; Moin, Magiera, &
Zigmond, 2009;Blum-Dimaya, Reeve, & Reeve,
2010)
Negative (Sadler, Romine, & Merle-Johnson,
2013)
(Woodward & Ferreiti, 2007)
Gaps in current research (Drayton, Puttick, & Donovan,
2012)
(Blum-Dimaya, Reeve, & Reeve, 2010; Lynch &
Ghergulescu, 2017a; Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1993)
'-'B!<,+'*+!
3'
GT SpEd.
Students’ experiences of Instructor Presence
PL U(Park & Oliver, 2009)
5(Wasserman, 2008)
>(Moin, Magiera, & Zigmond, 2009)
5(Aschbacher, Li, & Roth, 2010)
VL U(Thompson, 2010)
2(Thompson, 2010)
>(Blum-Dimaya, Reeve, & Reeve, 2010)
5(Harris & Smith, 2004)
Students’ experiences of Learner Control
PL >(Park & Oliver, 2009)
2(Kanevsky, 2011; NRC, 1997; Wasserman,
2008)
U(Sunal, Sunal, Sundberg, & Wright, 2008)
5(NRC, 1997)
VL >(Limson et al., 2007; Thompson, 2010)
5(Sadler, Romine, Stuart, & Merle-Johnson,
2013; Swan et al., 2015; Thompson, 2010)
U(Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a)
5(Harris & Smith, 2004)
Students’ experiences of Student-Student Interaction
PL U(Park, & Oliver, 2009; Wasserman, 2008)
5(Park & Oliver, 2009)
U(Sunal, Sunal, Sundberg, & Wright, 2008)
5(Strogilos & Avramidis, 2016)
VL U(Limson et al., 2007; Thompson, 2010)
5(Thompson, 2010)
U(Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a; Woodward &
Ferretti, 2007)
5(Woodward & Ferretti, 2007)
Gaps in current research (Kitsantas, Bland, & Chirinos, 2017; Lynch & Ghergulescu, 2017a; NRC,
2006; Thompson, 2010; Woodward & Ferretti, 2007)
Legend
> Positive
5Negative
5($.

=#
*+'310-',%%,'%.%0(
1"C@#"@#@/"''%%001%
<',%10'2,%"%%2,'
,-05'.6%0"F@%0( 1"
C@'%%"&@H"F/
I%%0"'B--%-'B'%,-"
%',%-*+"'%5,%'
1%0.+%"A@#"/
&
*+'310-',-'%%8
1'V%'<"0%''
'2%-'%<51'%.6%'"
!%,%"(1"A@6("&/
''%%0"*+'%,10-',1%%2
1''',''"2%%2'",,
'B2%','8'.6%'"!%,%"(1"A@6(
"&@P%0,"@+0(J,%"A@+0(J,%"
A1/"''B1%0-2.P%0,"/
=#;&
I%%0"*+'310-,+-'
%,,%,0#!'.6%'%"A@6%0"
F@ 1"F@ (7'"A@+0(J,%"A1@L #"
/#1%'>051'%,"<%%'
"',,'',#!.6%'%"A@
1"A@%0( 1"C@+0(J,%"A@L #"/@
,1%%1-'''%051'%,.6%'%"A@
6(E%0"9@6%0"F@+0(J,%"A@+0(
J,%"A1/
5($.1

#3'"%%"''5'
-''10*+'31J''#%'
'%!''
=#
%%2'2-%%0
.#"/1,'-,
,'1*+%'',
%%2''%"'
","'%,,*+'%
.+%"A@#"@-D"!0"(',"C/"'
'B,'-''10*+'0'
.-D"!0"(',"C/
2%%2'%%1'
',%'*+"0100
.+%"A@#"/
&
%%2'22
-%%0. (I%"&/''%%0"0%
-'''-'%)',','%'-'.6%50"
7-"(7-"/
%%2'B,''%,2
1%%'*+%"%',%%2,
'0"2,2"
V%,"'%)','-''
10*+'.P%0,"@+2%(62"A@+0(
J,%"A@+0(J,%"A1@L #"/
2%%2','%%1
'',%'*+"010
0.+0(J,%"A@+0(J,%"A1/

($.
1
=#
*+'--'B-0
-0'%+'-'>%
'3"0%%,',,'"10%,%,
'%,<%#!,'
18"0'%,)'
21*+#!J#'. "
9@4%)25P1%( 2"@L7 "C@L#"A/"%0
'*+'%10%%3-%0'%
8'
&
*+'0%18%''0-'
1%0"-0'%+'-'>
%'3"0%%2'<%'
2'%-%"-'''%,'"'
''%,'8'
E2-"-2'%-#!'"%''%
,)D*+. "9@L7 "C@L#"A/"
*+'%10%%3-%0'%
8'@2-"+>'
%0%2011%%%'2,-
0%

($1
1
Gifted Students

",'"'%
--%03'%,
'B-,-%0'10%,'
'%'*+-"2
-

-*+-2'1%
<''',"%0
%%,'',,'%,2%%,
-2"'2%%','2
*+
E2-"2','%0''V%
"-3"%%0'2'-
0%5,%%%
2
2%1%02%-'*+
,''B''',#!1D
E2-"22'%'"'V%"
2'"'1',,'%-"
%%0'%2',''


($1
1&"
Special Ed. Students

+,'-,-%)'
,'"%',-''%,'
+,'-,-%0'10%
"%%0%'*+-"2%'
'''"'1"'

-*+-2'1%
<'',",,'
%,2%%,-%-%'2"'
-''20'','2*+
E2-"2','%0'"'-'"
'V%@-3"%%0'20
1,,%,2%'2%',''''%%
'''%,0
2
4%-'*+%''B
%,10-',-20R6%S
'1%01"%%02
'%%,-1
+,01,-%0'2%''B
%0%-"-%
'',,'

9
-
Gifted Students
+
'<+2-'02
%10>"%"'%R%S'
-,
'<,--21,R%'1S10%-%
%'-,22%251%0
*+
'<*+-2'8'-0
,,,"%%,,"'%-%,
*+%'2''-02%%','"
%%01%0-'','
Special Ed. Students
+
0%''D0%,'5%1',,'
102%10>'1-,8@
%%02+-1%0','
L,--2+%,%%,'10

*+
%''%D0,,,*+'
8,-'-'@0
%1%0*+
L,-*+%'',,,
2"%''-%'*+
%%1%"%%0',%%1-2
59?
1
=#9

>051'%,-20-,'
''
@2'%''%%,1%,

20%%2'0-,"%%0
,>051'
@'1'10,'-5%8'%'%
2
2'-''0%%12%51%0"
'"%%51%0
@J#''%1,%'10%2%-%%'%
11,1%%'
=#9

20%-%1%-%%0%0'
-'%-%,'
@2'-,'1%
%'5<

2*+!,,,'%%,,"'%%22'-'
2
@''10-5%'W%0','*+'1'''
,'
2
2'1%""'%*+
-
@J#''%1,'2'',0
22''%0
59?
1
&9

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%''/
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-3-%%1
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'8R*%+1S'RJ'S"
''%'X<1%
.,"%"-%<",5
1%0",%01%/'0
0'%,-%%1'%8%%02
%%,
%I7
L''02*+!'3''3
%%,%.6(E%0"9@
6%0"F@%0( 1"C@ (7'"
A@+%"A@+0(J,%"A@+0(
J,%"A1/
I'02*+!'3'#!%,
'-%%,%.6%50
%"@60(6%'"C@ (I%"&@+0
(J,%"A@+0(J,%"A1@4%)25
P1%( 2"@#"/
I'0<%,J#'!''B%,
<,+'*+!'3'.6%5
0%"@0%"@P%"A@
+0(J,%"A@L7 "C@,,("
&@#"@H'2'(I"A/
%#0
Implications for Instructional Design

#'01'0','%
*+!.'(E,2"9/
'%21,0%%0"
'*+!-,'
J'1'''*+!1%"0"'2%%
','
%',''%'
''8"*+!'%-
.,%"&@%%"@'%0""(
"&/

%',"%'-%"''
%'<%220,'Y%
%3'10*+!"%%0%%%'
''-.I%%"=@2(4Y
%%"@?"A/
I%%0"',''-%+'*+!"
'<%,',,'Y%
%-0.Z%"F@
?%"=/
%#0
#

!'+-%';-%0
'',%10-,"
'',"'''.L7 "
C/

!'%'-%0','Y
>,+-001
,'22.L7 "C@L7 "A/
%,''%%'B
%%,-"%%0
,''%'.-D%"C@#"/
'%'.P%0,"/'
2
'%%1#!%,"
1'%'1'%1,''
'%'''
'''%,
%
[E2#!%,'-
%%,%,*+!'
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&@I%2"@7"&@05%%(05"
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%,*+#!
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7''*+!'54!7'%6%'
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7''*+!'5+%>%
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,','%"'
%''-'%'
,
*+'2,
-''%
%@%',',','
>'1'
'3'
© 2011-2019 Sapling Learning, Inc. All rights reserved.
7''*+!'5,%1%
.
I
4%0-%
*%+1"JW%"
W*'"'%'
2'-0#!
1D##
#12%'
1@-2'>%0"
0'''
H1%'%
'''<1
%3I
6%'1'%%2
%,
'2%
1'%%%2,
%"'%'
'-'%',
-,51'%
,,'
© 2019 SPONGELAB.
7''*+!'5!#%

I
4%0-%
*%+12'-0#!
1D
I''"'1%'
#!>02
H1-'%
-2'1%,!#
%
!#%
%3I
!#%-',51'
%,
!#%-','
,%
!#%-'%%
1%%-'''%
%'3,-1%
'''1W3%'
© 2019 University of Colorado. Some rights reserved.
7''*+!'5+1%
.
I
4%0-%&
*%+12'-0#!
1D
I''"'1%'
#!>02"-'
-%'
2
+,
%3I
#-%)''1'
%%2'
'-'%',
+1%-'
'%%'
© Labster ApS 2019 All Rights Reserved
7''*+!'5J5+1%
=2.
I
4%0-%
*%+1'%
2'-0#!1D
I''"'1%'
#!>02
H1-'%
-2'1%,J5
+1
%3I
#)'%
%'-%>0%,
,J5+1-%<'

© 2019 Go-Lab Project - Global Online Science Labs for
Inquiry Learning at School,
Co-funded by EU (7th Framework Programme).
1<
I
!0)H1-
.H/1'%,
,58'%0&W*7W7*+!
D-1'
-''2-
-%-2
%%2151'"7"'*7
'-
H1-'-%,%05
'%'%@%
%-%1%-#2'%
L&<G#B"%0
,'%7<&
'%-''10

%3I
#%0,58'%0
%,-"%',
,>)>"

,'',%,
-','"%"'
'
© 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Simulation designed by Dr. Jaime McQueen, 2018.
7''*+!'-''%
*+W%
ChemCollective: Virtual Labs
%%0%
Hhmi Biointeractive Virtual Labs
&%%%','-'%-%1%,0W'%

Brain Pop
I'%X
The Concord Consortium
+1,2',
VLs and simulations from curriculum publishers
=..L2J25E%%/"2151'*+
R%'1,'R'1'"
21#6%,0 -%'%
%1
;WW2221%,0W2W-%\%1\,%%
=$2(.%-%2151'%*+
'"1'10,
RJ25E%%*%+1S
VLs and simulations from universities and institutions
;#!<5H1'-. #%,0#,
'+,57-0"F/,%0'215
1',"-'02%
7''*+!'5 %
?-!.#
#-
#B
#2
-C-##4*.
!-!
0&
##!#!$.2.
-2!#-
!-$.
.#&
1-D#
.9-C
-$2-
-+,&
E#A
.!
#$!
.-A!#&
7''65 %
0"*+!-2
%%%"
V0%,%0'''%-0'
%,%
'%%2,''1
2,*+!;

*+!'*+do not -%'%55
'5>0%1-
!%,%'%,,%12
0'*+!
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