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Eye-tracking in Marketing Research

Authors:
Chapter 6
Eye-tracking in Marketing Research
Sylwester Białowąs, Adrianna Szyszka
Abstract: Understanding the cognitive processes of consumers, such as attention
or perception, can help orient marketing activities in such away that the informa-
tion provided to recipients is delivered in the most eective way possible. Neu-
romarketing methods – in contrast to conventional methods – enable scientists
to measure the subconscious reactions in response to stimuli, thereby giving in-
sight into decision-making processes, consumer preferences or motivations. One
of the most commonly used methods of this type is eye-tracking. In recent years,
there has been anoticeable increase in the popularity of using this technique as
it provides valuable information regarding the visual processing of stimuli. The
purpose of this publication is to present the possibilities of using eye-tracking in
marketing research, including identifying the main research areas and insights
from previous research. In the beginning, necessary information about the meth-
od will be presented, providing context for further considerations, such as eye
movement characteristics and fundamental measurement indicators. Then are-
view of the studies conducted using eye-tracking will be carried out. A broad
spectrum of the use of eye-tracking provides the opportunity for future studies
to combine this method with other neuromarketing techniques (including the
electroencephalography or magnetic resonance imaging).
Keywords: eye-tracking, measurement, eye movements, marketing research,psy-
chophysiological methods, consumer behaviour
Romanowski R. (Ed.): Managing Economic Innovations - Methods and Instruments
Bogucki Wyd. Nauk., Poznań 2019. ISBN 978-83-7986-277-1
DOI: 10.12657/9788379862771-6
Sylwester Białowąs: Associate Professor at Department of Market Research and Services Management, In-
stitute of Marketing, Poznan University of Economics,ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4575-5346,
e-mail: sylwester.bialowas@ue.poznan.pl
Adrianna Szyszka: PhD Student at Department of Market Research and Services Management, Institute of
Marketing, Poznan University of Economics, ORCID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1389-2365, e-mail:
adrianna.szyszka@ue.poznan.pl
Managing E-marketing in Business 92
Eye-tracking – what is it?
Eye-tracking is aset of research techniques and methods intended for measuring, ana-
lyzing and interpreting data on the position and movement of eyeballs (Rojna, 2003).
Thanks to this method, it is possible to check where the subject’s eyesight falls at agiv-
en moment, how long the eyesight focuses on aspecic point and what path it fol-
lows (Schall, Bergstrom, 2014). In addition to observing eye movement, the technique
also allows measuring its characteristics, including pupil size (Bojko, 2013). The need to
track eye movements arose as aresult of the desire to learn about the relationship be-
tween the brain and visual system (Schall, Bergstrom, 2014). One of the rst studies in
this area dates back to the 19th century, when Louis E. Javal registered eye movements
using an apparatus placed on the patient’s eye surface (Wawer, Pakuła, 2012). Track-
ing eye movements is used in various elds of science, among others in psychology,
medicine or ergonomics (Wąsikowska, 2016). This technique has also been applied to
marketing research.
As part of the visual activity, two types of eye movement can be distinguished – x-
ations and saccades. Fixations are relative pauses in the movement of the eye during
which the retina stabilizes at aspecic point in the visual eld. Saccades, in turn, are
quick eye movements occurring between xations that rely on sight moving from place
to place. In other words, these eye movements are responsible for the rapid transfer of
the line of sight to those points of the visual environment in which the information
needed for the current cognitive task is available (Garczarek-Bąk, Disterheft, 2018; Ober,
Dylak, Gryncewicz, Przedpelska-Ober, 2009; Schall, Bergstrom, 2014). The xations are
from 150 ms to 600 ms long and constitute 90% of the looking time as they include the
smallest eye movements, such as tremor, drift or microsaccades. Saccades last from 10
ms to 100 ms and are seen as amanifestation of the desire for voluntary changes of
attention. From research on visual attention, arelevant category of movements are also
smooth pursuits, which enable to track moving objects. In the context of the analysis
of eyeball movement, it is, therefore, crucial to isolate xations, saccades and smooth
pursuits as they are an expression of voluntary visual attention (Duchowski, 2007).
The eye-tracking method based on tracking the motion of eyeballs allows for de-
tailed follow-up of the subject’s vision path, and in fact – the path of the attention.
Thanks to this, it is possible to isolate the focus areas of the participant’s vision, which
gives an image of the content that the subject considers interesting or that has attract-
ed the attention. Such information is astarting point for reection on how aperson
perceived the viewed material (Duchowski, 2007). Researchers have always been inter-
ested in brain function in response to stimuli exposure, and thanks to eye-tracking, it
is possible to understand how ahuman visual system works, as well as how the mind
processes visual stimuli (Schall, Bergstrom, 2014). The studies conducted so far indicate
alink between visual attention and eye movement. There are hypotheses according to
which the same neural circuits mediate both attention and eye movements – changes
in attention depend on the activation of brain structures that are closely involved in
moving the eyes. In the study of Homan and Subramaniam (1995), it was proved that
it is impossible to direct attention to one place and simultaneously perform asaccade
Managing E-marketing in Business 93
in another place. This, in turn, may mean that focusing attention can be an essential ele-
ment in the preparation or execution of saccades. One explanation for the relationship
between sight and recognition is that eye movements require the involvement of the
attention system to choose which stimuli in the visual eld are to take control of the
oculomotor system.
The measurements of eye movement
An eye-tracker is atool that enables to get an accurate representation and understand-
ing of the eye motion. Most modern eye-trackers follow the position and movements
of the eye using the corneal reection method. The technique is based on the use of
light sources (infrared) directed into the eye, followed by areection of the camera
with high resolution. The image captured by the camera is used to identify the source
of light reection on the cornea, which allows determining the location of the subject’s
sight (Garczarek-Bąk, 2017; Schall, Bergstrom, 2014). In the analysis of the visual activity
while using the eye-tracker, three main attributes can be distinguished, i.e. the location,
duration and movement. The basic measure of location is the xation, which reects
the position of the eyes captured in agiven time. When interpreting this parameter,
it should be remembered that the mere fact of recording the xation does not mean
that the subject actually saw or cognitively processed the recorded image (Schall, Berg-
strom, 2014). Fixation measurement indicators include the number and distribution
of xations, which may be areection of the subject’s engagement with the object.
Another parameter is the total xation time in agiven area and the xation time per
unit area of the visual element being viewed (Bylinskii, Borkin, 2015). Measurement of
visual activity using an eye tracker also enables to estimate the rst xation duration as
well as the time to rst xation, which helps determine how much time it takes the user
to notice aparticular element. Additionally, the average xation duration can be ob-
tained by dividing the total time by the number of xation. It is also possible to identify
revisits dening all cases in which the eyesight again returns to the area in which the
xation had previously occurred (Garczarek-Bąk, Disterheft, 2018; Tullis, Albert, 2008).
The analysis can be augmented with such parameters as the diversity of xations (the
number of unique points for which the xation occurred) and inter-element xations,
which represents the number of cases in which xation are attributable to dierent sets
of elements (Bylinskii, Borkin, 2015). Using the eye-tracking apparatus, you can also ex-
tract parameters that take into account other types of eye movements, including dwell
time – the total time of all xations and saccades (Garczarek-Bąk, Disterheft, 2018).
As for the indicators related to saccades – they are particularly related to the se-
quence of searching dierent areas of interest by the observer. Since – unlike xations
– visual information is not processed during saccades, the measurement indicators
associated with this type of eye movement are not crucial for examining visual atten-
tion. However, it is possible to obtain such indicators as the number of saccades or the
saccade duration. Besides, it should also be noted that there are indicators aecting
both xation and saccades measurement as any combination of these movements is
Managing E-marketing in Business 94
called ascanpath. Frequently used measurement parameters based on the scanpath
include scanpath length, spatial density, transition matrix, scanpath regularity and
scanpath direction, which indicates the searching strategies of the participants (Borys,
Plechawska-Wójcik, 2017). Information obtained during the test, therefore, can be pres-
ent in the form of scanning path, reecting the order of directing sight for each space.
At the same time, it helps identify areas of withdrawing the attention from the essential
content of the message during the testing procedure. Specic points that the subject
looks at are represented in the form of circles, together with numbers indicating the
order of observation and lines demonstrating the movement of sight from place to
place. The data can also be visualized as aheat map, which allows to identify areas that
received the most attention and those that have been overlooked by the participants.
Places of longer concentration are marked with warm colours, while areas of shorter
focus – using cool colours. On the other hand, the elements that the subject did not
look at are not marked in any colour. The heat map can also be presented in an inverted
form, showing the places of the presented content to which the subject directed the
eyesight. Another way to present the results of measuring eye movements are areas of
interest, which contain information about the extent to which agiven picture attracted
the attention of the subject. This information is presented in the form of anumber,
which allows for calculating the statistics (Garczarek-Bak, 2016; Wąsikowska, 2016).
The use of eye-tracking in marketing research
One of the reasons for using the eye-tracking in marketing research is the intention
to understand the actions of consumers. The goal of marketing activities is to provide
consumers with product information in an ecient enough way to increase aware-
ness among potential buyers and to identify the needs that can be met through it.
Consequently, awareness of product availability increases the likelihood of buying it.
Eye-tracking can provide insight into at least one aspect of the internal model of the
consumer attention: how the consumer distracts visual attention to various forms of
advertising (Duchowski, 2007). Visual attention is essential in examining the consumer
behavior and understanding its role in the decision-making process can provide val-
uable knowledge that enables to eectively design marketing activities using visual
messages (Jerzyk, 2017).
Having looked at the results for queries such as “eye tracking” or “eye tracker” or “eye
movement measurements” in the EBSCO database, an increase in the popularity of this
method in the research is observed. Figure 1 shows the number of publications that
concerned this technique. In recent years (2014–2018) more than twice as many papers
related to eye-tracking have been created as in the years 2009–2013. The number of all
works on this method created before 2009 (3262) is smaller by approx. 25% than the
number of works from 2009 to 2013 and by almost 65% than the number of publica-
tions from 2014 to 2018.
Managing E-marketing in Business 95
To examine the use of eye-tracking in marketing publications, an analysis of the
number of searches in the EBSCO database for the phrases “eye tracking” or “eye track-
er” or “eye movement measurements” and “marketing” was performed. The number of
publications in this area is smaller (687); however, the growth trend is similar. In recent
years (2014–2018) more than twice as many publications have been created as in previ-
ous years – arapid increase in their number is observed, especially after 2000.
Experiments depending on recording the eye movements can help comprehend
the processing of visual information during the purchasing decision at the point of sale
and reveal phases of the decision-making process, which is aected by packaging de-
sign (Clement, 2007). The eye movement tracking method was used to test packaging
eectiveness – including study by Cholewa-Wojcik and Kawecka (2015), in which the
reactions for the package of energy drinks from the viewpoint of purchasing preferenc-
es were checked. When it comes to packaging design, aspects that were studied using
the eye-tracking technique include shape, size, color of packaging and uses of dierent
font (Clement, Kristensen, Grønhaug, 2013), location and characteristics of nutrition
labels (Bialkova, van Trijp, 2011; Graham, Jeery, 2011) or the presence of potentially
misleading elements that may cause clients false expectations (Clement, Smith, Zlatev,
Gidlöf, van de Weijer, 2017). In the Disterheft (2017) study, the relationship between the
eectiveness and perception of advertising and the attractiveness of the model was
analyzed using the analysis of eye movement. The participants were presented with
three types of face wash gel ads – with the face of an attractive model, with the face of
an average attractive model and without the face of the model. It turned out that the
subjects looked at the average attractive model for longer. In the case of advertising
with an attractive model, the study participants focused on the advertised product for
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
before 1994
(from 1947)
1994–1998 1999–2003 2004–2008 2009–2013 2014–2018
Figure 1. Number of searches for the phrase eye tracking or eye tracker or eye movement measure-
ments in the EBSCO database
Managing E-marketing in Business 96
along time, which, however, did not aect its better remembering (Disterheft, 2017).
Other studies using eye-tracking regarding packaging design include, among others,
the study of Husic-Mehmedovic, Omeragić, Batagelj and Kolar (2017).
Eye tracking was used in merchandising research as well. In this area, among oth-
ers, the impact of visual ways of drawing the client’s attention to the product, infor-
mation about it and its price on the purchase intention was examined (Huddleston,
Behe, Minahan, Fernandez, 2015). Another study using the technique of tracking the
eye movements aimed to verify the impact of the location on the visual search as well
as buyers’ decision-making processes and their importance for the selection of the
products. According to the study, the location-driven patterns of choosing the prod-
ucts by the consumers are crucial for retail shelf management and point-of-purchase
decisions (Atalay, Bodur, Rasolofoarison, 2012). In the context of the display of goods
on retail store shelves, the method was also used, among others, in the study of Chan-
don, Hutchinson, Bradlow and Young (2009) or in the study of Wästlund, Shams and
Otterbring (2018) regarding peripheral vision.
Given the problems of the relationship between attention and customer preferenc-
es to products, purchasing decisions and the real choices, the analysis of eye movement
was used in the context of emotion. In the study by Gaczek and Disterheft (2018), the
impact of incidental emotions on the application of the satisfaction or maximization
rule when selecting food products was examined. Using the eye-tracker, variables re-
lated to the decision rule i.e. total xation time, number of xations and total scanpath
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
before 1994
(from 1976)
1994–1998 1999–2003 2004–2008 2009–2013 2014–2018
Figure 2. Number of searches for the phrase eye tracking or eye tracker or eye movement measure-
ments and phrase marketing in the EBSCO database
Managing E-marketing in Business 97
length were measured. Eye movements were also recorded when the participants of
the study made decisions when choosing jams. The study observed that feeling emo-
tions when making decisions does not aect the application of satisfaction or maxi-
mization rule. The analysis showed that the products were slower and more carefully
explored by the subjects in agood mood (Disterheft, Gaczek, 2018). When it comes to
testing consumer behaviour, the eye-tracker was used as amethod to study the impact
of shopping goals (and the heuristics used) on visual attention when making purchas-
ing decisions (Wästlund, Otterbring, Gustafsson, Shams, 2015).
The eye-tracking method can also be used to examine the marketing activity of
exhibitors concerning trade fair booths. An example of such an application of the
technique was presented in the study by Gębarowski (2018), focusing on the overall
appearance of the booths and their exhibition part. Eye-tracking can also help deter-
mine to what extent the trade fair booth catches the eye of people moving around the
market hall and how it stands out from other objects. Besides, it enables to isolate the
elements that attract the attention the most and check the response to the presented
products (Gębarowski, 2018).
The eye-tracking technique has also been used for television commercials. An
example of such an application is the study of Smink, van Reijmersdal and Boerman
(2017), which concerned brand placement disclosures. Eye-tracking was used to meas-
ure visual activity relative to the brand placement and report on its use. Besides, it was
checked whether brand familiarity plays amoderating role in receiving the messages.
To this end, areas of interest were analyzed. The study also used self- description meth-
ods to measure the recall of the disclosures, brand recall, perceived purchase decision,
brand familiarity and brand attitude. Another study using eye-tracking in the context
of television advertising was conducted, among others, by Teixeira, Wedel, and Pieters
(2010).
Another area of application of eye-tracking is research on printed advertising. The
study performed by Puškarević, Nedeljković, Dimovski and Možina (2016) analyzed the
impact of the typeface guration (i.e. regular and irregular forms of styling) on atten-
tion and attitude of the audience. The subject of the analysis was also the eect of
changing the typeface guration depending on the type of advertised product (he-
donistic or functional). The eye-tracker study has been supplemented with measure-
ment of attitude toward the brand, attitude toward the advertisement and purchase
intentions using the Likert scale. An example of the use of eye-tracking in research on
print advertising is presented in the study by Hutton and Nolte (2011), in which it was
examined how gaze cues provided by models in advertisements aect the focus of
attention on aspecic area of advertising.
Several studies used eye-tracking for online advertising. For example, Porta,
Ravarelli and Spaghi (2013) checked the impact of the congruity between the ad ban-
ner subject and webpage content on the perception and remembering of banners in
online newspapers. Eye-tracker was also used to measure the number of xations in
the banner area, the total duration of the xation, the average duration of xation and
the time of the rst xation (Porta, Ravarelli, Spaghi, 2013). In the studies in the area
of online advertising, the tracking of eye movements may be helpful to measure the
Managing E-marketing in Business 98
phenomenon of banner blindness. The eye-tracker was used, among others, to verify
whether Facebook users pay attention to the banners presented in comparison with
the recommendations posted by friends (Barreto, 2013). The phenomenon of banner
blindness was also investigated using an eye-tracker by Resnick and Albert (2014) who
focused on banners that appear when browsing e-commerce websites. The study was
completed by measuring the users’ familiarity with the page and its visual appeal using
the Likert scale. Owens, Chaparro and Palmer (2011), in turn, developed this area of
research, exploring the topic of text advertising blindness. To this end, the authors used
the eye-tracking method to check the attention of users when it comes to searching
for text ads on websites. Asimilar use of eye-tracking also appeared in the studies of
Hervet, Gue and Tremblay (2010) and Lapa (2007). The eectiveness of online advertis-
ing banners was the subject of Lee and Ahn study (2012), where it was checked what
inuence the visual eects of the stimulus (animation) have on attention and whether
such cognitive requirements can play amoderating role. Another research has reviewed
the relationship between various indicators of attention measured with eye-tracker (i.e.
total xation duration, average xation duration and xation frequency) with memory
and achange of attitude. Examples of studies using eye-tracking also apply to content
on websites and their impact on the observer’s attention. In the study of Cao, Qu, Duy
and Ding (2019), the importance of the location of the ad and the colour of the web
directories in relation to the users attention was examined.
In conclusion, it should be emphasized that the method of tracking eye movements
in market research can be used for various purposes, such as product packaging de-
sign tests, website and e-mail communication tests, marketing communication tests
(advertising, leaets, sponsorship and product placement). It is usually combined with
quantitative (questionnaires) or qualitative techniques (focus groups, in-depth inter-
views) (Cosic, 2016). The eye-tracking method is also often combined with other neu-
romarketing techniques.
Visual activity testing rules
Eye-tracking is widely used in marketing research since it is alow-invasive testing tech-
nique (Cosic, 2016). Before proceeding with the study, participants should be warned
that the study will take place using technology that tracks eye movements – but be
careful not to reveal too much detail about the procedure, as this may have anegative
eect on the results obtained (Kara, Nielsen, 2009).
When carrying out atest using an eye-tracker, it is worth remembering afew fun-
damental principles that will ensure the reliability of the results obtained. Remember
to control the exposure time for each participant – it should be made equal for the
subjects. Besides, when the control of exposure time is not possible, the solution may
be to express the dwell time in percent instead of absolute values – depending on its
duration, other eye movements and other amounts of time spent on watching each
element are observed. Time control should only take place when the participant is in-
volved in the study – the time that the respondent spends reporting his experience
Managing E-marketing in Business 99
should not be recorded. During the test, eye movements of the subjects should be
monitored in real-time, and they should be observed for correct posture. Consider the
use of trigger, the point at which the participants focus their attention at the beginning
of the experiment. This allows you to control the place from which all subjects begin
the experiment (Tullis, Albert, 2008).
It is worth remembering that the results obtained through registering eye move-
ments depend on the environment in which the test is performed. When planning an
experiment related to tracking the subject’s eyesight, it is worth considering the con-
text in which it is carried out. For example, instead of using an eye-tracker in the store
space, for reasons of cost and exibility, researchers decide to use projectors to create
avirtual environment. It should be borne in mind that the most realistic environment
is areal physical store – the results of the test may be dierent depending on wheth-
er the eye movement is measured in anatural or articial environment. The study of
Tonkin, Ouzts and Duchowski (2011) proves that visual search is faster in the physical
environment compared to the virtual image – although the perceived dierence may
not be signicant. In turn, if the test is carried out in laboratory conditions, it should
be remembered that the room in which it takes place has proper lighting. It is not rec-
ommended to conduct the test in very bright rooms – too much light may aect the
device for recording eye movements (Kara, Nielsen, 2009).
The use of eye-tracking with other neuromarketing methods
There are examples in the literature of research using eye-tracking with electroenceph-
alography (EEG). Eye-tracking enables to determine where and how long the eyesight
is concentrated on some area. However, alonger time of focus on particular place does
not necessarily reect more attention or better remembering of the content (this may
also mean that the material presented is too complicated). For this reason, more in-
formation can be obtained by supplementing the analysis with measuring the brain’s
electrical activity, which can be arepresentation of visual perception, mental activa-
tion, concentration, stimulation, memory or tension resulting from previous experi-
ments (Dimpfel, Morys, 2014). The combination of eye movements tracking and EEG
can be used in advertising studies as it provides essential information on individual
as well as group cognitive and emotional responses leading to the objective assess-
ment of the ads. In relation to TV commercials, both methods were used by Dimpfel
(2015). Furthermore, Guixeres et al. (2017) investigated the eectiveness of advertising
(recall, liking and viewing rates) available on digital channels (YouTube) using neuro-
physiological measures such as eye-tracking and brain electrical activity as measured
by EEG and heart rate variability. The combination of both methods can be used in
consumer decision research as well. Eye-tracking technology can be used to process
the EEG recordings in real-time, allowing signicant insight into the decision-making
process recorded with it (Winslow et al., 2010). The study by Khushaba et al. (2013)
aimed to provide information on the design and presentation of products so that they
match the preferences of buyers. Authors have investigated the physiological reactions
Managing E-marketing in Business 100
of customers when making decisions regarding the products e.g. electrical activity of
the brain and eye movements. The eye-tracker system was used to link EEG data with
specic product selection options (i.e. to show the transition between selection sets
and the actual selection of the object). A combination of methods was used in the
Adhami (2013) study on mobile applications – thanks to which it was possible to verify
the emotional response of the brain and concentration of attention while browsing,
choosing and buying products on amobile phone.
The challenge in advertising research is to evaluate websites in terms of the content
presented on them. In the study of Dimpfel and Morys (2014) eye-tracking was used to
indicate in which areas of the website and how long the users’ eyesight is focused. In
turn, the EEG measurement allowed to conclude about the cognitive reaction, focus of
attention, memory processing or tension level. Considering the number of results of
asimultaneous search in the EBSCO database, the phrase eye tracking or eye tracker or
eye movement measurements and the phrase EEG or electroencephalogram or elec-
troencephalography, 489 publications were published between 2009 and 2018.
As for the other psychophysiological measures, eye-tracking was used also with
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This combination of methods can help
illustrate how brain activity corresponds to eye movement (as well as the gaze direction,
pupil dilatation, or blinking frequency). In other words, the combination of these two
techniques allows indicating what area of the image presented to the subject (visual
stimulus) is observed when aspecic part of the brain is activated simultaneously (Beg-
djani, Steen, 2013). In the study of Garrison, O’Malley, Gueorguieva and Krishnan-Sa-
rin (2018), the brain response (the activity of the nucleus accumbens) was checked for
advertisements for various avours of e-cigarettes and tested whether they interfere
with the reception of warning messages contained on labels. The procedure was sup-
plemented with measuring eye concentration to verify how long the attention was
focused on advertisements of individual avours and whether the presented content
drew the respondents’ eyes from warning labels. Simultaneous searching in the EBSCO
database of the phrase eye-tracking or eye tracker or eye movement measurements
along with the phrase fMRI or functional magnetic resonance imaging or brain imaging
indicates the existence of 413 publications.
Other methods combined many times with eye-tracking include analysis of elec-
trodermal activity (Guerreiro, Rita, Trigueiros, 2015) and heart rate variability (Christ-
oforou, Christou-Champi, Constantinidou, Theodorou, 2015). Based on the number of
searches in the EBSCO database of the phrases electrodermal activity or EDA or GSR or
galvanic skin response and heart rate variability or hrv along with the phrase eye track-
ing or eye tracker or eye movement measurements fewer publications can be observed
which may indicate less frequent using both methods simultaneously. Taking into ac-
count the mentioned criteria, from 2009 to 2018, 75 papers were published regarding
the use of eye-tracking with the measurement of electrodermal activity and 39 – with
the measure of heart rate variability.
Combining eye-tracking with other methods – especially with neuroscience tech-
niques – shows the vast possibilities of their use in marketing and consumer research.
Tracking eye movement is essentially an indicator of the focus of attention. However, the
Managing E-marketing in Business 101
combination of this technique with other methods of measurement enables to obtain
more detailed information on the consumer’s aective states, beliefs, decision-mak-
ing processes, preferences or motivations. The use of triangulation of eye-tracking and
other neuromarketing methods can also give insight into how the brain works while
receiving external stimuli.
Conclusions
Consumers are regularly exposed to visual stimuli, including watching ads or choosing
products arranged on retail store shelves. Thus, tracking eye movements of recipients
of such communication seems to be essential for the companies planning their mar-
keting activities. Basically, eye movement is an expression of the consumer’s focus on
specic content. The popularity of eye-tracking in marketing research is demonstrat-
ed by the multitude of areas of application of this technique, ranging from packaging
designs, through merchandising, traditional and television advertising, to fair trade
stands or websites designs. Tracking eye movements can also be aper fect complement
to traditional research methods, such as questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Due
to the limited number of studies in this area, the prospects for future research using
eye-tracking and other neuromarketing methods are broad.
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... In recent years, there has been a notable rise in the popularity of using this technique because it offers useful knowledge on how stimuli are processed visually. The need to learn more about the relationship between the brain and the visual system prompted the need to monitor eye movements (Białowąs & Szyszka, 2019;Schall & Bergstrom, 2014). ...
... As a result, it is possible to isolate the focus areas of the participant's vision, providing an overview of what the subject finds interesting or what has drawn attention. Thanks to this type of information, the researcher may examine how an individual perceives the viewed content (Białowąs & Szyszka, 2019;Duchowski, 2007). ...
... Louis E. Javal recorded eye movements using an apparatus mounted on the patient's eye surface in one of the first experiments regarding this field of the 19 th century (Wawer & Pakuła, 2012). Eye-tracking has been used in a variety of areas of research, including psychology, medicine, ergonomics and marketing research as well (Białowąs & Szyszka, 2019;Wąsikowska, 2016). ...
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Eye movements provide information on subconscious reactions in response to stimuli and are a reflection of attention and focus. With regard to visual activity, four types of eye movements— fixations, saccades, smooth pursuits and blinks—can be distinguished. Fixations—the number and distribution, total fixation time or average fixation duration are among the most common measures. The capabilities of this research method also allow the determination of scanpaths that track gaze on the image as well as heat- and focus maps, which visually represent points of gaze focus. A key concept in eye-tracking that allows for more in-depth analysis is areas of interest (AOI)—measures can then be taken for selected parts of the visual stimulus. On the other hand, the area of gaze outside the scope of analysis is called white space. The software allows for comparisons of static and non-static stimuli and provides a choice of template, dataset, metrics or data format. In conducting eye-tracking research, proper calibration is crucial, which means that the partici- pant’s gaze should be adjusted to the internal model of the eye-tracking software. In addition, attention should be paid to such aspects as time and spatial control. The exposure time for each participant should be identical. The testing space should be well-lit and at a comfortable temperature. About the e-book: This e-book aims to present the most critical aspects of knowledge about using experiments in economics and practical tools for using them. The topic is extended to the more advanced and increasing in popularity area of biometric research. The book is divided into three parts mirroring experimentation. The first part provides theoretical background and tips about organising own research. The chapter is concluded with a guide focused on writing a research report in APA style. This part includes an example of the actual research report. The next part has two chapters, and both are guided tours allowing to plan and conduct eye-tracking research and electrodermal activity research (EDA). The chapters contain details about preparing experiments, conducting them, using the dedicated software to analyse collected data and interpreting the default charts. The last part is devoted to the data analysis and is universal, goes beyond the biometric experiments. There are three chapters in this part covering the standard procedures used in the analysis of experiments. The first part includes tests for one hypothesis: parametric t-test and One-Way ANOVA and non-parametric siblings: Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The next part describes tests allowing testing more hypotheses: ANOVA without repetition and ANOVA with repetitions. Furthermore, the last chapter deals with dependent samples, which are a popular approach in experiments. This part describes the dependent sample t-test and Wilcoxon test. The effect sizes calculations are included; each test is shown with screenshots from SPSS and some additional screenshots from Excel. This approach allows following the procedure step by step. The examples help easily understand procedures and interpretations; they were chosen from areas of sustainability and innovations to match the general idea of the e-books series prepared within the CENETSIE program. The book contains texts that can be useful in the teaching process. It can be helpful in graduate programs in economics and business schools. Programs of doctoral schools cab benefit from this book as well.
... Attention, defined as the allocation of mental, visual, or cognitive resources to an object of interest, is strictly required for any communication message that aims to be effective [31]. Understanding the consumers' cognitive processes in terms of the attention can assist experts in the attempt to effectively orient advertising and marketing activities using the eye tracker [32]. ...
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... Eye-tracking analyses are based on fixations and saccades, which indicate the position (or the movement) of the eyes at a given time. However, several studies highlighted that a mere fixation does not directly indicate that the subject saw, remembered, and processed that part of the stimulus (Białowąs & Szyszka, 2019;Schall & Bergstrom, 2014). For example, "blank gaze" is the most common situation in which the eyes seem to be focused, yet the attention is elsewhere. ...
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... The author feels that it is important since eye trackers are quickly gaining popularity as research tools for studying people's perception. The rapid growth of interest in this eld is testi ed to by the EBSCO database data that Sylwester Białowąs and Adrianna Szyszka wrote about 42 . Pioneering implementations of new technologies is often characterized by a lack of critical methodological approach 43 . ...
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This paper describes the results of eye-tracking registrations using spherical stimuli related to the so-called longitudinal church effect and compared it to those obtained by using a stationary eye-tracker and pictures shown on a computer screen in previous studies. The data collected from nearly 120 viewers allowed to investigate the effect of length of the nave on concentration on the altar and its role in supporting the ritual. An important aspect of this study is that it compares three pairs of stimuli and their relationships, rather than just two examples. The experiment with flat images in many respects gave results like those obtained in virtual reality. Even though the values on which the conclusions were based differed, 11 out of 14 analyzed aspects were confirmed. An important difference observed in VR was a noticeable decrease in the average duration of fixation. Thanks to the presented comparison it can be assumed that there is no need to involve VR technology if the studied phenomena are simple and the most important elements of linear compositions are visible in a single glance. If eye-tracking tests conducted with stationary eye-trackers do not have any other flaws, the conclusions drawn from them can be trusted.
... Professional marketers have been aware of these limitations, but until recently there was no viable alternative for exploring the consumer's mind due to a lack of equipment that could tell us what is going on the consumer's mind and a lack of software that could translate physiological measures such as eye movements, brain waves and response times into meaningful marketing metrics. In recent years, a noticeable increase was observed in the popularity of using eye-tracking technique to measure cognitive processes of consumers among which are attention and perception to gain insights into their decision-making processes, consumer preferences and/or motivations [6]. Eye-tracking systems (i.e., systems that constantly detect the place of a person's gaze while seeing or interacting with a visual picture) have recently been common in research. ...
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Focusing on recent advances in analytical techniques, this third edition of Andrew Duchowski’s successful guide has been revised and extended. It includes new chapters on calibration accuracy, precision and correction; advanced eye movement analysis; binocular eye movement analysis; practical gaze analytics; eye movement synthesis. Eye Tracking Methodology opens with useful background information, including an introduction to the human visual system and key issues in visual perception and eye movement. The author then surveys eye-tracking devices and provides a detailed introduction to the technical requirements necessary for installing a system and developing an application program. Modern programming examples (in Python) are included and the author outlines the gaze analytics pipeline, a step-by-step data processing sequence from raw data to statistical analysis. Focusing on the use of modern video-based, corneal-reflection eye trackers – the most widely available and affordable types of systems, Andrew Duchowski takes a look at a number of interesting and challenging applications in human factors, collaborative systems, virtual reality, marketing and advertising. His primary focus is on methodology, and how analysis of eye movements can enhance research and development of anything that is inspected visually. Stefan Robila, reviewing the second edition says, “The book is written in an easy-to-understand language. Given its breadth, it may be most appropriate for scientists and students starting in this field. ... Overall, I found it to be a solid book on a fascinating topic." (ACM Computing Reviews, October 2008)”